Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). Cultural influences in somatosensory amplification and their association with negative affectivity. 身体感覚の増幅における文化的な影響およびネガティブ感情との関連性 Asian Journal of Social Psychology. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12342
Previous research has indicated that, reflecting East Asians’ holistic attentional style, they are likely to emphasize more somatic symptoms and perceive their internal visceral states less accurately as compared with Westerners. Based on these findings, comparing representative samples of Americans and Japanese participants, this research examined whether somatosensory amplification would vary across cultures. Moreover, by controlling confounding factors, including neuroticism and chronic disorders, the possibility that the association between somatosensory amplification and negative affective states differs across cultures also was tested. The results showed that Japanese exhibit higher somatosensory amplification than do Americans. In both cultures, as neuroticism and the number of chronic disorders increased, negative affective states also increased, leading to higher somatosensory amplification. Whereas negative affective states completely mediated the paths of neuroticism and chronic disorders to somatosensory amplification in the United States, such mediation was partial in Japan. Moreover, the association between somatosensory amplification and negative affective states was weaker in Japanese than in Americans.
Mori, Y., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). The effect of auditory imagery for speech in reading in Japanese. 発話の聴覚的イメージが日本人の読みに与える効果 Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9946-z
Auditory images for speech are preserved and can be accessed during reading. This research, conducted in Japan, examined whether and to what extent previous findings on the influence of speaker-specific auditory images in reading can be generalized to non-English speakers in a different cultural context. In two studies, Japanese participants were asked to read a text aloud after being informed that the text had been written by either a fast speaker or a slow speaker whose speech they were to listen to. The participants read the episode more slowly when it was attributed to a slow speaker than when it was attributed to a fast speaker. Individual differences in one’s mimicry of the speaker moderated the influence of speaker-specific auditory images in reading. The influence was confirmed only for those who consciously mimicked the speaker. In contrast, situational cues manipulated to generate affiliation with and closeness to the speakers did not influence the participants’ reading times.
Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン) (2018). Cultural similarities and differences in social discounting: The mediating role of harmony-seeking. 社会割引における文化的類似と差異：協同調和傾向による媒介 Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1426. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01426
One’s generosity to others declines as a function of social distance, which is known as social discounting. We examined cultural similarities and differences in social discounting and the mediating roles of the two aspects of interdependence (self-expression and distinctiveness of the self) as well as the two aspects of independence (harmony-seeking and rejection avoidance). Using the same procedure that previous researchers used to test North Americans, Study 1 showed that compared to North Americans, Japanese discount more steeply a partner’s outcomes compared to their own future outcomes, whereas the decrease in the subjective value of the partner’s outcomes accelerates less as a function of social distance. To examine the cultural similarities and differences in social discounting in more detail, Study 2 tested Japanese and Germans and found that the hyperbolic with exponent model fitted the participants’ discounting behaviors better than the other models, except for the loss condition in Germans where the utility of the q-exponential model was indicated. Moreover, although the social discounting rate was higher in Japanese than in Germans, the cultural difference was limited to the gain frame. However, the decline in a person’s generosity accelerated less as a function of social distance in Japanese than in Germans. Furthermore, the cultural difference in the social discounting in gains was mediated by the level of harmony-seeking, which was higher in Germans than in Japanese. Implications for individuals’ generosity against the backdrop of cultural characteristics are discussed.
Kusano, K. (草野広大) and Kemmelmeier, M. (2018). Ecology of freedom: Competitive tests of the role of pathogens, climate, and natural disasters in the development of socio-political freedom. 自由の生態学：病原体、気候、自然災害が社会・政治的自由の発達に与える役割の競争的検証 Front. Psychol. 9:954. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00954
Many countries around the world embrace freedom and democracy as part of their political culture. However, culture is at least in part a human response to the ecological challenges that a society faces; hence, it should not be surprising that the degree to which societies regulate the level of individual freedom is related to environmental circumstances. Previous research suggests that levels of societal freedom across countries are systematically related to three types of ecological threats: prevalence of pathogens, climate challenges, and natural disaster threat. Though their incidence overlaps, the literature has not yet provided a competitive test. Drawing upon the ecocultural framework, we tested five rival hypotheses, alternately focused on the above ecological factors and their interactions with economic wealth in explaining country variations in socio-political freedom. Focusing on data from 150 countries, we performed a series of linear mixed-effects regressions predicting freedom in the domains of politics, media, and economy. We found that countries with higher pathogen prevalence were more likely to suppress democracy and media freedom. Economic wealth, however, moderated the effect of pathogen prevalence on economic freedom, with the main effect being only found among wealthy countries, but not among poor countries. In contrast, natural disaster threat predicted political freedom and press freedom only among poor countries, consistent with the idea that disaster threat accompanied by poor resources promote socio-political freedom as a means of increasing collective survival. Throughout our analyses, we found no support for hypotheses based on climatic challenges. In addition, our multilevel approach revealed that country scores for socio-political freedom were highly clustered within world regions, accounting for substantial portions of variance. Overall, the present research offers a nuanced view of the interplay between ecology and wealth in the emergence of socio-political freedom. We discuss new directions in future research considering methodological and theoretical contributions of the present findings.
文化心理学では、環境が社会や心理にどのように影響を与えるのかと言う点について、様々な研究がなされてきた。先行研究は、主に病原体、気候、自然災害の３つの環境要因と、個人主義や民主主義などの国レベルの自由の指標の関係を検証する研究が多く行われて来た。病原体、気候、自然災害などの要因は、互いに独立していない環境要因であるにも関わらず、先行研究では、これらの要因についての理論を包括的に検証する試みがなされていなかった。そこで本研究では、これら３つの環境要因と、経済的豊かさ（GDP per capita）を全て考慮したモデルを検証した。さらに本研究は、先行研究の国レベルの分析における統計的な誤り（独立性の仮定）を指摘し、マルチレベル分析を用いることで、独立性の無視によって起こる推定バイアスを部分的に調整した。その結果、病原菌感染率の低い国においては、民主主義が高まる傾向にある、といった示唆が得られた。
Takano, Y.（高野陽太郎） & Osaka, E. （纓坂英子） (2018). Comparing Japan and the United States on individualism/collectivism: A follow-up review 集団主義・個人主義に関する日米比較： 展望の続報 Asian Journal of Social Psychology doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12322
It has been long believed that the Japanese are typical collectivists whereas Americans are typical individualists. To examine the validity of this common view, we formerly reviewed 15 empirical studies that compared Japanese and Americans regarding individualism/collectivism (I/C), and found that the overwhelming majority of those studies had not supported the common view (Takano & Osaka, 1999). In this follow-up, we reviewed 20 additional empirical studies (7 behavioral studies, 13 questionnaire studies), most of which had been published after the former review. When combined with the formerly reviewed 15 studies, 19 studies reported no clear difference, and 11 studies reported that Japanese were more individualistic than Americans. These 30 studies are inconsistent with the common view. Only 5 studies supported the common view, even when we included 3 studies whose validity was questionable. After it was formerly found that the common view was not supported empirically, a variety of alternative accounts were presented regarding the reason for this finding. We examined three major accounts in light of the reviewed studies and found that none of them was congruent with the empirical data. Thus, it seems to be reasonable to conclude that the common view is not valid.
