Miyagawa, Y.（宮川裕基) & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一) (in press) Self-compassion helps people forgive transgressors: Cognitive pathways of interpersonal transgressions. セルフコンパッションは他者への許しに役立つ Self and Identity https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2020.1862904
This study examined the psychological processes through which self-compassion relates to forgiveness of interpersonal transgressors. Specifically, this study focused on the mediating roles of rumination about interpersonal transgressors and subjective temporal distance from interpersonal transgressions. After completing a measure of self-compassion, participants recalled a time when they were hurt by others. Then, they responded to measures including subjective temporal distance, rumination, and forgiveness. A path model showed that self-compassion was associated with greater subjective temporal distance, lower revenge, and lower avoidance through lower rumination. In addition, self-compassion positively predicted benevolence. Results implied that people with high self-compassion may be less likely to ruminate, which may help them feel greater temporal distance from past interpersonal transgressions and forgive transgressors.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (野村理朗) (2020). Awe liberates the feeling that “my body is mine‘.” 畏敬の念が「自分の身体は自分のもの」という感覚を解放する Cognition and Emotion, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2020.18627
Awe is an emotional response to perceptually vast stimuli that transcend one’s current frames of reference. Previous research indicated that awe promotes a smaller self, which led to the creation of a small-self hypothesis. Thus, we shed new light on this hypothesis in terms of sense of body ownership using a rubber hand illusion experiment; through it, we showed that awe evokes an increased sense of body ownership over the rubber hand and this effect was prominent among participants who experienced small self. Our findings suggest that awe might provoke a “liberation of the self” in terms of a sense of body ownership as awe has been thought to liberate existing schemas, hence informing the demonstrable implications of the psychological mechanisms of awe.
Greater effects of mutual cooperation and defection on subsequent cooperation in direct reciprocity games than generalized reciprocity games: Behavioral experiments and analysis using multilevel models. 一般互恵ゲームよりも直接互恵ゲームにおいてより強く見られる相互協力及び非協力が次回の協力に及ぼす影響：行動実験とマルチレベルモデル解析 PLoS ONE, 15(11), e0242607. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242607
Reciprocity toward a partner’s cooperation is a fundamental behavioral strategy underlying human cooperation not only in interactions with familiar persons but also with strangers. However, a strategy that takes into account not only one’s partner’s previous action but also one’s own previous action—such as a win-stay lose-shift strategy or variants of reinforcement learning—has also been considered an advantageous strategy. This study investigated empirically how behavioral models can be used to explain the variances in cooperative behavior among people. To do this, we considered games involving either direct reciprocity (an iterated prisoner’s dilemma) or generalized reciprocity (a gift-giving game). Multilevel models incorporating inter-individual behavioral differences were fitted to experimental data using Bayesian inference. The results indicate that for these two types of games, a model that considers both one’s own and one’s partner’s previous actions fits the empirical data better than the other models. In the direct reciprocity game, mutual cooperation or defection—rather than relying solely on one’s partner’s previous actions—affected the increase or decrease, respectively, in subsequent cooperation. Whereas in the generalized reciprocity game, a weaker effect of mutual cooperation or defection on subsequent cooperation was observed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). Baby names in Japan, 2004–2018: common writings and their readings. 日本における新生児の名前, 2004-2018: 一般的な表記とその読み BMC Research Notes, 13, 553. doi: 10.1186/s13104-020-05409-3
Objectives: To conduct empirical research on Japanese names, actual name data including both writings and readings are necessary. However, there was no database available that met these conditions. Therefore, in the present article, I provided raw data of approximately 8000 names of Japanese babies born between 2004 and 2018. Data description: The data include common writings of baby names and their readings generated from annual surveys on baby names conducted by a Japanese private company. The data have advantages: (1) they include both writings and readings of baby names, (2) they were collected under the same conditions over 15 years, (3) their sample sizes are relatively large, and (4) they are open to the public. In contrast, the data have limitations: their samples are neither highly representative nor very large. Overall, this article will be useful for empirical research on Japanese names and people in general (especially for medical and educational service workers).
Ueshima, A. (上島淳史), Mercier, H, & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (2021). Social deliberation systematically shifts resource allocation decisions by focusing on the fate of the least well-off. 資源分配について話し合うことは恵まれない⼈への配慮を⾼める Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 92, 104067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2020.104067
How much inequality should be tolerated? How should the poorest be treated? Though sometimes conflated, concerns about inequality and the fate of the poorest involve different allocation principles with different sociopolitical implications. We tested whether deliberation—the core of democracy—influences reasoning about distributive principles. 322 participants faced allocation decisions for others between egalitarian (low variance in allocation), utilitarian (high total amount), and maximin (maximizing the welfare of the poorest) options. After their initial decisions, participants either reflected upon similar decisions solely or discussed them in pairs before facing the same choices again individually. Social, but not solitary, deliberation led to more maximin and fewer egalitarian choices, and this change lasted at least 5 months after the experiment. Conversation analyses of approximately 7500 utterances suggest that some participants initially made egalitarian choices heuristically, when in fact they mostly cared about the poorest, and dialogue promoted more internally coherent maximin preferences.
Maeda, K. (前田楓), & Hashimoto, H. (橋本博文) (2020). Time pressure and in-group favoritism in a minimal group paradigm. タイムプレッシャーが最小条件集団パラダイムにおける集団内協力行動に及ぼす効果 Frontiers in Psychology, 11:603117. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.603117
Based on the group heuristic model and the model of intuitive cooperation, we hypothesized that in-group favoritism would be conspicuously shown through an intuitive process. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a minimal group paradigm, which is traditionally used in social psychological studies, and manipulated decision time in a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game to compare the cooperative contribution level toward in-group and out-group members under three conditions: intuitive, empathic deliberation, and rational deliberation. Our findings confirmed that in-group favoritism was clearly shown in the intuitive condition only, suggesting that the intuitive cooperation model may only be valid in the context of social exchange with in-group members. Additional analysis also showed that in-group favoritism disappeared for participants who had been forced into empathic or rational deliberation for decision making. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
Ito, T. (伊藤健彦) (2020) The influence of networks of general trust on willingness to communicate in English for Japanese people. 一般的信頼のネットワークが日本人の英語Willingness to Communicateに与える影響 Scientific Reports 10, 19939. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77108-9
This study investigates the effect of a network of general trust on the willingness to communicate in English among Japanese people. Previous studies have shown that general trust positively affects the willingness to communicate in English for Japanese people. However, the network structure of general trust and its effects have not yet been revealed. The present study conducted a network analysis with 761 Japanese university students and 601 Japanese social survey participants, for 1362 participants total. Four variables regarding general trust positively affected the willingness to communicate in English for all participants, whereas one variable had a negative effect if each network was estimated for only university students or social survey participants. Centrality indices, such as node strength, closeness, and expected influence, revealed the centrality of several variables in the network of all participants. Bootstrapping methods showed the trustworthiness of the estimated edges and centrality indices. Contrary to the regression analysis, the network analysis can help us understand the profound effect of general trust on the willingness to communicate in a second language, which will prove useful for intervention studies.