日本人論では、長らく「日本人は集団主義的、アメリカ人は個人主義的」だと論じられてきました。20年前、私たちは日本人とアメリカ人を比較した実証的研究を探索し、見つかった15件の研究がこの通説を支持していないことを報告しました（Takano & Osaka, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 1999）。今回は、その後に発表された研究を中心に、新たに20件の実証的研究を調べ、やはり全体としては通説を支持していないことを見出しました。また、前回の報告について、通説を支持する立場から提出された主な別解釈を３つ取り上げ、それらが実証的研究とは一致しないことも明らかにしました。
Shimotomai, A. （下斗米淳）（2018） Parental social power, co-parenting, and child attachment: early to late japanese adolescence transitions. 親の社会的勢力、協働子育て、そして子どもの愛着： 初期から後期青年期にかけての推移 Current Psychology, 20, 1-12. doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9811-0
The purposes of this study were to examine how adolescents’ perceptions of parental powers and how bases of power between the father and the mother separately impact adolescents’ attachment to their father and mother, as well as the changing pattern of such impact. The participants were 44 junior high school students (M = 14.32 years old), 88 high school students (M = 17.27 years old), and 61 university students (M = 20.54 years old) in Japan. Adolescents’ attachment to their parents and their perceptions of parental social powers were assessed. The results indicated that adolescents had a significantly high perceptions of parental expert power. Moreover, the similarity between parental powers strongly impacted the behavioral bonds of adolescents’ attachment. Furthermore, powers between parents mutually defined and influenced the attachment of late adolescents to their parents. Thus, the present study could point out adolescents’ rebuilding their parent-child relationships and the interdependence of parents in child-rearing. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of co-parenting and the social adjustment of parents and children.
Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), Furutani, K.(古谷嘉一郎), & Alimardani, M. (2018). Preliminary validation of Japanese version of the Parental Burnout Inventory and its relationship with perfectionism. 日本語版子育てバーンアウト尺度の妥当性検討および完全主義との関連 Frontiers in Psychology, 9:970. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00970
Parenting is a precious experience and also a very hard task, which could result in parental burnout for some parents. The present study sought to validate a Japanese version of the Parental Burnout Inventory (PBI-J) by replicating and extending the pioneering work of Roskam et al. (2017). We conducted a web survey (N = 1200) to first validate the PBI-J and second to investigate the association between the PBI-J and perfectionism as a new interrelation. Similar to the prior study of Roskam et al. (2017), confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of three-factor structure of the PBI-J: emotional exhaustion, lack of personal accomplishment, and emotional distancing. In addition, we found low to moderate correlations of parental burnout with job burnout, parental stress, and depression. These findings provided initial evidence for validity of the PBI-J and suggested that parental burnout appeared to be different from job burnout. Our further evaluation of perfectionism confirmed such a difference between parental and job burnout by showing that parental perfectionism [i.e., combination of parental personal standards (PS) and parental concern over mistakes (CM)] has a unique contribution to parental burnout than does job perfectionism (i.e., combination of job PS and job CM). In addition, CM was positively correlated with burnout in both domains whereas the associations between PS and burnout were more complex. Finally, the proportion of parents experiencing burnout was estimated to lie somewhere between 4.2 and 17.3% in Japan. Overall, the present study confirmed preliminary validity of the PBI-J and found that parental perfectionism is one of the vulnerability factors in parental burnout.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一), & Niiya, Y. (新谷優) (2018). Can self-compassion help people regulate unattained goals and emotional reactions toward setbacks? セルフコンパッションは達成できなかった目標の制御やその挫折経験への情動反応の制御を促すのか Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 239-244. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.029
The current study examined whether self-compassion helps individuals cope with the experience of unattainable goals. Because self-compassion entails taking a balanced perspective of one’s suffering and maintaining emotional stability, this study predicted that individuals high in self-compassion would be more likely to disengage from their unattained goals and reengage in an alternative important goal, and thus, be less likely to experience negative emotions toward their setback in goal attainment. Japanese undergraduates (N = 177), who had completed a measure of self-compassion a week prior, recalled their personal failure of goal attainment and answered items about the degree of goal disengagement, goal reengagement, and current negative emotions toward their setback. Structural equation modeling showed that self-compassion was positively related to goal reengagement and goal disengagement, and that self-compassion had a significant negative indirect effect on current negative emotions via goal disengagement, in addition to a negative direct effect. These results were mainly in accordance with predictions, suggesting that self-compassion is a psychological resource for coping with setbacks in goal attainment.
Li, L. M. W., Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Hamamura, T., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). Culture and Decision Making: Influence of Analytic Versus Holistic Thinking Style on Resource Allocation in a Fort Game. 文化と意思決定：要塞ゲームでの資源分配における分析的 vs. 包括的思考様式による影響 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology doi: 10.1177/0022022118778337
People have to make different decisions every day, in which culture affects their strategies. This research examined the role of analytic versus holistic thinking style on resource allocation across cultures. We expected that, analytic thinking style, which refers to a linear view about the world where objects’ properties remain stable and separate, would make people concentrate their resource allocation corresponding to the current demand, whereas holistic thinking style, which refers to a nonlinear view that people perceive change to be a constant phenomenon and the universe to be full of interconnected elements, would encourage people to spread out their resource allocation. In Study 1, Hong Kong Chinese, a representative group of holistic cultures, and European Canadians, a representative group of analytic cultures, completed a resource allocation task (i.e., fort game). The results showed that the allocation pattern of European Canadians was more concentrated than that of Hong Kong Chinese and holistic thoughts predicted a less concentrated allocation pattern. To test causality, thinking styles were manipulated in Study 2, in which mainland Chinese were primed with either holistic thinking style or analytic thinking style. The results showed that the allocation pattern was more concentrated in the analytic condition than that in the holistic condition, which was explained by greater perceived predictability in the analytic condition. Implications of these findings on cross-cultural decision-making research and applied research were discussed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (in press). The rise in individualism in Japan: Temporal changes in family structure, 1947-2015. 日本文化の個人主義化：家族構造の経時的変化, 1947-2015 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
The present research examined whether Japanese culture became more individualistic between 1947 and 2015 by investigating temporal changes in indicators of family structure. Previous research has shown that Japanese culture has become more individualistic. However, the amount of research investigating temporal changes in individualism in Japan is small. Thus, it is important to examine whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating indicators that have not been used in previous research. Therefore, indicators of family structure that have been validated as indices of individualism were used to examine whether people came to live more independently from other family members. Analyses indicated that the rate of people living alone, the rate of nuclear households, and the divorce rate increased, while the rate of three-generation households and the household size decreased. These results showed that family structure became more individual-based in Japan, suggesting that Japanese culture changed toward greater individualism.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2018). Economic shifts and cultural changes in individualism: A cross-temporal perspective. 経済的変化と文化の個人主義化：経時的な観点からの検討 In A. Uskul & S. Oishi (Eds.), Socioeconomic environment and human psychology: Social, ecological, and cultural perspectives (pp. 247-270). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190492908.003.0010
This chapter discusses the relationship between economic affluence and individualism from a cross-temporal perspective. Previous research has indicated that wealth and individualism are positively correlated at both the individual and the national level. This chapter discusses whether this relationship is also found at the temporal level. This chapter consists of three parts. First, a theory about the association between economic affluence and individualism is summarized. Second, the chapter introduces empirical evidence on temporal changes in individualism and their relationship with economic development in three cultures (United States, Japan, China). These studies indicated that the three cultures have shifted toward greater individualism over time. Moreover, these changes in individualism were positively linked to increases in economic affluence at the annual level. Third, the chapter is summarized and directions for future research are raised. Overall, this chapter discusses how socioecological factors and human psychologies/behaviors are associated particularly from a cross-temporal perspective.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (in press). Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the right temporoparietal junction enhances the self-effacing bias in Japanese individuals. 右側頭頭頂接合部に対する経頭蓋直流刺激が日本人の自己卑下バイアスに与える影響 Culture and Brain.
Identifying the cause of social events enables us to understand why our environment interacts with us in a certain way. Although previous studies suggest that the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is associated with internal attribution, the causal relationship remains unclear. The present study, firstly, aimed to investigate whether and how the attributional tendency could change with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the rTPJ. Secondly, since Japanese individuals tend to perform self-effacing attribution as a socially adaptive behavior, we examined whether the increased activation of the rTPJ, which facilitates the process of shaping self-concept from another perspective, might increase self-effacing attributions specifically among individuals who are highly sensitive to social rewards. Consistent with these predictions, we found that the increased activation of the rTPJ enhanced self-effacing bias, and this relationship was specifically observed among high reward dependent (RD) individuals. We also revealed that it took a longer time for the high RD participants to avoid self-responsibility for failure after the stimulation. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the rTPJ could exacerbate self-blaming tendencies in Japanese individuals.