Nakayama, M.（中山真孝）, & Uchida, Y.（内田由紀子） (2020). Meaning of awe in Japanese (con) text: Beyond fear and respect. 日本語におけるAweの意味：恐れと敬いとの弁別性 Psychologia. 62(1) https://doi.org/10.2117/psysoc.2020-B004
Awe is theorized as an emotion appraised by perceived vastness and need for accommodation. This theoretical framework was developed with a review of spatially and temporally distributed literature mostly in the American and European cultural context, and is assumed to be culturally universal. However, awe as described by Japanese literature, was not explicitly included in the original theorization. We tested whether this framework generalized to the Japanese context by analyzing how Japanese awe-related words (e.g., “畏敬/ikei”) are used in Japanese text. A topic model was used to extract topics in contexts as an index of meaning. Results show that (1) the meaning of awe was statistically dissociable from similar but distinct meanings of fear and respect, and (2) the dissociating topics included transcendent entities such as god, spirits/ghosts, and powerful beings. Japanese meaning of awe includes vastness (i.e., transcendence) that goes beyond typical respect (i.e., power distance) requiring an accommodation of one’s mental framework.
Nakayama, M.（中山真孝）, Nozaki, Y.（野崎優樹）, Taylor, P. M., Keltner, D., & Uchida, Y.（内田由紀子） (2020). Individual and cultural differences in predispositions to feel positive and negative aspects of awe. 特性的ポジティブAweと特性的ネガティブAweの個人差と文化差 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022120959821
Psychological research on awe has largely focused on its positive dimensions, both in terms of the experiential state of awe and individual trait-based predispositions to awe experience. Little is known, however, about awe’s negative-valence dimensions, such as individual tendencies to experience awe as threatening. To gain a broader understanding of awe, the current study investigates individual predispositions to feel negative aspects of awe (i.e., threat) and positive aspects of awe (e.g., beauty) and examines how these two tendencies are interrelated. Additionally, this study uses both Japanese and US samples to explore whether predispositions to feel awe vary across cultures. Two studies (total N = 1245) suggests that in both Japanese and US samples, predispositions to feel positive and negative aspects of awe were separable. However, there were cultural differences: North Americans were more predisposed to feel positive aspects than Japanese, and the predispositions to feel positive and negative aspects were positively correlated for Japanese, but not North Americans. This contributes to a better understanding of how the valence of awe may be influenced by culturally-mediated patterns of affect.
Hamada, D., Nakayama, M（中山真孝）. & Saiki, J. (2020) Wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making in a survival situation with complex information integration.
Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 5, 48.
The wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making are important tools for integrating information between individuals, which can exceed the capacity of individual judgments. They are based on different forms of information integration. The wisdom of crowds refers to the aggregation of many independent judgments without deliberation and consensus, while collective decision-making is aggregation with deliberation and consensus. Recent research has shown that collective decision-making outperforms the wisdom of crowds. Additionally, many studies have shown that metacognitive knowledge of subjective confidence is useful for improving aggregation performance. However, because most of these studies have employed relatively simple problems; for example, involving general knowledge and estimating values and quantities of objects, it remains unclear whether their findings can be generalized to real-life situations involving complex information integration. This study explores the performance and process of the wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making by applying the wisdom of crowds with weighted confidence to a survival situation task commonly used in studies of collective decision-making.
The wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making outperformed individual judgment. However, collective decision-making did not outperform the wisdom of crowds. Contrary to previous studies, weighted confidence showed no advantage from comparison between confidence-weighted and non-weighted aggregations; a simulation analysis varying in group size and sensitivity of confidence weighting revealed interaction between group size and sensitivity of confidence weighting. This reveals that it is because of small group size and not the peculiarity of the survival task that results in no advantage of weighted confidence.
The study’s findings suggest that the wisdom of crowds could be applicable to complex problem-solving tasks, and interaction between group size and sensitivity of confidence weighting is important for confidence-weighted aggregation effects.
The growth and prevalence of the Internet has resulted in an unprecedented system for gathering a large number of individual opinions. This system allows us to aggregate independent information and communicate face-to-face in online chat rooms. Correctly understanding and utilizing the wisdom of crowds, which aggregates information without consensus, and collective decision-making, which aggregates information with consensus, are urgent modern tasks to improve problem-solving efficiency, both in tasks with correct answers in open-ended tasks dependent on expert knowledge. Unlike most previous studies, which have addressed relatively simple problems, this study investigates the performance and process of the wisdom of crowds through a survival situation task involving complex information integration, and additionally compares with weighted subjective confidence and collective decision-making. The findings demonstrate the effective performance of the wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making and an effect of weighted confidence in interaction between group size and sensitivity of confidence weighting. This suggests that the wisdom of crowds can be applied and generalized to complex real-life situations. Weighted confidence based on large group size is compatible with a system that can collect a large number of opinions. Thus, this study expands the potential application of the wisdom of crowds to real-life problems involving complex information integration.
Hiraoka, D.（平岡大樹）, Nishitani, S., Shima, K., Kasaba, R., Fujisawa, T. X.,（藤澤隆史）& Tomoda, A. (in press) Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin gene is associated with gray matter volume and trait empathy in mothers オキシトシン遺伝子メチル化と母親の共感性・灰白質体積の関連 Psychoneuroendocrinology doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.105026
Mother’s empathy is an important ability for parenting behavior. Many studies have confirmed that oxytocin affects empathy, but the epigenetic background of oxytocin in maternal empathy has not yet been examined. This study examined the relationship between the oxytocin gene methylation and empathy in mothers of children in early childhood. Additionally, in order to understand a comprehensive mechanism, we also investigated changes in gray matter volume as a function of oxytocin gene methylation and empathy. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index was used to assess cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy of the 57 mothers who participated in this study. Genetic data were collected via saliva samples and analyzed to quantify DNA methylation of oxytocin gene. Gray matter volumes were investigated by means of voxel-based morphometry across the whole brain. A positive correlation was found between oxytocin gene methylation and Personal Distress, an aspect of affective empathy. Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between oxytocin gene methylation and the volume of the right inferior temporal gyrus. In a relationship with oxytocin gene methylation and empathy, the indirect effect of the inferior temporal gyrus gray matter volumes was not significant. Our findings provide empirical evidence for an epigenetic mechanism linking the oxytocin gene, structural variation of brain, and empathy in mothers. Taken together, the current imaging epigenetic findings shed new light on the understanding of the epigenetic basis of oxytocin and parental empathy.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). Unique names in China: Insights from research in Japan—Commentary: Increasing need for uniqueness in contemporary China: Empirical evidence. 中国における個性的な名前: 日本の研究からの洞察—コメント論文: 現代中国における個性欲求の増加: 実証的証拠 Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 2136. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02136
By comparing naming practices between China and Japan, I propose three suggestions on Cai et al.’s (2018) Study 2, which examined historical changes in baby names in China. Their study found that the average daily frequencies of Chinese characters used in baby names decreased between 1950 and 2009. The authors concluded that unique names increased for this period and suggested a rise in the need for uniqueness and individualism in China. However, there are three questions that have remained unanswered. First, did the Chinese characters that were used in names indeed become more unique over time? Second, did the number of Chinese characters in names increase over time? Third, did the reading (pronunciation) of names become more unique over time? Answering these three questions would further increase the validity and impacts of the article and contribute to a better understanding of cultural changes in China.
Hiraoka, D.(平岡大樹), Ooishi, Y., Mugitani, R., & Nomura, M.(野村理朗) (in press). Relationship between oxytocin and maternal approach behaviors to infants’ vocalizations. 母親の唾液オキシトシンと乳児音声手掛かりに対する接近行動との関連 Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology doi: 10.1016/j.cpnec.2020.100010
Infants communicate their emotions to caregivers mainly through vocalizations. Research has shown that maternal oxytocin levels relate to adaptive parenting; however, little empirical research exists regarding the effects of endogenous oxytocin levels on maternal responses to infant vocalizations. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between mothers’ salivary oxytocin levels, subjective feelings, and behavioral response to infants’ emotional vocalizations. Additionally, we examined the relationship between psychological traits and maternal behavioral responses to infant vocalizations. In this study, 39 mothers were asked to stand on a balance board while listening to infant vocalization stimuli, to measure movements of their center of pressure, an index of approach-avoidance behavior. Sixty infant vocalizations (laughter, crying, and neutral) were presented for six seconds each. Afterwards, participants were asked to rate their subjective responses to each stimulus (not aroused – aroused, displeased – pleased, not urgent – urgent, and healthy – sick). Maternal oxytocin levels were negatively correlated with anterior movement of the center of pressure in response to infants’ crying and babbling vocalizations, though no relationship was found between maternal approach-avoidance behavior toward infant laughter and oxytocin levels. This study indicated that maternal approach behavior toward infant vocalizations varies as a function of maternal endogenous oxytocin and the type of infant vocalization.
Nawata, K.(縄田 健悟), Yamaguchi, H.(山口 裕幸), & Aoshima, M. (2020). Team Implicit Coordination Based on Transactive Memory Systems 対人交流記憶システムに基づくチームの暗黙の協調 Team Performance Management DOI: 10.1108/TPM-03-2020-0024
This study aims to examine how daily communication and transactive memory systems (TMSs) promote implicit team coordination, meaning when team members cooperate smoothly without engaging in explicit communication, in organizations. In TMSs, members share knowledge of who-knows-what with one another.
A survey was conducted with 216 teams consisting of 1,545 people in three organizations. The relationships among daily communication, TMSs and implicit coordination in the survey data and in team performance were analyzed using multi-level structural equation modeling.
Results confirmed a significant influence process model in which “daily communication → TMS → implicit coordination → team performance” at the team level. Therefore, as hypothesized, implicit coordination is positively related to team performance and daily communication has a positive relationship with implicit coordination through mediation by TMSs.
This study demonstrated the evidence of the relation between implicit coordination, TMS, team performance in organizational settings by using multi-level structural equation modeling.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2020). The developmental trajectory of self-esteem across the life span in Japan: Age differences in scores on the Rosenberg self-esteem scale from adolescence to old age. 日本における自尊心の発達的軌跡: 青年期から老年期におけるローゼンバーグの自尊心尺度得点の年齢差 Frontiers in Public Health, 8: 132. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00132
We examined age differences in global self-esteem in Japan from adolescents aged 16 to the elderly aged 88. Previous research has shown that levels of self-liking (one component of self-esteem) are high for elementary school students, low among middle and high school students, but then continues to become higher among adults by the 60s. However, it did not measure both aspects of self-esteem (self-competence and self-liking) or examine the elderly over the age of 70. To fully understand the developmental trajectory of self-esteem in Japan, we analyzed six independent cross-sectional surveys. These surveys administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which measured both self-competence and self-liking, on a large and diverse sample (N = 6,113) that included the elderly in the 70s and 80s. Results indicated that, consistent with previous research, for both self-competence and self-liking, the average level of self-esteem was low in adolescence, but continued to become higher from adulthood to old age. However, a drop of self-esteem was not found over the age of 50, which was inconsistent with prior research in European American cultures. Our research demonstrated that the developmental trajectory of self-esteem may differ across cultures.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). Regional differences in individualism in Japan: Scoring based on family structure. 日本における個人主義傾向の地域差：家族構造に基づく得点化 Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 1677. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01677
The present article reported regional (prefecture-level) differences in individualism in Japan based on family structure in 2005, 2010 and 2015. Previous research calculated 2005 prefecture-level scores of individualism-collectivism in Japan by analyzing five validated indicators of individualism-collectivism (divorce rate, percentage of people living alone, percentage of elderly people aged over 65 living alone, percentage of nuclear family households, and percentage of three-generation households). However, only the scores for 2005 had been presented. The scores and their regional differences may have changed over time. Therefore, the current article calculated individualism scores for 2010 and 2015 following previous research. Analyses showed that the scores were stable over time, indicating that regional differences in individualism were maintained for this period. This report is useful for understanding regional differences in psychological phenomena and validating new indicators at the regional level.
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Suzuki, T.(鈴木貴久), & Umetani, R.(梅谷凌平) (2020). Justified defection is neither justified nor unjustified in indirect reciprocity. 間接互恵における「正当化される裏切り」は正当化も不当化もされない PLOS ONE, 15(6), e0235137. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0235137
Indirect reciprocity is one of the major mechanisms in the evolution of human cooperation. In indirect reciprocity, social norms with which individuals distinguish good people from bad people play essential roles. Despite extensive studies on the evolution of cooperation in indirect reciprocity, little is known about which social norms people actually adopt. Here we reveal what kind of norms are adopted by people in indirect reciprocal situations in daily life by using scenario-based experiments. The results showed that people evaluated “justified defection” as neither good nor bad and withheld their evaluation. Theoretically, social norms that evaluate justified defection as good are required for cooperation to be stable. However, the norm that people actually adopted deviates from the theoretical predictions. Our results indicate the necessity to reconsider the justification of “justified defection” in the evolution of cooperation.
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (in press). Altruism does not always lead to a good reputation: A normative explanation. 利他行動は常には良い評判に繋がらない：規範的説明 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2020.104021
Individuals who engage in altruistic behaviors generally acquire a good reputation. However, recent studies have suggested that altruists are not always welcomed by others. We examined the possibility that norm-deviant altruism leads to unfavorable evaluations; distributing quite large amounts of one’s resources could be less favored because the behavior deviates from social norms. In four studies, participants rated their feelings (i.e., liking and respect) toward a person who distributed his/her resources to others. We found that altruistic behavior that deviates from social norms was less favorably regarded than modestly altruistic behavior (Study 1–4), specifically in a culture with low tolerance for norm deviation (Japan; Study 3) and especially when the degree of the deviance was high (Study 2). These findings suggest that altruistic behavior is less favored when the behavior deviates from social norms and norm deviation is evaluated negatively.
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (in press). Effects of cost and benefit of prosocial behavior on reputation. 社会的行動のコストとベネフィットが評判に及ぼす影響 Social Psychological and Personality Science. doi: 10.1177/1948550620929163
Prosocial behavior consists of a cost to the actor and a benefit of others. Previous studies have shown that prosocial actors generally receive positive social evaluations from observers. However, it is unknown how each component of prosocial behavior (i.e., cost and benefit) influences the two dimensions of person perception (i.e., warmth and competence). Thus, three studies investigated the independent effects of cost and benefit on the perceived warmth and competence of the actor. In Study 1, participants read a series of vignettes about a protagonist incurring a cost to benefit another individual and rated the warmth and competence of each protagonist. Although benefit enhanced both perceived warmth and competence, cost enhanced only perceived warmth. Studies 2a and 2b separately manipulated costs and benefits of prosocial behaviors in vignettes and confirmed the results of Study 1. Thus, this study demonstrated the independent effects of cost and benefit on person perception.