Nakayachi, K. (中谷内 一也), Johnson, B., & Koketsu, K. (2018). Effects of acknowledging uncertainty about earthquake risk estimates on San Francisco Bay area residents’ beliefs, attitudes, and intentions. 地震のリスク評価には不確実性があることを認めることがサンフランシスコ湾岸住民の信念、態度、行動意図にどのような影響をもたらすのか Risk Analysis, 38(4), 666-679.
We test here the risk communication proposition that explicit expert acknowledgment of uncertainty in risk estimates can enhance trust and other reactions. We manipulated such a scientific uncertainty message, accompanied by probabilities (20%, 70%, implicit [“will occur”] 100%) and time periods (10 or 30 years) in major (≥magnitude 8) earthquake risk estimates to test potential effects on residents potentially affected by seismic activity on the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (n = 750). The uncertainty acknowledgment increased belief that these specific experts were more honest and open, and led to statistically (but not substantively) significant increases in trust in seismic experts generally only for the 20% probability (vs. certainty) and shorter versus longer time period. The acknowledgment did not change judged risk, preparedness intentions, or mitigation policy support. Probability effects independent of the explicit admission of expert uncertainty were also insignificant except for judged risk, which rose or fell slightly depending upon the measure of judged risk used. Overall, both qualitative expressions of uncertainty and quantitative probabilities had limited effects on public reaction. These results imply that both theoretical arguments for positive effects, and practitioners’ potential concerns for negative effects, of uncertainty expression may have been overblown. There may be good reasons to still acknowledge experts’ uncertainties, but those merit separate justification and their own empirical tests.
Nakayachi, K. (中谷内 一也) (2018). Effects of providing measures against earthquakes: Experimental studies on the perceived risks of disasters and disaster preparedness intentions in Japan. 地震対策用品を提供することの効果：日本における災害リスク認知と準備行動意図に関する実験的研究 Natural Hazards, 90(3), 1329-1348.
This research examined the effects of providing measures against disasters on recipients’ perceived risks and preparedness intentions by conducting two experimental studies. A provision of a set of emergency food was manipulated in the first experiment. Participants (N = 143) were randomly assigned to the provided condition or non-provided condition. In the second experiment (N = 123), provision of an emergency toilet kit was manipulated. The results of the two experiments consistently indicated that (1) the provision of a measure increased the recipients’ perceived risks of the disaster concerned, (2) it increased their preparedness intentions for the disaster, and (3) it had no effects on perceived risks of or preparedness intentions against disasters unrelated to the measure provided. These results were contrary to the prediction deduced from the protection effect and single action effect. The findings in this study encourage promoting the risk management policy of providing people with disaster measures as the first step in disaster preparedness.
Morimoto, Y. (森本裕子), Yamasaki, S., Ando, S., et al. (2018). Purpose in life and tobacco use among community-dwelling mothers of early adolescents 地域在住の思春期早期児童母親において、人生の意義を感じる程度はタバコ（不）使用と関連する BMJ Open 2018;8:e020586. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020586
Objectives: The rising prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-attributable deaths among women is of worldwide concern. In particular, smoking prevention for mothers in early midlife is a significant international public health goal. A higher sense of purpose in life (PIL) is thought to reduce detrimental health behaviours. However, little is known about the association between a sense of PIL and tobacco use. This study investigates this association among community-dwelling mothers of early adolescents. Design: This population-based cross-sectional study uses a self-reported questionnaire from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey, a large community-based survey conducted in Japan between 2012 and 2015. Setting Participants were randomly recruited from the resident registries of three municipalities in Tokyo, Japan. Participants: A total of 4478 children and their primary parents participated. Responses from 4063 mothers with no missing data were analysed (mean age=42.0 years (SD=4.2)). Measures: Participants’ tobacco use, including the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was documented using a questionnaire. PIL was assessed using a Purpose in Life scale derived from Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scale. Results: Greater PIL was associated with a decreased likelihood of tobacco use, even when adjusted for confounders (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.91). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that PIL was inversely associated with tobacco consumption among mothers. These associations remained after controlling for psychological distress, socioeconomic factors and frequency of alcohol consumption among moderate to heavy smokers (OR=0.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.86), while attenuated among light smokers. Conclusions: Increasing PIL may be a valuable intervention for reducing tobacco use among women in early midlife. This study can contribute to our understanding of the psychology of smoking behaviour and shed light on the targeted intervention to reduce tobacco use among early midlife mothers.
人生に意義を感じる程度（Purpose in life）は、様々な健康指標や健康行動との関連が指摘されています。本研究では、10歳児の母親である中年女性（平均42歳）を対象に、人生に意義を感じる程度と喫煙行動の関連を検討しました。その結果、SESや飲酒、心理的ストレス状態を調整しても、人生に意義を感じる程度が高いほど喫煙が少ないことを明らかにしました。また、先行研究で指摘されていた、心理的ストレス状態が喫煙を促進する効果は、人生に意義を感じる程度を調整すると有意ではありませんでした。
Nozaki, Y. (野崎優樹) (2018). Cross-cultural comparison of the association between trait emotional intelligence and emotion regulation in European-American and Japanese populations. ヨーロッパ系アメリカ人と日本人を対象とした特性情動知能と情動調整の関連の文化比較 Personality and Individual Differences, 130, 150-155. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.04.013
Although a large body of evidence supports trait emotional intelligence as a positive indicator of well-being, the processes that underlie trait emotional intelligence remain unclear. Emotion regulation is considered a core component of trait emotional intelligence. Given that the consequences of emotion regulation strategies differ between European-American and Eastern Asian populations, culture could moderate the association between these strategies and trait emotional intelligence. Two studies examined whether culture moderated the link between trait emotional intelligence and emotion regulation strategies in European-American and East Asian Japanese populations. The results revealed important cultural similarities and differences in the association between trait emotional intelligence and emotion regulation. Regarding cultural similarities, trait emotional intelligence was positively associated with reappraisal in both groups. With respect to cultural differences, trait emotional intelligence was negatively associated with suppression in European-American, but not Japanese, individuals. These findings are consistent with the notion that emotionally intelligent people are more likely to use adaptive strategies and less likely to use maladaptive strategies to regulate their emotion within their own cultural frameworks. Moreover, the current research provided novel insight into the moderating effect of culture on the emotion regulation process underlying the trait emotional intelligence construct.
Uchida, S., Yamamoto, H. (山本仁志), Okada, I., & Sasaki, T. (2018). A Theoretical Approach to Norm Ecosystems : Two Adaptive Architectures of Indirect Reciprocity Show Different Paths to the Evolution of Cooperation. 規範エコシステムへの理論的アプローチ: 二つの適応的アーキテクチャが示す異なる協力の進化への道筋 Frontiers in Physics, 6(February), 14. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2018.00014
Indirect reciprocity is one of the basic mechanisms to sustain mutual cooperation, by which beneficial acts are returned, not by the recipient, but by third parties. This mechanism relies on the ability of individuals to know the past actions of others, and to assess those actions. There are many different systems of assessing others, which can be interpreted as rudimentary social norms (i.e., views on what is “good” or “bad”). In this paper, impacts of different adaptive architectures, i.e.,ways for individuals to adapt to environments, on indirect reciprocity are investigated.We examine two representative architectures: one based on replicator dynamics and the other on genetic algorithm. Different from the replicator dynamics, the genetic algorithm requires describing the mixture of all possible norms in the norm space under consideration. Therefore, we also propose an analytic method to study norm ecosystems in which all possible second order social norms potentially exist and compete. The analysis reveals that the different adaptive architectures show different paths to the evolution of cooperation. Especially we find that so called Stern-Judging, one of the best studied norms in the literature, exhibits distinct behaviors in both architectures.On one hand, in the replicator dynamics, Stern-Judging remains alive and gets a majority steadily when the population reaches a cooperative state. On the other hand, in the genetic algorithm, it gets a majority only temporarily and becomes extinct in the end.