Asano, R. (浅野良輔), Igarashi, T. (五十嵐祐), & Tsukamoto, S. (塚本早織) (2020). The Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities: Measurement invariance and psychometric properties in an adult Japanese sample. 日本の成人サンプルにおけるHEMA尺度の測定不変性と心理測定学的特性 Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1220. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01220
Hedonic pleasure orientation (seeking enjoyment), hedonic relaxation orientation (seeking comfort), and eudaimonic orientation (seeking meaning) are major ways that people pursue well-being. We investigated the measurement invariance and psychometric properties of the Hedonic and Eudamonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale in a Japanese adult sample (N = 1,892). The Japanese HEMA scale demonstrated measurement invariance at the configural, metric, scalar, and strict levels across gender and age groups. Latent mean differences of the scale across these demographic groups were less than small. The scale showed high internal consistency and six-week test-retest reliability and reasonable correlations with life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, psychological well-being, and interdependent happiness. In sum, these findings suggest that the Japanese HEMA scale is useful to capture hedonic and eudaimonic conceptions of well-being as orientations. It is hoped that our findings will stimulate further research on well-being using the HEMA scale.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (野村理朗) (2020). Neural Representations of Awe: Distinguishing Common and Distinct Neural Mechanisms. 畏敬の念の神経表象：神経メカニズムの共通性と差異を区別する Emotion, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/emo0000771
Awe is an emotional response to perceptually vast stimuli that transcend one’s current frames of reference. The psychological form and function of awe differ between two types: positive-awe, which arises from perceptually aesthetic experiences (e.g., the beauty of nature, spiritual experiences, or the virtue of a leader), and threat-awe, which is triggered by threatening stimuli (e.g., natural disasters, wrathful god, or a leader’s coercive charisma). Here, using functional MRI, we investigated common and distinct neural responses to experiences of positive- and threat-awe, elicited by watching awe-inspiring videos. We found that both awe experiences deactivated the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in contrast to control conditions (positive-awe vs. amusement; threat-awe vs. fear), which suggest that awe experiences generally involve the “schema liberation” process since the left MTG plays a critical role in matching existing schema to events. In addition, positive-awe was associated with increased functional connectivity between the MTG and the anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, which are associated with the aesthetic reward process, and the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is involved in the self-other representation. Threat-awe was associated with increased functional connectivity between the MTG and amygdala, which detects and processes threat stimuli, as well as between the amygdala and SMG. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying the complex psychological processes of awe vary as a function of the type of awe. The implications of these results regarding our understanding of the neural basis of awe and the future directions of human social cognition research are discussed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). The pattern of age differences in self-esteem is similar between males and females in Japan: Gender differences in developmental trajectories of self-esteem from childhood to old age. 日本における自尊心の年齢差のパターンは男女間で類似している: 児童期から老年期の自尊心の発達的軌跡の性差 Cogent Psychology, 7: 1756147 doi: 10.1080/23311908.2020.1756147
The current research examined gender differences in age difference patterns of self-esteem in Japan. Previous research has shown that self-esteem is high in childhood, decreases in adolescence, and increases gradually in adulthood and old age in Japan. However, gender differences in the pattern of age differences in self-esteem had not been investigated sufficiently. Gender differences are important for understanding human psychology and behavior. Therefore, I analyzed two cross-sectional datasets from large (Study 1: N = 15,965, Study 2: N = 5,258) and diverse samples ranging from elementary school students to older adults in their 60s. Results showed that the patterns of age differences in self-esteem are consistent between males and females. Thus, regarding the global evaluation of the self, males and females show a similar pattern over the life course.
Saito, T., Sudo, R. (須藤竜之介), & Takano, Y. (2020). The gaze bias effect in toddlers: Preliminary evidence for the developmental study of visual decision‐making. 幼児の視線カスケード現象の予備的検討 Developmental Science (Early View) doi: 10.1111/desc.12969
Several studies have investigated the interactive relationship between attention and decision‐making, which is known as the gaze bias effect. Although the generalizability of the gaze bias effect has recently been observed among young and older adults, it remains unknown in which developmental period individuals start to exhibit this relationship. This question was addressed in the current study by recruiting 58 toddlers aged 2–4 years. Participants were asked to do a two‐alternative forced‐choice task in which they chose one of two soft toys they preferred while their eye movements were recorded. Results demonstrated that toddlers exhibited gaze bias regardless of age. We also found that the number of gaze shifts during the task increased according to age. These results suggest that the interactive relationship between attention and decision is acquired by the age of two. The implications of the increased number of gaze shifts for visual decision‐making are discussed.
Nozaki, Y.(野崎優樹), & Mikolajczak, M. (2020). Extrinsic emotion regulation. 他者の情動の調整 Emotion, 20(1), 10-15. doi: 10.1037/emo0000636
To date, the field of emotion regulation (ER) has largely focused on intrinsic ER (i.e., regulation of one’s own emotions) and has only recently started to investigate extrinsic ER (i.e., regulation of another person’s emotions). This article selectively reviews current findings in order to answer the following questions: (a) What is extrinsic ER, and how can it be distinguished from related constructs such as emotion contagion, empathy, prosocial behavior, and social support? (b) How can we best model the processes through which extrinsic ER occurs as well as individual differences in extrinsic ER ability? The answers show that although extrinsic ER has much in common with intrinsic ER, the 2 cannot be equated. Research is therefore needed on the extrinsic side of ER.
Emotion regulationの特集号（担当編集委員：Kateri McRae and James J. Gross）への掲載論文です。近年多くの注目を集める「他者の情動の調整 (extrinsic emotion regulation) に関して，概念の定義および心的メカニズムのモデルをまとめました。
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一). (2019). Self-compassion and time perception of past negative events. セルフコンパッションと過去のネガティブな出来事に関する時間の捉え方. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-019-01293-6
This study examined relationships among self-compassion, subjective distance, and time perception related to past negative events. Self-compassion involves a broad, mindful understanding of suffering without getting entangled in suffering. Therefore, self-compassion might enable people to feel subjectively distant from past adverse events and help them develop adaptive emotional reactions and time perception (i.e., meaning-making about time) concerning the events.
Two hundred eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to a negative (n = 139) or a positive (n = 143) event condition. After completing measures of self-compassion and self-esteem, they recalled either a negative or a positive event and estimated how far away they subjectively felt from that event. They also indicated the elapsed time from the event and responded to items assessing their emotional reactions and meaning-making about time.
Self-compassion was associated with greater subjective distance from negative events, r = −.23, p = .005. Moreover, greater subjective distance mediated the relations of self-compassion to lower negative emotional reactions, B = − 0.147, 95% CI [− 0.292, − 0.034], and lower tendency to think that time was wasted on negative events, B = − 0.053, 95% CI [− 0.146, − 0.008]. Importantly, self-compassion was not related to subjective distance from positive events, r = .11, p = .182.
Results imply that people with high self-compassion would likely feel subjectively distant from past adverse events, which might help prevent negative meaning-making about time and negative emotional reactions concerning the events.