Kambara, A.（神原歩）（2017） Effects of experiencing visual illusion and Susceptibility to biases in one's social judgment 錯視を経験すると、自分の社会的判断や推論の歪みに自覚が高まるか？ Perceptual and Motor Skills, SAGE Open DOI: 10.1177/2158244017745937
Despite the evidence for existing biases in social judgment, people often fail to recognize biases in their own social judgments.
This study investigated whether people become aware of their own susceptibility to various biases by experiencing visual
illusions that challenge confidence in personal perceptions. A total of 88 participants were grouped by whether or not
they gazed at illusory motion graphics and by whether they rated themselves or others on bias susceptibility. Participants
who gazed at visual illusions rated themselves as having more biases in their social judgments than participants who did not
see visual illusions. These findings suggest that bias denial may partially result from insufficient opportunities to recognize
inaccuracies in personal perceptions.
Matsunaga, M., Kawamichi, H., Umemura, T., Hori, R., Shibata, E., Kobayashi, F., Suzuki, K., Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), Noguchi, Y., Ochi, M. (越智美早), Yamasue, H., & Ohira, H. (大平英樹) (2017). Neural and genetic correlates of susceptibility to others' happiness. 他者の幸せに対する影響の受けやすさの神経的および遺伝的要因 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 718. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00718
Happiness is regarded as one of the most fundamental human goals. Given recent reports that positive feelings are contagious (e.g., the presence of a happy person enhances others’ happiness) because of the human ability to empathize (i.e., sharing emotions), empathic ability may be a key factor in increasing one’s own subjective level of happiness. Based on previous studies indicating that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene [HTR2A rs6311 guanine (G) vs. adenine (A)] is associated with sensitivity to emotional stimuli and several mental disorders such as depression, we predicted that the polymorphism might be associated with the effect of sharing happiness. To elucidate the neural and genetic correlates of the effect of sharing happiness, we first performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a “happy feelings” evocation task (emotional event imagination task), during which we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend experiencing a positive-valence event (presence or absence). We recruited young adult women for this fMRI study because empathic ability may be higher in women than in men. Participants felt happier (p < 0.01) and the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network, which spans the medial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, temporal poles, and precuneus, was significantly more active (p < 0.05) in the presence condition than in the absence condition regardless of event valence. Moreover, participants with the GG (p < 0.01) and AG (p < 0.05) genotypes of HTR2A experienced happier feelings as well as greater activation of a part of the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network (p < 0.05) during empathy for happiness (neutral/presence condition) than those with the AA genotype. In a follow-up study with a vignette-based questionnaire conducted in a relatively large sample, male and female participants were presented with the same imagined events wherein their valence and the presence of a friend were manipulated. Results showed genetic differences in happiness-related empathy regardless of sex (p < 0.05). Findings suggest that HTR2A polymorphisms are associated with the effect of sharing happiness by modulating the activity of the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network.
Miyajima, T. (宮島健)*, & Meng, X.* (2017). Experiencing physical warmth affects implicit attitudes and altruistic behavior toward outgroup in females. 物理的温かさの経験は，女性において，外集団に対する潜在的態度と利他行動に影響する BMC research notes. 10:648 (*equal contribution) doi: 10.1186/s13104-017-2972-3
Experiencing physical warmth has been demonstrated to influence interpersonal warmth. However, the effects of this metaphorical link in an intergroup context is not clear. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of physical warmth on implicit attitudes and behavior toward outgroup members in a Japanese–Chinese intergroup context. After touching either a warm or cold cup for 3 min, the Japanese participants were required to complete the single-target implicit association test, which aimed to measure their implicit attitudes toward imagined Chinese people, and to express their willingness to participate in the experiments of a Chinese individual whom they interacted directly without compensation, aiming to measure their prosocial behavior toward a real outgroup member.
The results demonstrated that female participants who touched the warm (vs. cold) cup showed more positive attitudes and helping behavior toward the Chinese individual. Furthermore, the correlation between those attitudes and helping behaviors supports the effects of enhanced implicit attitudes and further suggests that experiencing physical warmth could increase prosocial response to outgroup members in real interactions. However, the male participants showed a reversed, but not statistically significant, effect of physical warmth on the implicit attitude.
Ishii, T. (石井辰典) (2017). Mentalizing, but Not Autistic Traits, Predicts Religious Belief in a Sample of Healthy Japanese Youth. メンタライジング能力が宗教的信念を予測する：健康な日本人青年を対象とした検討 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 8(2), 32-35. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2017.61.
The present research examined the hypothesis that religious belief is derived from humans’ mentalizing ability in the context of East Asia where polytheistic religion is the mainstream. Two studies were conducted with a Japanese healthy sample, and both revealed that contrary to the hypothesis, autistic traits did not predict religious belief, whereas mentalizing predicted increased religious belief as expected. These findings suggest that further empirical and theoretical investigations on the origin of religious belief are needed.
Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男), Li, Y.(李楊), Fermin, A.S.R, Kanai, R., Takagishi, H.(高岸治人), Matsumoto, Y.(松本良恵), Kiyonari, T. (清成透子) & Sakagami, M.(2017) Behavioural Differences and Neural Substrates of Altruistic and Spiteful Punishment 利他的と攻撃的な罰の行動的差異と神経基盤 Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 14654 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-15188-w
Altruistic punishment following social norm violations promotes human cooperation. However, experimental evidence indicates that some forms of punishment are spiteful rather than altruistic. Using two types of punishment games and seven non-strategic games, we identified strong behavioural differences between altruistic and spiteful punishers. Altruistic punishers who rejected unfair offers in the ultimatum game and punished norm violators in the third-party punishment game behaved pro-socially in various non-strategic games. Spiteful punishers who rejected unfair offers in the ultimatum game but did not punish norm violators in the third-party punishment game behaved selfishly in non-strategic games. In addition, the left caudate nucleus was larger in spiteful punishers than in altruistic punishers. These findings are in contrast to the previous assumption that altruistic punishers derive pleasure from enforcement of fairness norms, and suggest that spiteful punishers derive pleasure from seeing the target experience negative consequences.
Jayles, B., Kim, H. (金ヘリン), Escobedo, R., Cezerad, S., Blanchet, A., Kameda, T. (亀田達也), Sire, C., & Theraulaz, G. (2017). How social information can improve estimation accuracy in human groups. 社会情報は人間集団における推定の精度をどのように向上させ得るか Proceesings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Early Edition (Nov. 8, 2017). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1703696114
In our digital and connected societies, the development of social networks, online shopping, and reputation systems raises the questions of how individuals use social information and how it affects their decisions. We report experiments performed in France and Japan, in which subjects could update their estimates after having received information from other subjects. We measure and model the impact of this social information at individual and collective scales. We observe and justify that, when individuals have little prior knowledge about a quantity, the distribution of the logarithm of their estimates is close to a Cauchy distribution. We find that social influence helps the group improve its properly defined collective accuracy. We quantify the improvement of the group estimation when additional controlled and reliable information is provided, unbeknownst to the subjects. We show that subjects’ sensitivity to social influence permits us to define five robust behavioral traits and increases with the difference between personal and group estimates. We then use our data to build and calibrate a model of collective estimation to analyze the impact on the group performance of the quantity and quality of information received by individuals. The model quantitatively reproduces the distributions of estimates and the improvement of collective performance and accuracy observed in our experiments. Finally, our model predicts that providing a moderate amount of incorrect information to individuals can counterbalance the human cognitive bias to systematically underestimate quantities and thereby improve collective performance.