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Okada, I.(岡田勇), Taguchi, T., & Muto, M. (2019). Effect of voluntary participation on an alternating and a simultaneous prisoner's dilemma. 自発的参加を導入した逐次手番・同時手番繰返し囚人のジレンマの研究 Physical Review E, 100(3), 032304. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.100.032304
We studied the evolution of cooperation in the framework of evolutionary game theory, implementing voluntary participation in the prisoner’s dilemma. Although previous studies have tried to overcome the dilemma by introducing voluntary participation called a “loner,” the question of which strategies among various strategies including voluntary participation are adaptive under competitive circumstances is still an unsolved puzzle. Here we have developed a model that consists of all possible strategies using a one-period memory of past actions. This model enables us to analyze a “melting pot” of strategies, wherein several strategies interact and compete with each other. Our results revealed that one strategy, in which one escapes if a partner defects or cooperates if a partner becomes a loner, dominates and maintains cooperation in an alternating prisoner’s dilemma game. However, the so-called “win-stay, lose-shift” strategy dominates in a simultaneous prisoner’s dilemma game. Our simulations clearly show that voluntary participation in the prisoner’s dilemma game works in the alternating situation rather than the simultaneous one.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), Niiya, Y. (新谷優), & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一). (2019). When life gives you lemons, make lemonade: Self-compassion increases adaptive beliefs about failure. セルフコンパッションは失敗に関する適応的な信念を促進する Journal of Happiness Studies. doi:10.1007/s10902-019-00172-0
Two studies were conducted to examine how self-compassion relates to beliefs about failure. Study 1 (N = 252) showed that, after controlling for self-esteem, trait self-compassion correlated positively with the belief that failures are learning opportunities and part of life, and negatively with the belief that failures are aversive and something that must be avoided. In Study 2, participants (N = 124) first recalled their weaknesses, then wrote either (a) a compassionate message toward themselves (self-compassion condition), (b) a description of their strengths (self-reflection condition), or (c) a list of Japanese prefectures (control condition), and completed measures of state self-compassion and beliefs about failure. Self-compassion manipulation increased positive responses to the self (comprising self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness components of the Self-Compassion Scale) relative to control, which in turn, predicted a stronger belief that failures are learning opportunities. Self-reflection manipulation also predicted this adaptive belief by increasing the positive responses relative to control and, more importantly, it also increased negative responses to the self (comprising self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification components of the Self-Compassion Scale), which, in turn, predicted the beliefs that failures are aversive and must be avoided. In sum, this research confirms that people high in self-compassion hold adaptive beliefs about failures; it also suggests that one could promote adaptive beliefs by increasing the positive responses to the self and decrease maladaptive beliefs by decreasing the negative responses to the self.
Yokota, K. (横田晋大), Tsuboi, S. (坪井翔), Mifune, N. (三船恒裕), & Sugiura, H. (杉浦仁美) (2019). A conceptual replication of the male warrior hypothesis using the outgroup threat priming method 外集団脅威プライミングを用いた男性戦士仮説の概念的追試 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 10(1), 1-3. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2019.67
A conceptual replication of Yuki and Yokota’s (2009) study to test the validity of the male warrior hypothesis was conducted. They reported that ingroup bias was triggered by the perceptual cue of outgroup threat, based on the use of a priming method in a minimal group situation among men only. In this study, the stimulus of outgroup threat priming and the measurement of ingroup bias were modified to test the effect of outgroup threat priming on ingroup bias. The results revealed failure to replicate and thus no bias generated by priming among men.
Mifune, N. (三船恒裕), Inamasu, K. (稲増一憲), Kohama, S., Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), & Tago, A. (2019). Social dominance orientation as an obstacle to intergroup apology 社会的支配志向性が集団間謝罪の障壁となる PLoS ONE, 14(1), e0211379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211379
Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) has engaged the interest of social and personality psy- chologists as it has deep implications for the psychology of intergroup conflict, particularly regarding factors such as prejudice and discrimination, as well as international conflict reso- lution. Nevertheless, few studies have directly assessed how SDO relates to intergroup rec- onciliation. This study (effective N = 819) measured participants’ SDO along with their attitudes toward various governmental apologies to test the hypothesis that SDO is associ- ated with unwillingness to issue intergroup apologies. The results showed that SDO was negatively correlated with supportive attitudes toward government-issued international apol- ogies. This negative correlation remained intact after controlling for the effects of political conservatism and militarism.
Meng, X., Ishii, T.(石井辰典), Sugimoto, K., Song, R., Moriguchi, Y., & Watanabe, K. (accepted) Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile 敵対者の微笑み：5-6歳児は "微笑んだいじわる" の顔をよく記憶する Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Remembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children between 5 and 6 years of age. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later for rewards (stickers) by answering quiz questions. Then, they participated in the coin-collecting game wherein individual persons with smiling or angry expressions appeared one at a time on a computer monitor. These same individuals then either gave coins to or took them away from the children, leading to congruent (smiling giver and angry taker) and incongruent (smiling taker and angry giver) conditions. After the game, children had to choose between two faces to indicate which one previously appeared in the game. Participants recognized faces better under the incongruent conditions. In particular, the smiling taker was recognized significantly better than the angry taker, whereas no difference was observed for the smiling and angry givers. Evidently, 5-to-6-year-old-children remember better individuals whose facial expression or appearance is incongruent with their expected behavior.
Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン), & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2019). Cultural variation in reactions to a group member’s vicarious choice and the role of rejection avoidance. ある集団成員による代理的な選択に対する反応の文化的差異とそれにおける排除回避傾向の役割 Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1311. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01311
Extending the literature on culture and the personal or interpersonal construction of choices, this research investigates consequences of an ingroup member’s vicarious decision for the entire group and the mechanism behind cultural variation. In Study 1, Japanese people showed, compared to Germans, greater acceptance of vicarious choice and evaluated the ingroup member who had chosen on their behalf more positively. Using mediation analyses and priming methods, Studies 2 and 3 identified rejection avoidance to partly explain culturally diverse reactions to vicarious choices. These findings suggest that the mechanism behind cultural differences in choice is related to variation in strength of the motivation to maintain social approval.
Kuroda, K. (黒田起吏), & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (in press). You watch my back, I'll watch yours: Emergence of collective risk monitoring through tacit coordination in human social foraging. 困ったときはお互い様：集団リスク状況における暗黙の協調行動の創発 Evolution and Human Behavior, in press. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2019.05.004
Predation risk is a significant concern when social animals including humans engage in foraging. When people search for resources together, individuals often find themselves in a producer–scrounger game, in which some individuals bear the cost of risk monitoring while others can free ride on those efforts. A theoretically rational strategy is to mix foraging and risk monitoring randomly with the same probability across all members, but such uncoordinated action often yields inefficiencies of under- or over-supply of risk monitoring in a group. Here, we examined whether people could spontaneously develop a coordinated risk-monitoring system, alternating vigilance and foraging in a pair. Given that human cooperation is vulnerable to fear of exploitation and emotional arousal under risk, we hypothesized that such sources of anxiety would be potential disruptors to coordination. In a laboratory experiment, two participants worked on a “treasure hunt” task simultaneously, in which they chose between low or high vigilance against predators during foraging without verbal communication. If one chose high vigilance with personal cost, it yielded a spillover benefit to the other. Besides behavioral choices, each participant’s physiological arousal (skin conductance response) and cognitive effort (tonic pupil dilation) were measured during the task. Results showed that some pairs were actually able to develop a role-alternating system over time through tacit coordination, but coordinated action was also vulnerable to anxiety and mistrust among participants. Overall, these results imply that, besides the mutual behavioral control that often characterizes repeated interaction, cognitive control of emotional arousal may be a critical psychological factor for the emergence of coordinated cooperation.