Ozono, H.（大薗博記）, Kamijo, Y., & Shimizu, K. (2017). Punishing second-order free riders before first-order free riders: The effect of pool punishment priority on cooperation 1次のフリーライダーより先に2次のフリーライダーを罰するべし：プール罰の優先順位が協力に及ぼす効果 Scientific Reports, 7, 14379. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13918-8
Second-order free riders, who do not owe punishment cost to first-order free riders in public goods games, lead to low cooperation. Previous studies suggest that for stable cooperation, it is critical to have a pool punishment system with second-order punishment, which gathers resources from group members and punishes second-order free riders as well as first-order free riders. In this study, we focus on the priority of punishment. We hypothesize that the pool punishment system that prioritizes second-order punishment is more likely to achieve cooperation than the system that prioritizes first-order punishment, because the former is more likely to obtain sufficient punishment resources. In the experiments, we compare four pool punishment systems: 1To2 (first-order punishment to second-order punishment), 2To1 (second-order punishment to first-order punishment), 1ONLY (first-order punishment only), and 2ONLY (second-order punishment only). We find that the 2To1 and 2ONLY systems can receive more support than the 1To2 and 1ONLY systems and only the 2To1 system can achieve high cooperation. However, the effect of priority of second-order punishment is observed only when the punishment ratio (PR) is low (Experiment 1), not high (Experiment 2), in which the punishment resource is relatively abundant.
Bjornsdottir, R. T., Tskhay, K. O., Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Rule, N. O. (in press). Cultural differences in perceiving and processing emotions: A holistic approach to person perception. 感情の理解と処理における文化差：対人知覚の包括的なアプローチ Culture and Brain. doi: 10.1007/s40167-017-0053-z
East Asians tend towards holistic styles of thinking whereas Westerners generally think more analytically. Recent work has shown that Western participants perceive emotional expressions in a somewhat holistic manner, however. Specifically, Westerners interpret emotional facial expressions differently when presented with a body displaying a congruent versus incongruent emotional expression. Here, we examined how processing these face-body combinations varies according to cultural differences in thinking style. Consistent with their proclivity towards contextual focus, Japanese perceivers focused more on the body when judging the emotions of face-body composites. Moreover, in line with their greater tendency towards holistic perceptual processing, we found that pairing facial expressions of emotion with emotionally congruent bodies facilitated Japanese participants’ recognition of faces’ emotions to a greater degree than it did for Canadians. Similarly, incongruent face-body combinations impaired facial emotion recognition more for Japanese than Canadian participants. These findings extend work on cultural differences in emotion recognition from interpersonal to intrapersonal contexts with implications for intercultural understanding.
Anderson, C. A., Suzuki, K.(鈴木佳苗), Swing, E. L., Groves, C. L., Gentile, D. A., Prot, S., Lam, C. P., Sakamoto, A.(坂元 章), Horiuchi, Y.(堀内由樹子), Krahé, B., Jelic, M., Liuqing, W., Toma, R., Warburton, W. A., Zhang, X., Tajima, S.(田島 祥), Qing, F., & Petrescu, P. (2017). Media violence and other aggression risk factors in seven nations. 7か国におけるメディア暴力と他の攻撃リスク要因 Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(7), 986-998. doi:10.1177/0146167217703064
Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.
Komoto, Y., Shoun, A.(祥雲暁代), Akiyama, K., Sakamoto, A.(坂元章) et al. (2017). Development and validation of the Pachinko/Pachi-Slot Playing Ambivalence Scale. パチンコ・パチスロ遊技両価性尺度の開発と妥当化 Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health, 7(3) . DOI: 10.1186/s40405-017-0023-6
A scale aimed at measuring ambivalence among people with pachinko/pachi-slot playing disorder, the Pachinko/Pachi-Slot Playing Ambivalence Scale (PPAS), was developed and its reliability and validity ascertained.
A total of 522 participants (average year: 48.0) who were residing in Tokyo Metropolitan Area, and had played pachinko within the previous year completed questions relating to demographics, four gambling-related scales (including South Oaks Gambling Screen) and two general ambivalence scales (including Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire).
Internal consistency (α = 0.87) and test–retest reliability (r = 0.66) were confirmed. The PPAS’s score was associated with each related scale’s score (r = 0.37–0.62).
The PPAS was shown to be consistent with previous scales and useful in clinical settings
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2018). Relationships between two types of reputational concern and altruistic behavior in daily life. 2種類の評判への関心と日常の利他行動の関連. Personality and Individual Differences, 121, 19-24. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.09.003
Although many studies have shown that reputational cues promote altruism, few studies have focused on individual differences. The present study provides novel evidence indicating that the relationship between reputational concern and altruistic behavior differs according to the type of reputational concern involved and the recipients of altruism. Specifically, the relationships between individual differences of two reputational concerns (i.e., praise seeking and rejection avoidance) and the frequency with which participants exhibited altruistic behavior toward various individuals (i.e., family members, friends/acquaintances, and strangers) were examined. As predicted, neither type of reputational concern was significantly associated with altruistic behavior toward family members. This is understandable, as altruistic behavior toward familiar people is unlikely to lead to a good reputation. Conversely, praise seeking predicted altruistic behavior toward friends/acquaintances and strangers, whereas rejection avoidance did not. These findings are consistent with recent literature suggesting the effectiveness of positive reputation systems to promote generosity, relative to negative reputation systems. Furthermore, rejection avoidance was negatively associated with altruistic behavior toward strangers; we discussed the possibility that this was because such behavior was not very normative. Our findings provide useful insight for future studies examining the relationship between reputation and altruistic behavior.
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2017). The norm-dependent effect of watching eyes on donation. "見つめる目"の規範依存的効果の検討. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(5), 659-666. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.05.003
Although many previous studies have shown that eye-like images promote generosity, the mechanism of this “watching eyes effect” remains unclear. One possible cause is the concern for a good reputation as a generous person, while the other is the concerns for a bad reputation as a norm violator. To elucidate which of these two concerns is the main influencer, the present study conducted a laboratory experiment that investigated whether the watching eyes effect changed depending on social norms. If the concern for a good reputation leads to the effect, prosocial behavior would be more likely in the presence of watching eyes, regardless of the social norms involved. However, if the concern for avoiding a bad reputation as a norm violator leads to the effect, watching eyes promote prosocial behavior only in the existence of prosocial norms. In the original study, participants were asked to make a charitable donation under conditions in which eye-like images either were or were not present. In addition to the eye-like images, we manipulated prosocial norms by informing each participant of either high or low mean donation amounts given by previous participants. We found that watching eyes promoted donations only when a prosocial norm existed. This supports the idea that the watching eyes effect is caused by a concern for avoiding a bad reputation from violating norms. However, in a replication study, we were unable to replicate the original results; watching eyes did not promote generosity regardless of the norm. Taken together, we discussed the moderation effect of norms and the possibility of other moderators.
Kawamoto, T. (川本大史) & Furutani, K. (古谷嘉一郎) (2018). The mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty on the relationships between perfectionism dimensions and psychological adjustment/maladjustment among mothers 母親の完全主義次元と心理適応・不適応との関連に対する不確実さ不耐性の媒介効果 Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 62-67. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.10.008
The present study investigated a possible mediating effect of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on the relationship between perfectionism and psychological adjustment/maladjustment as well as the unique and common effects of perfectionism dimensions—personal standards (PS) and concern over mistakes (CM)—on these constructs. Five hundred mothers participated an online survey, completing measures of perfectionism (PS and CM), IU, and psychological adjustment/maladjustment (life satisfaction, depression, and rearing stress). We found that both PS and CM were positively correlated with IU. Mediation analyses indicated that IU mediated the relationship between CM and psychological adjustment/maladjustment regardless of whether PS were partialled out. In contrast, IU had a suppression effect on the relationship between PS and psychological adjustment/maladjustment, but only when CM was not partialled out. Commonality regression analysis revealed that the unique effect of PS on IU (< 0.1%) was much smaller than the common effects of PS and CM on IU (12.3%). In addition, CM had stronger unique effects on all variables than did PS. These findings highlight the importance of investigating both the unique and common effects of perfectionism dimensions on outcome variables. Our findings further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relationships between perfectionism dimensions and psycho- logical adjustment/maladjustment.
Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Mojaverian, T., Masuno, K., & Kim, H. S. (2017). Cultural Differences in Motivation for Seeking Social Support and the Emotional Consequences of Receiving Support: The Role of Influence and Adjustment Goals. ソーシャルサポートを求める際の動機づけとそれを受け取ることの感情的な帰結における文化差：影響と調整志向の役割 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(9), 1442-1456. doi: 10.1177/0022022117731091
Previous research suggests that the benefits of different types of social support depend on cultural background. However, cultural variations in the underlying motivations for seeking social support and the emotional implications of receiving support have not yet been clearly explored. We hypothesized and found that European Americans emphasized the motivation for self-esteem as a factor in deciding to seek explicit social support (e.g., advice, emotional comfort), whereas Japanese emphasized relational concerns as a factor in deciding to seek implicit social support (e.g., the emotional comfort experienced without disclosing one’s problems). Furthermore, European Americans anticipated experiencing strong feelings of self-esteem and pride regarding receiving support, whereas Japanese anticipated experiencing strong feelings of shame and guilt. Additionally, influence goals mediated cultural differences in the motivation for self-esteem and the experience of self-esteem and pride, whereas adjustment goals mediated cultural differences in relational concerns and the experience of shame and guilt.
Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Miwa, K., Rashid, M., Lee, H., & Mehdi, R. (2017). One label or Two? Linguistic Influences on the Similarity Judgment of Objects Between English and Japanese Speakers. 1つのラベルか、それとも2つのラベルか? 英語と日本語話者間での物の類似性判断における言語の影響 Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1637 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01637
Recent findings have re-examined the linguistic influence on cognition and perception, while identifying evidence that supports the Whorfian hypothesis. We examine how English and Japanese speakers perceive similarity of pairs of objects, by using two sets of stimuli: one in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in English, but only one linguistic category applies in Japanese; and another in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in Japanese, but only one applies in English. We conducted four studies and tested different groups of participants in each of them. In Study 1, we asked participants to name the two objects before engaging in the similarity judgment task. Here, we expected a strong linguistic effect. In Study 2, we asked participants to engage in the same task without naming, where we assumed that the condition is close enough to our daily visual information processing where language is not necessarily prompted. We further explored whether the language still influences the similarity perception by asking participants to engage in the same task basing on the visual similarity (Study 3) and the functional similarity (Study 4). The results overall indicated that English and Japanese speakers perceived the two objects to be more similar when they were in the same linguistic categories than when they were in different linguistic categories in their respective languages. Implications for research testing the Whorfian hypothesis and the requirement for methodological development beyond behavioral measures are discussed.
Takano, Y., Ukezono, M., Nakashima, S. F. (中嶋智史), Takahashi, N., & Hironaka, N. (2017). Learning of efficient behaviour in spatial exploration through observation of behaviour of conspecific in laboratory rats. 実験室ラットの空間探索における他個体の行動の観察を通じた効率的行動の学習 Royal Society Open Science, 4, 170121 doi: 10.1098/rsos.170121
Recent studies have suggested that rodent behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of surrounding conspecifics (e.g. emotional contagion and prosocial behaviour). However, little is known about deferred imitation and complex observational learning in rats. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether rats can learn from another rat’s experiences. In a maze, observer rats watched the foraging behaviour of other rats (demonstrators) and then foraged in turn. The results showed that demonstrators explored inefficiently, but observers explored more efficiently after observing inefficient exploration by the demonstrators. This observational learning probably involved the acquisition of an efficient strategy through spatial exploration.
Miyajima, T. (宮島健), & Yamaguchi, H. (山口裕幸) (2017). I Want to but I Won't: Pluralistic Ignorance Inhibits Intentions to Take Paternity Leave in Japan. 取りたいけど取らない: 多元的無知が日本における男性の育児休業の取得意図を抑制する Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1508. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01508
The number of male employees who take paternity leave in Japan has been low in past decades. However, the majority of male employees actually wish to take paternity leave if they were to have a child. Previous studies have demonstrated that the organizational climate in workplaces is the major determinant of male employees’ use of family-friendly policies, because males are often stigmatized and fear receiving negative evaluation from others. While such normative pressure might be derived from prevailing social practices relevant to people’s expectation of social roles (e.g., “Men make houses, women make homes”), these social practices are often perpetuated even after the majority of group members have ceased to support them. The perpetuation of this unpopular norm could be caused by the social psychological phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance. While researches have explored people’s beliefs about gender roles from various perspectives, profound understanding of these beliefs regarding gender role norms, and the accuracy of others’ beliefs remains to be attained. The current research examined the association between pluralistic ignorance and the perpetually low rates of taking paternity leave in Japan. Specifically, Study 1 (n = 299) examined Japanese male employees’ (ages ranging from the 20 s to the 40 s) attitudes toward paternity leave and to estimate attitudes of other men of the same age, as well as behavioral intentions (i.e., desire and willingness) to take paternity leave if they had a child in the future. The results demonstrated that male employees overestimated other men’s negative attitudes toward paternity leave. Moreover, those who had positive attitudes toward taking leave and attributed negative attitudes to others were less willing to take paternity leave than were those who had positive attitudes and believed others shared those attitudes, although there was no significant difference between their desires to take paternity leave. Study 2 (n = 425) replicated these results and further indicated that they could not be explained by the participants’ needs to be socially desirable. Together, our findings suggest that pluralistic ignorance occurs in the context of taking paternity leave in Japanese men, and this leads to the low use of available paternity leave.
Kosugi,K.E.（小杉考司）(2017). Asymmetrical triadic relationship based on the structural difficulty. 構造的困難度に基づく非対称な三者関係の分析 Behaviormetrika,44(2),1--17. doi: 10.1007/s41237-017-0033-9
Using Bayesian inference, this study aims to estimate the magnitude of the cognitive load when a person perceives asymmetric social relations. Some empirical evidence relating to balance theory has shown that a balanced state is comparatively easier to memorize than an unbalanced one. In this study, since a balanced state is defined by structural complexity, an experimental hypothesis was set whereby asymmetric social relationships have different difficulty levels depending on structural complexity. The balanced state of an asymmetric relation as structural difficulty is formally derived from the eigenvalue structure of a Hermitian matrix. Asymmetric triadic relations are modeled as featuring three kinds of structural difficulties according to the eigenvalue decomposition of the Hermitian matrix and pattern-specific difficulties. The differences among the structural difficulties were not sufficiently significant to exceed pattern-specific difficulties, but the Bayes factor of the informational hypothesis of this research yielded positive effects.
Kawamoto, T. (川本大史) (2017). What happens in your mind and brain when you are excluded from a social activity? 社会的に排斥されるとあなたのこころと脳で何が起こるのだろうか？ Frontiers for Young Minds, 5:46. doi: 10.3389/frym.2017.00046
In school and in everyday life, we sometimes experience rejection by classmates, or we might see someone being excluded from an activity. What do excluded individuals feel? How does the brain process information about being socially excluded? In the past few decades, psychologists and social neuroscientists have investigated the influence of social exclusion on our mind, brain, and behavior. Social exclusion is a complex and ambiguous phenomenon, and therefore, we process information about it dynamically and often cope with it flexibly. In this article, I have described the dynamic effects of social exclusion on our mind, brain, and behavior by developing a model of what happens in the brain and the actions people take upon experiencing social exclusion.
Tanibe, T. (谷辺哲史), Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2017). We perceive a mind in a robot when we help it. ロボットを助けるとロボットに心を感じる PLoS ONE, 12(7): e0180952.