Igarashi, T. （五十嵐祐） (2019) Development of the Japanese version of the three-item loneliness scale. 日本語版孤独感尺度（3項目）の開発 BMC Psychology, 7:20 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-019-0285-0
Loneliness is a major risk factor for mental and physical health worldwide. The Three-Item Loneliness Scale (TIL Scale; Hughes et al., 2004) has been widely applied to measure loneliness in a simplified format, but no validated Japanese version has been developed. This study adapted the TIL Scale into Japanese and tested its reliability and validity. [Methods] The original English version of the TIL Scale was translated into Japanese, and the expressions of the Japanese version were confirmed by a back translation procedure. The translated scale was then administered to Japanese respondents recruited from an online research panel (N = 1020) and an online crowdsourcing service (N = 500). To analyze the data containing polytomous responses to the items in the scale, this study used categorical Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Generalized Partial Credit Model based on the Item Response Theory. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale, this study examined factorial validity, reliability, information curves, and the associations of the scale score with demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and living arrangements), the scores of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (R-UCLA), the Big Five scale of personality traits, and the sizes of personal networks. [Results] The translated TIL Scale showed essential unidimensionality and characteristics to differentiate among respondents at different levels of loneliness. The scale score was related positively with the scores of R-UCLA and neuroticism and negatively with the scores of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, and the sizes of overall and support networks. Those who were unmarried and alone recorded a higher score on the scale than those who were married and living with someone. Age showed a negative correlation with the scale score only in Sample 1, in which the equal allocation procedure was introduced for the age stratum. [Conclusions] The results indicate that the Japanese version of the TIL Scale demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for the assessment of loneliness.
本研究では、Hughes et al. (2004) の孤独感尺度短縮版（3項目）の邦訳版を作成し、オンラインのサンプルから収集したデータを用いて、項目応答理論に基づいて項目の特性を分析したのち、UCLA孤独感尺度やBig Five、個人の属性との基準関連妥当性を検討しています。従来の研究では、20項目のUCLA孤独感尺度が多く用いられてきましたが、本研究の知見は、3項目の短縮版が一定の識別力と妥当性を有することを示すものであり、さまざまな領域での応用が期待されます。
Nawata, K. (縄田健悟) (2019). A glorious warrior in war: Cross-cultural evidence of honor culture, social rewards for warriors, and intergroup conflict 戦争における栄光の戦士：名誉の文化，戦士への社会的報酬，集団間紛争の比較文化的論拠 Group Processes & Intergroup Relations doi: 10.1177/1368430219838615
Previous research has shown that honor culture and honor ideology enhance interpersonal and intergroup aggressiveness at the individual level. This study aimed to examine collective-level relationships among honor culture, social rewards for warriors, and intergroup conflict. To demonstrate these relationships, I used the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, which contains data on 186 mainly preindustrial societies from all over the world. The analysis demonstrated that honor culture, which values males’ toughness and aggression, has a positive relationship with frequency of intergroup conflicts. In addition, social rewards (praise, prestige, and status) for warriors mediated the relationship between honor culture and frequency of intergroup conflict. These results imply that the collective-level processes of honor culture enhance intergroup conflicts through the social reputations of warriors who participate in war.
これまでの研究は、名誉文化と名誉イデオロギーが個人レベルでの対人間・集団間の攻撃性を高めることを明らかにしてきた。 本研究の目的は，名誉文化，戦士への社会的報酬，集団間紛争に関する集合レベルの関係を検証することである。 本研究ではStandard Cross-Cultural Sampleという人類学分野のデータセットを利用して分析した。ここには主に前産業社会の世界186データが含まれている。 分析の結果，男性のタフさと攻撃性を重視する名誉文化は集団間紛争の頻度と正の関係にあることが示された。 さらに、戦士への社会的報酬（賞賛、特権、地位）は，名誉文化と集団間紛争の頻度との関係を媒介した。 以上の結果は、集合レベルの名誉文化のプロセスが，戦争に参加する戦士の社会的評判を通じて集団間紛争を激化する可能性を示唆している。
Ishiguro, C., Takagishi, H. (高岸治人), Sato, Y., Seow, A. W., Takahashi, A., Abe, Y., Hayashi, T., Kakizaki, H., Uno, K., Okada, H., Kato, E. (in press). Effect of dialogical appreciation based on visual thinking strategies on art-viewing strategies. 絵画鑑賞における視覚的思考戦略に基づく対話型鑑賞の効果 Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts doi: 10.1037/aca0000258
This study examines how educational interventions involving art viewing affect students’ art-viewing behaviors and their evaluations of artworks. We focused on Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS), a typical intervention implemented in schools and museums, and examined its educational effect by comparing it to another common intervention: lectures on art history. To conduct this experiment, we recruited a sample of undergraduate students who were then assigned to a VTS condition or a lecture condition. The participants viewed 10 specific artworks both before and after receiving the educational intervention, and their eye movements and evaluations of each picture were measured and contrasted. The results showed that the participants who were assigned to the VTS condition increased the amount of time they spent viewing the artworks, whereas the lecture interventions had no observable effect on any measurement. The participants’ favorability toward the artworks was not affected by either intervention. These findings reveal a new aspect of the effects of employing VTS in art education regarding art viewing.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2019). A decline in self-esteem in adults over 50 is not found in Japan: age differences in self-esteem from young adulthood to old age. 日本では50歳以降の自尊心の低下は見られない：成人期から老年期における自尊心の年齢差 BMC Research Notes, 12, 274. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4289-x
The current research examined age differences in self-esteem in Japan from young adults aged 20 to the elderly aged 69 with a focus on self-esteem trajectories from middle age to old age. Previous research in European American cultures has indicated that self-esteem rises from young adulthood into middle age, and sharply declines starting in one’s 50s or 60s. However, it was unclear whether this sharp drop would be found in Japan. Therefore, the present research investigated whether the same age differences were present in Japan by analyzing data from a large and diverse sample. Results showed that self-esteem increases from young adulthood into middle age, consistent with previous research. However, the sharp decline after the age of 50 was not found, which is different from the pattern in European American cultures. This may be related to a finding that people in East Asian cultures show more humble attitudes toward themselves.
Tanibe, T. (谷辺哲史), Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), Tomabechi, T. (苫米地飛), Masamoto, T. (正本拓), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2019). Attributing mind to groups and their members on two dimensions. 集団とその成員に対する心の帰属の二次元性 Frontiers in Psychology, 10:840. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00840
Psychological research has revealed that people attribute mental states to groups such as companies, especially to those groups that are highly entitative. Moreover, attributing a mind to a group results in the decreased attribution of mind to individual group members. Recent research has demonstrated that the minds of others are perceived in two dimensions—agency and experience. The present study investigated the possibility that this two-dimensional structure exists in mind attribution to groups, and group entitativity has different patterns of relations with these dimensions. A vignette experiment revealed that highly entitative groups were attributed both agency and experience to greater degrees compared to non-entitative groups, while group entitativity reduced only the attribution of agency to the individual group members. Individual members were attributed an equivalent amount of experience regardless of group entitativity. Mind attribution to individual members showed an unpredicted third factor of other-recognition, which was positively related to group entitativity. The implications of mind attribution to moral issues were discussed.
Saito, Y. (齋藤美松), Ueshima, A. (上島淳史), Tanida, S. (谷田林士), & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (in press). How does social information affect charitable giving?: Empathic concern promotes support for underdog recipient 社会情報は寄付行動にどのような影響を与えるか: 共感的配慮が判官びいきを促進する Social Neuroscience doi: 10.1080/17470919.2019.1599421
Charitable giving represents a unique cooperative characteristic of humans. In today’s environment with social media, our charitable decisions seem to be influenced by social information such as a project’s popularity. Here we report three experiments that examined people’s reactions to social information about a charitable endeavor and their psychophysiological underpinnings. Participants were first solicited to make donations to either the Africa or Syria project of UNICEF. Then participants were provided an opportunity to learn social information (i.e., how much each project had raised from previous participants) and change their decision if desired. Contrary to expectation, participants who learned that their initial preferences were consistent with the majority of previous participants’ choices exhibited a sizable tendency to switch to the less popular project in their final choices. This anti-conformity pattern was robust across the three experiments. Eye-tracking data (gaze bias and pupil dilation) indicated that these “Changers” were more physiologically aroused and formed more differential valuations between the two charity projects, compared to “Keepers” who retained their initial preferences after viewing the social information. These results suggest that social information about relative popularity may evoke empathic concern for the worse-off target, in line with the human tendency to avoid unequal distributions.