People sometimes perceive a mind in inorganic entities like robots. Psychological research has shown that mind perception correlates with moral judgments and that immoral behaviors (i.e., intentional harm) facilitate mind perception toward otherwise mindless victims. We conducted a vignette experiment (N = 129; Mage = 21.8 ± 6.0 years) concerning human-robot interactions and extended previous research’s results in two ways. First, mind perception toward the robot was facilitated when it received a benevolent behavior, although only when participants took the perspective of an actor. Second, imagining a benevolent interaction led to more positive attitudes toward the robot, and this effect was mediated by mind perception. These results help predict what people’s reactions in future human-robot interactions would be like, and have implications for how to design future social rules about the treatment of robots.
Matsunaga, M., Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), Noguchi, Y., Ochi, M. (越智美早), & Yamasue, H. (2017). Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness. 唾液セロトニンと幸せの社会的共有との関連 PloS ONE, 12(7), e0180391. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180391
Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants’ happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers’ attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.
Oishi, S., Yagi, A. (八木彩乃), Komiya, A. (小宮あすか), Kohlbacher, F., Kusumi, T. (楠見孝), & Ishii, K (石井敬子). (2017). Does a major earthquake change job preferences and human values? 大地震は職業の好みや人間の価値観を変えるのか？ European Journal of Personality, 31, 258-265. doi: 10.1002/per.2102
Does a major natural disaster change human values and job preferences? The present studies examined whether the experience of a natural disaster experience shifts people’s values and job preferences toward pro-social directions. In Study 1 (cross-temporal analysis), we analysed job application data in nine cities in Japan over 12 years and found that the popularity of pro-social occupations (e.g. firefighter) increased after the Great Hanshin–Awaji Earthquake in 1995, in particular the area hit hardest by the quake. In Study 2 (a large national survey), we found that Japanese respondents who had experienced a major earthquake are more likely to hold a pro-social job than those who never experienced a major earthquake. Together, the current findings suggest that the experience of a major natural disaster shifts human values from the egocentric to the allocentric direction, which in turn could result in a social structure that values pro-social occupations.
Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介）, & Yamaguchi, C.（山口千晶） (2017). People are more generous to a partner who pays attention to them. Evolutionary Psychology, 15 (1). doi: 10.1177/1474704916687310
People use relatively low-cost signals to maintain close relationships, in which they engage in costlier exchanges of tangible support. Paying attention to a partner allows an individual to communicate his or her interest in the relationship with the partner. Previous studies have revealed that when Person A pays attention to Person B, B’s feeling of intimacy toward A increases. If social attention strengthens the bond between A and B, it is predicted that A’s attention will also increase B’s generous behavior toward A. This study tested this prediction. Participants first engaged in a collaborative task using computers. In the task, the putative partner (a computer program) either paid or did not pay attention to participants (high attention condition vs. low attention condition). In the control condition, the partner could not choose when to pay attention to participants. They then played three rounds of the dictator game with the partner. Confirming the previous finding, perceived intimacy was highest in the high attention condition, in the middle in the control condition, and lowest in the low attention condition. More importantly, participants in the high attention condition decided to give more resources to their partner than those in the low attention condition (but the difference between the high attention condition and the control condition was not significant). In addition, self-reported intimacy was positively correlated with the resource allocated to the partner. The results of this study demonstrated that social attention fosters a partner’s generosity.
Yamaguchi, M.（山口真奈）, Smith, A.（スミス，アダム）, & Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介） (2017). Loneliness predicts insensitivity to partner commitment. Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 200-207. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.047
People attend to their partners’ pro-relationship behaviors (or commitment signals) which in turn leads to a positive adjustment in perceived strength of interpersonal bonds. This bond-confirming effect is stronger when the commitment signal entails some high cost (e.g., receiving an expensive birthday present), and by contrast, it is weaker when the commitment signal entails a low cost (e.g., receiving a wish of “Happy Birthday”). The present study explored how loneliness moderates sensitivity to commitment signals as well as their absence (i.e., situations where partners fail to signal commitment despite the demands of the situation). Studies with a Japanese student sample (Study 1), a Japanese community sample (Study 2), and an American sample drawn from users of Amazon Mechanical Turk (Study 3) found that loneliness is associated with an insensitivity to commitment signals: The lonelier the participant, the less likely he or she was to positively adjust perceived bond strength in response to a commitment signal. This relative insensitivity was observed irrespective of the costliness of the signal. On the other hand, loneliness did not predict differences in sensitivity to the absence of commitment signals. Implications of these results for the loneliness literature are discussed.
Kusumi, T.（楠見 孝）, Hirayama, R., & Kashima, Y.(2017). Risk Perception and Risk Talk: The Case of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Radiation Risk. リスクの認知と会話：福島原発事故による放射線リスク Risk Analysis: An International Journal. (電子版) doi:10.1111/risa.12784
Individuals’ perceptions and their interpersonal communication about a risk event, or risk talk, can play a significant role in the formation of societal responses to the risk event. As they formulate their risk opinions and speak to others, risk information can circulate through their social networks and contribute to the construction of their risk information environment. In the present study, Japanese citizens’ risk perception and risk talk were examined in the context of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear radiation risk. We hypothesized and found that the risk information environment and risk literacy (i.e., competencies to understand and use risk information) interact to influence their risk perception and risk talk. In particular, risk literacy tends to stabilize people’s risk perceptions and their risk communications. Nevertheless, there were some subtle differences between risk perception and communication, suggesting the importance of further examination of interpersonal risk communication and its role in the societal responses to risk events.
Shiraki, Y.（白木優馬）& Igarashi, T.（五十嵐祐） (2017). We Can’t Return Evil for Good: The Comparison between Direct and Indirect Reciprocity. 恩を仇で返せない：直接互恵性と間接互恵性の比較 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 8(1), 4-7.
There are two distinct evolutionary mechanisms of altruistic behavior: direct and indirect reciprocity. Humans are motivated not only to reciprocate benefits to benefactors but also to behave altruistically for the maintenance or improvement of their reputation. This study compared the two evolutionary mechanisms of altruistic behavior. Three scenario-based experiments on diverse samples (Japanese undergraduates in Experiment 1, Japanese crowdsourcing workers in Experiment 2, and crowdsourcing workers worldwide in Experiment 3) were conducted by manipulating (1) reciprocity between participants and a colleague (reciprocal or non-reciprocal) and (2) the colleague’s reputation in the workplace (good or bad). When participants received a reciprocal request from their colleague to help, they tended to accept it, even if the colleague had a bad reputation among others. On the other hand, participants were less accepting of a non-reciprocal request from a colleague with a bad reputation than a colleague with a good reputation. These results clearly indicate that humans prioritize the maintenance of direct reciprocal relationships over group-based reputations.
Fugate, J. M. B., Gendron, M., Nakashima, S. F. (中嶋智史), & Barrett, L. F. (2017). Emotion Words: Adding Face Value. 感情語：顔の意味を付加する Emotion.
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants’ abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d′) to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer “yes”) when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory.
Ozono, H.（大薗博記）, Kamijo, Y., & Shimizu, K. (2016). Institutionalize reciprocity to overcome the public goods provision problem 互恵性の制度化による公共財供給問題の解決 PLoS ONE, 11(6), e0154321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154321
Cooperation is fundamental to human societies, and one of the important paths for its emergence and maintenance is reciprocity. In prisoner’s dilemma (PD) experiments, reciprocal strategies are often effective at attaining and maintaining high cooperation. In many public goods (PG) games or n-person PD experiments, however, reciprocal strategies are not successful at engendering cooperation. In the present paper, we attribute this difficulty to a coordination problem against free riding among reciprocators: Because it is difficult for the reciprocators to coordinate their behaviors against free riders, this may lead to inequality among players, which will demotivate them from cooperating in future rounds. We propose a new mechanism, institutionalized reciprocity (IR), which refers to embedding the reciprocal strategy as an institution (i.e., institutionalizing the reciprocal strategy). We experimentally demonstrate that IR can prevent groups of reciprocators from falling into coordination failure and achieve high cooperation in PG games. In conclusion, we argue that a natural extension of the present study will be to investigate the possibility of IR to serve as a collective punishment system.
Ozono, H.（大薗博記）, Jin, N.（神信人）, Watabe, M.（渡部幹）, & Shimizu, K. (2016). Solving the second-order free rider problem in a public goods game: An experiment using a leader support system 公共財ゲームにおける2次的フリーライダー問題の解決：リーダーサポートシステムによる実験 Scientific Reports, 6, 38349. doi: 10.1038/srep38349
Punishment of non-cooperators—free riders—can lead to high cooperation in public goods games (PGG). However, second-order free riders, who do not pay punishment costs, reduce the effectiveness of punishment. Here we introduce a “leader support system,” in which one group leader can freely punish group followers using capital pooled through the support of group followers. In our experiment, participants engage in three stages repeatedly: a PGG stage in which followers decide to cooperate for their group; a support stage in which followers decide whether to support the leader; and a punishment stage in which the leader can punish any follower. We compare a support-present condition with a no-support condition, in which there is an external source for the leader’s punishment. The results show that punishment occurs more frequently in the support-present condition than the no-support condition. Within the former, both higher cooperation and higher support for a leader are achieved under linkage-type leaders—who punish both non-cooperators and non-supporters. In addition, linkage-type leaders themselves earn higher profits than other leader types because they withdraw more support. This means that leaders who effectively punish followers could increase their own benefits and the second-order free rider problem would be solved.
Yamagishi, T. (山岸俊男), Matsumoto, Y.(松本良恵), Kiyonari, T.(清成透子), Takagishi, H.(高岸治人), Li, Y.(李楊), Kanai, R., & Sakagami, M. (2017). Response time in economic games reflects different types of decision conflict for prosocial and proself individuals 経済ゲームにおける反応時間は向社会的と向自己的個体の決定コンフリクトの違いを反映する Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America (Published online before print May 30, 2017) doi: 10.1073/pnas.1608877114
Behavioral and neuroscientific studies explore two pathways through which internalized social norms promote prosocial behavior. One pathway involves internal control of impulsive selfishness, and the other involves emotion-based prosocial preferences that are translated into behavior when they evade cognitive control for pursuing self-interest. We measured 443 participants’ overall prosocial behavior in four economic games. Participants’ predispositions [social value orientation (SVO)] were more strongly reflected in their overall game behavior when they made decisions quickly than when they spent a longer time. Prosocially (or selfishly) predisposed participants behaved less prosocially (or less selfishly) when they spent more time in decision making, such that their SVO prosociality yielded limited effects in actual behavior in their slow decisions. The increase (or decrease) in slower decision makers was prominent among consistent prosocials (or proselfs) whose strong preference for prosocial (or proself) goals would make it less likely to experience conflict between prosocial and proself goals. The strong effect of RT on behavior in consistent prosocials (or proselfs) suggests that conflict between prosocial and selfish goals alone is not responsible for slow decisions. Specifically, we found that contemplation of the risk of being exploited by others (social risk aversion) was partly responsible for making consistent prosocials (but not consistent proselfs) spend longer time in decision making and behave less prosocially. Conflict between means rather than between goals (immediate versus strategic pursuit of self-interest) was suggested to be responsible for the time-related increase in consistent proselfs’ prosocial behavior. The findings of this study are generally in favor of the intuitive cooperation model of prosocial behavior.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二). (2017). Temporal changes in individualism and their ramification in Japan: Rising individualism and conflicts with persisting collectivism. 日本における個人主義傾向の経時的変化とその心理的帰結：増加する個人主義と維持された集団主義との葛藤 Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 695.
Many studies have shown that American culture has become more individualistic over time. However, it was unclear whether other cultures, especially East Asian cultures, have also shifted toward greater individualism. Therefore, this article reviewed studies investigating temporal changes in individualism in Japan and their ramifications on psychology and behavior. Japan has experienced rapid and dramatic economic growth and urbanization and has adopted more social systems based on individualistic concepts in various contexts (e.g., workplace, school). Recent studies have suggested that, along with these socioeconomic changes, Japanese culture has become more individualistic over time. Specifically, the divorce rate increased and household size decreased. Moreover, people give more unique names to their children and dogs, and individualistic words such as “individual” and “uniqueness” appear more frequently in newspapers. Furthermore, social values became more individualistic. Yet, it has also been shown that some collectivistic values still remain. As a result, people have difficulty in adapting to this coexistence, which injures interpersonal relationships and well-being. This paper discussed how Japanese culture changed over time and how such changes affected Japanese psychology and behavior.
Ishii, K. (石井健一) (2017). A Comparative Study between Japanese, US, Taiwanese, and Chinese Social Networking Site Users: Self-Disclosure and Network Homogeneity. (日本、米国、台湾、中国のSNS利用者の比較―自己開示とネットワークの同質性) In Ana Serrano Telleria (ed), Between the Public and Private in Mobile Communication, New York: Routledge, pp.155-174. ISBN-13: 978-1138225558
This study compares Facebook users in Japan, the US, and Taiwan, and users of similar SNSs in China, focusing on their self-disclosure and network characteristics. An online questionnaire survey was conducted in these four countries in 2012/2013. Results indicate that mobile device users use SNS more frequently than desktop/laptop PC users. Results also indicate that cultural differences in SNS use were observed. Across these four countries, the Japanese have the smallest number of Facebook friends; the highest level of homogeneity in their friendship network; the highest proportion of offline friends; are least likely to disclose personally identifiable information; and most frequently read and post messages on Facebook. In contrast, the Chinese are most likely to disclose personal attribute information and Taiwanese are most likely to disclose personal information on SNS. The Japanese also show a positive and significant correlation between network homogeneity, number of Facebook friends, and disclosure of personal information, which suggests that they depend on offline homogeneous relationships more than SNS users in other countries for their Facebook friending process. Structural equation model results indicate that cultural differences in self-disclosure on SNS between Japanese, Taiwanese, and Chinese users are partially explained by relational mobility.
Aiba, M. (相羽美幸), Tachikawa, H., Fukuoka,Y. (福岡欣治), Lebowitz, A., Shiratori, Y., Doi, N., & Matsui, Y. (松井豊) (2017). Standardization of Brief Inventory of Social Support Exchange Network (BISSEN) in Japan. 日本における簡易ソーシャル・サポート・ネットワーク尺度 (BISSEN) の標準化 Psychiatry Research, 253, 364-372. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.03.056
This study describes the Brief Inventory of Social Support Exchange Network (BISSEN) as a standardized brief inventory measuring various aspects of social support. We confirmed the reliability and validity for function and direction of support and standardized the BISSEN. For Sample 1, a stratified random sampling method was used to select 5200 residents in Japan. We conducted mail surveys and responses were retrieved from 2274 participants (collection rate 43.7%). Participants completed a questionnaire packet that included BISSEN, suicidal ideation, depression, support seeking, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Sample 2 surveys for test-retest reliability were conducted on 23 residents at approximately two-week intervals. Participants were asked about gender, age, and BISSEN. First, we assessed the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct, convergent, and concurrent validity. McDonald’s omega (.73–.92) and test-retest correlations (.78–.85) demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Depression, support seeking, and MSPSS were significantly correlated with all scores of BISSEN. The non-suicidal ideation group had significantly more support compared to the suicidal ideation group. Therefore, function and direction of support in BISSEN had sufficient reliability and validity. Next, we standardized BISSEN using Z-scores and percentile rank with respect to each 12 norm groups by age and gender.
8項目で受領サポートと提供サポートをどちらも測定できるソーシャル・サポート・ネットワーク尺度を作成し、性年代別に標準化しました。標準化の換算表はSupplemental Materialsに入っています。日本語の項目は、精神医学55巻9号pp.863-873「簡易ソーシャル・サポート・ネットワーク尺度 (BISSEN) の開発」をご覧ください。