Hiraoka, D.（平岡大樹）, & Nomura, M. (野村理朗) （in press）. Maternal Childhood Adversity, OXTR Genotype and Cognitive Load Impact on Perceptual and Behavioral Responses to Infant Crying 乳児泣き声への反応に母親の被養育経験・オキシトシン受容体遺伝子多型・認知的負荷が影響を与える Psychoneuroendocrinology doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.03.005
The crying of infants elicits aversive feelings and poses. Maternal childhood maltreatment can have negative parenting ability consequences and interact with the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) to predict maternal response to infant distress stimuli. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of individual vulnerability differences to situational cognitive load in parenting situations. The current study, in which 124 mothers participated in a standardized infant vocalization paradigm, examined three-way interaction on subjective empathy, behavior intention, and handgrip force response to a crying infant. Participants were asked to squeeze a handgrip dynamometer at maximal and half strength while memorizing a meaningless alphabet syllable as the cognitive load manipulation. Significant interactions were also observed between OXTR rs53576, childhood adversity, and cognitive load when predicting excessive force and harsh response intention on hearing a crying infant. These findings suggested that, as the G allele carriers of OXTR rs53576 appear to be susceptible to the effects of severe childhood adversity, inter- and intra-individual approaches are needed when assessing maternal responses to infant stimuli.
Omi, Y. （尾見康博）(2019). Corporal punishment in extracurricular sports activities (bukatsu) represents an aspect of Japanese culture. 部活における体罰は日本文化の一側面を表している In L.Tateo (ed.) Educational dilemmas: A cultural psychological perspective. NY: Routledge Pp.139-145.
Yoshiya Furukawa (古川善也), Ken'ichiro Nakashima (中島健一郎), Tsukawaki, R. (塚脇涼太)& Yasuko Morinaga (森永康子) (in press). Guilt as a signal informing us of a threat to our morality. 道徳性への脅威を知らせるシグナルとしての罪悪感 Current Psychology doi: 10.1007/s12144-019-0144-4
Some studies have shown the possibility that people feel guilt not only due to interpersonal problems but also when experiencing threats to their own internal morality (e.g. Eskine et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(5), 947-950, 2013), whereas other studies have shown that guilt-induced behaviours can restore individuals’ sense of moral person (e.g. Gneezy et al. Management Science, 58(1), 179–187, 2012; Zhong et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 859–862, 2010). These findings suggest that guilt can strongly reflect how much individuals deviate from what they perceive to be adequate moral person. Therefore, we proposed that guilt works as an alert system that signals people about threats to their morality. We used the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464-1480, 1998) to investigate if an individual’s moral self decreased in the situation where that individual felt guilt. Results showed that implicit moral self in the guilt condition was lower than that in the control condition when controlling for individual variation in moral self. Our findings provide a new perspective on the function of guilt and generate new hypotheses about the relationship between guilt and behaviours.
Furukawa, Y. (古川善也), Nakashima, K. (中島健一郎), & Morinaga, Y. (森永康子) (2019). Guilt Signals a Crisis of Rejection: Two Types of Individual Differences Related to Social Rejection Have Dissimilar Effects on Guilt and Compensatory Behavior. 罪悪感は排斥の脅威をシグナルする：2つのタイプの社会的排斥に関する個人差が罪悪感と補償行動に異なる効果を持つ。 Japanese Psychological Research, 61(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1111/jpr.12199
We investigated whether feelings of guilt, which signal crises in interpersonal relationships (Baumeister, Stillwell, & Heatherton, 1994), are differently evoked by two types of individual differences in social rejection: rejection detection capability (Kawamoto, Nittono, & Ura, 2015) and rejection sensitivity (Downey & Feldman, 1996). Using the hypothetical scenario method, we found that in situations with a potential risk of being rejected as a consequence of causing another person harm (i.e., harm‐present condition), participants with higher rejection detection capability felt more guilt and engaged in more compensatory behavior towards the victims. In addition, guilt mediated the relationship between rejection detection capability and compensatory behavior. Conversely, in situations with no potential risk of being rejected (i.e., harm‐absent condition), participants with higher rejection sensitivity felt more guilt but did not engage in much compensatory behavior. These results suggest that individual differences in social rejection foster different responses to specific threats.
Toyokawa, W. (豊川 航), Whalen, A. & Laland, NK. (2019). Social learning strategies regulate the wisdom and madness of interactive crowds. 社会的学習戦略が群知能と集合愚とを制御する Nature Human Behaviour, doi: 10.1038/s41562-018-0518-x
Why groups of individuals sometimes exhibit collective ‘wisdom’ and other times maladaptive ‘herding’ is an enduring conundrum. Here we show that this apparent conflict is regulated by the social learning strategies deployed. We examined the patterns of human social learning through an interactive online experiment with 699 participants, varying both task uncertainty and group size, then used hierarchical Bayesian model fitting to identify the individual learning strategies exhibited by participants. Challenging tasks elicit greater conformity among individuals, with rates of copying increasing with group size, leading to high probabilities of herding among large groups confronted with uncertainty. Conversely, the reduced social learning of small groups, and the greater probability that social information would be accurate for less-challenging tasks, generated ‘wisdom of the crowd’ effects in other circumstances. Our model-based approach provides evidence that the likelihood of collective intelligence versus herding can be predicted, resolving a long-standing puzzle in the literature.
Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2018). Impact of consumer power on consumers' reactions to corporate transgression. 企業不祥事への消費者の反応に勢力が与える影響 PLoS ONE, 13(5), e0196819. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196819
We addressed how individuals’ power influences their judgments regarding corporate transgressions. Based on the Situated Focus Theory of Power, which theorizes that powerful people respond more in accordance to circumstantial factors, we tested the interaction of power and the type of corporate discourse offered by the accused company. Across two studies (overall N = 216), we experimentally primed power (Study 1) and manipulated participants’ sense of direct control over the company (Study 2). We consistently found an interaction effect of power and corporate discourse on people’s negative attitudes toward the company—particularly on the unwillingness to use the company’s products. Particularly, high-power individuals were prone to strongly vary their attitudes based on the mitigative/non-mitigative nature of the discourse, while those low in power were unsusceptible to the type of discourse. The results suggest how the potential rise of consumer power in society may critically influence the consumer-corporate relationships following corporate transgressions.
Kase, T. (嘉瀬貴祥), Ueno, Y., Shimamoto, K., & Oishi, K. (2019). Causal relationships between sense of coherence and life skills: Examining the short-term longitudinal data of Japanese youths. Sense of coherenceとライフスキルの因果関係―日本人青年の短期縦断的データを用いた検討― Mental Health & Prevention, 13(1), 14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.mhp.2018.11.005
This study investigated the causal relationships between sense of coherence (SOC) and life skills. Participants (248 university students; 147 men, 101 women; mean age = 20.4 years, SD = 0.9 years) completed the Japanese version of the SOC-29 scale and the Life Skills Scale for Adolescents and Adults. Structural equation modeling (a synchronous effects model and a cross-lagged effects model) indicated that life skills had a certain effect (β = .55 to .75, p < .01) on SOC. This result suggests that improving life skills was effective in strengthening SOC. The findings of this study provide key information concerning the dimensions and stages of SOC and life skills. This can be used to construct a theoretical model and framework for future practical studies on strengthening SOC and conducting life skills training.
Kase, T. (嘉瀬貴祥), Ueno, Y., & Oishi, K. (2018). The overlap of sense of coherence and the Big Five personality traits: A confirmatory study. Sense of coherenceとBig Five性格特性との関係についての検証的研究 Health Psychology Open, 5(2), 1-4. doi: 10.1177/2055102918810654
Sense of coherence is the perception of the world as coherent. Its conceptual similarities to the Big Five personality traits have been demonstrated. We therefore investigated the relationship between sense of coherence and the Big Five. In total, 1088 Japanese youths completed the 29-item Sense of Coherence Scale and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Neuroticism was negatively correlated and extraversion was positively correlated with comprehensibility (r = −.47, .35), manageability (r = −.44, .26), and meaningfulness (r = −.28, .30). These correlations were strong, and the overlap between the two scales was about 36 percent. While the Big Five are related to sense of coherence, their differences cannot be ignored.
Matsunaga, M., Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), Noguchi, Y., Ochi, M. (越智美早), & Yamasue, H. (2018). Culture and cannabinoid receptor gene polymorphism interact to influence the perception of happiness. 文化とカンナビノイド受容体遺伝子多型が相互作用し幸せの知覚に影響する PLoS ONE, 13, e0209552. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209552
Previous studies have shown that a cytosine (C) to thymine (T) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene is associated with positive emotional processing. C allele carriers are more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli including happiness. The effects of several gene polymorphisms related to sensitivity to emotional stimuli, such as that in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR), on emotional processing have been reported to differ among cultures–e.g., between those that are independent and interdependent. Thus, we postulated that the effects of the CNR1 genotype on happiness might differ among different cultures because the concept of happiness varies by culture. We recruited healthy male and female young adults in Japan, where favorable external circumstances determine the concept of happiness, and Canada, where the concept of happiness centers on positive inner feelings, and compared the effects of the CNR1 genotype on both subjective happiness levels (self-evaluation as being a happy person) and situation-specific happiness (happy feelings accompanying various positive events) by using a questionnaire. We found that the effect of CNR1 on subjective happiness was different between the Japanese and Canadian groups. The subjective happiness level was the highest in Japanese individuals with the CC genotype, whereas in Canadian participants, it was the highest in individuals with the TT genotype. Furthermore, the effects of CNR1 genotype on situation-specific happiness were also different between the groups. Happiness accompanied with being surrounded by happy people was the highest among Japanese individuals with the CC genotype, whereas among Canadian individuals, it was the highest in TT genotype carriers. These findings suggest that culture and CNR1 polymorphism interact to influence the perception of happiness.
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), & Suzuki, T.(鈴木貴久) (2018). Effects of beliefs about sanctions on promoting cooperation in a public goods game. サンクションに対する信念が協力に与える影響 Palgrave Communications, 4(1), 148. doi: 10.1057/s41599-018-0203-8
Cooperative behaviour among people facing social dilemmas remains an unsolved puzzle. Sanction systems such as punishment and reward are well-known solutions to social dilemmas. On the one hand, it is theorised that peer sanctions cannot maintain cooperation because of the intrusion of second-order free riders. On the other hand, experimental studies have widely reported that cooperation is sustainable by first-order sanction systems. To understand the divergence between theory and experimental results, we focus on the effects of beliefs about sanctions on promoting cooperation. While previous studies have revealed effects of beliefs about other people’s cooperation in public goods games (PGGs), the effect of beliefs about sanctions have not been considered. We conducted a scenario-based experiment using one-shot PGGs with and without sanction systems. The results revealed that beliefs about sanctions promote cooperation in a PGG when types of sanctions and some psychological attitudes to cooperation are controlled for. Our results indicate that the beliefs of actors promote cooperation despite the possible presence of second-order free riders. A belief about sanctions differs from a preference for cooperative behaviour and the amount a player pays to exercise a sanction. It is necessary to consider players’ beliefs about a sanction when studying its effectiveness.
Takano, Y. （高野陽太郎）, & Osaka, E. （纓坂英子）(2018) “Attention, please” to situation: Replies to commentaries by Uleman, Matsumoto, Hamamura and Takemura, and Vignoles 状況に注目：Uleman, Matsumoto, Hamamura and Takemura, Vignoles による論評への回答 Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 21(4), 346-355. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12347
この論文は、私たちの展望論文（Takano & Osaka, 2018）に寄せられた４編の論評論文に対する回答論文です。日本人論では、長らく「日本人は集団主義的、アメリカ人は個人主義的」と言われてきました。20年前、私たちは日本人とアメリカ人を比較した実証的研究を探索し、見つかった15件の研究がこの通説を支持していないことを報告しました（Takano & Osaka, 1999）。新しい展望論文では、その後に発表された研究を中心に、新たに20件の実証的研究を調べ、それらの研究が全体としてはこの通説を支持していないという同じ結論に至りました。この展望論文に対する４編の論評論文は、いずれも、「通説は妥当ではない」という点で、私たちと意見を同じくしていました。通説が何十年ものあいだ世界中で信奉されてきたことを思えば、これは驚くべきことです。この回答論文では、集団主義・個人主義の問題を考える際には「状況」を考慮に入れることが重要であることを指摘し、「状況」との関連で、「集団主義・個人主義は1次元的な概念か多次元的な概念か」、「集団レベルでの文化差（⇔個人レベルでの文化差）を測定することはできるか」、「文化間での有意差を一律に文化差と捉えてよいか」等の理論的な問題を検討しました。
Takano and Osaka (2018) tested the validity of the common view that Japanese are more collectivistic than Americans by reviewing empirical studies published mainly during recent two decades, and found that this common view was not supported by most of the reviewed studies. All the four commentaries on this review of ours shared with us the basic judgment that the common view is untenable. In this reply, we present arguments to resolve some doubts cast on our review, and then argue that situation is a key concept to investigate critical issues related to individualism and collectivism such as their dimensionality and distinction between societal level and individual level cultural difference.
Asano, R. (浅野良輔), Tsukamoto, S. (塚本早織), Igarashi, T. (五十嵐祐), & Huta, V. (in press). Psychometric properties of measures of hedonic and eudaimonic orientations in Japan: The HEMA Scale. 日本における快楽志向・幸福志向尺度の心理測定学的特性：HEMA尺度 Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9954-z
The Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale measures well-being as a series of orientations. We investigated the HEMA scale’s psychometric properties among two Japanese samples in longitudinal studies over periods of one month (N = 385) and two months (N = 224). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified three subscales of the HEMA scale: hedonic pleasure orientation, hedonic relaxation orientation, and eudaimonic orientation. On average, at a given point in time, the correlations between subscales were r = .58 for the hedonic pleasure and hedonic relaxation orientations; r = .56 for the hedonic pleasure and eudaimonic orientations; and r = .26 for the hedonic relaxation and eudaimonic orientations—while the internal consistencies were αs > .80 for all subscales. In both studies, the three HEMA subscales had test-retest correlations averaging rs = .51, which suggests that these orientations are temporally quite stable, yet they are also amenable to change. Longitudinal analyses showed correlations between the HEMA scale and external criteria: hedonic pleasure orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, personal growth, purpose in life, and sense of meaning; hedonic relaxation orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, calm affect, and personal growth; and eudaimonic orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, personal growth, purpose in life, and sense of meaning. Implications for future research on the HEMA scale are discussed.