Yoshiya Furukawa (古川善也), Ken'ichiro Nakashima (中島健一郎), Tsukawaki, R. (塚脇涼太)& Yasuko Morinaga (森永康子) (in press). Guilt as a signal informing us of a threat to our morality. 道徳性への脅威を知らせるシグナルとしての罪悪感 Current Psychology doi: 10.1007/s12144-019-0144-4
Some studies have shown the possibility that people feel guilt not only due to interpersonal problems but also when experiencing threats to their own internal morality (e.g. Eskine et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(5), 947-950, 2013), whereas other studies have shown that guilt-induced behaviours can restore individuals’ sense of moral person (e.g. Gneezy et al. Management Science, 58(1), 179–187, 2012; Zhong et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 859–862, 2010). These findings suggest that guilt can strongly reflect how much individuals deviate from what they perceive to be adequate moral person. Therefore, we proposed that guilt works as an alert system that signals people about threats to their morality. We used the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464-1480, 1998) to investigate if an individual’s moral self decreased in the situation where that individual felt guilt. Results showed that implicit moral self in the guilt condition was lower than that in the control condition when controlling for individual variation in moral self. Our findings provide a new perspective on the function of guilt and generate new hypotheses about the relationship between guilt and behaviours.
Furukawa, Y. (古川善也), Nakashima, K. (中島健一郎), & Morinaga, Y. (森永康子) (2019). Guilt Signals a Crisis of Rejection: Two Types of Individual Differences Related to Social Rejection Have Dissimilar Effects on Guilt and Compensatory Behavior. 罪悪感は排斥の脅威をシグナルする：2つのタイプの社会的排斥に関する個人差が罪悪感と補償行動に異なる効果を持つ。 Japanese Psychological Research, 61(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1111/jpr.12199
We investigated whether feelings of guilt, which signal crises in interpersonal relationships (Baumeister, Stillwell, & Heatherton, 1994), are differently evoked by two types of individual differences in social rejection: rejection detection capability (Kawamoto, Nittono, & Ura, 2015) and rejection sensitivity (Downey & Feldman, 1996). Using the hypothetical scenario method, we found that in situations with a potential risk of being rejected as a consequence of causing another person harm (i.e., harm‐present condition), participants with higher rejection detection capability felt more guilt and engaged in more compensatory behavior towards the victims. In addition, guilt mediated the relationship between rejection detection capability and compensatory behavior. Conversely, in situations with no potential risk of being rejected (i.e., harm‐absent condition), participants with higher rejection sensitivity felt more guilt but did not engage in much compensatory behavior. These results suggest that individual differences in social rejection foster different responses to specific threats.
Toyokawa, W. (豊川 航), Whalen, A. & Laland, NK. (2019). Social learning strategies regulate the wisdom and madness of interactive crowds. 社会的学習戦略が群知能と集合愚とを制御する Nature Human Behaviour, doi: 10.1038/s41562-018-0518-x
Why groups of individuals sometimes exhibit collective ‘wisdom’ and other times maladaptive ‘herding’ is an enduring conundrum. Here we show that this apparent conflict is regulated by the social learning strategies deployed. We examined the patterns of human social learning through an interactive online experiment with 699 participants, varying both task uncertainty and group size, then used hierarchical Bayesian model fitting to identify the individual learning strategies exhibited by participants. Challenging tasks elicit greater conformity among individuals, with rates of copying increasing with group size, leading to high probabilities of herding among large groups confronted with uncertainty. Conversely, the reduced social learning of small groups, and the greater probability that social information would be accurate for less-challenging tasks, generated ‘wisdom of the crowd’ effects in other circumstances. Our model-based approach provides evidence that the likelihood of collective intelligence versus herding can be predicted, resolving a long-standing puzzle in the literature.
Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2018). Impact of consumer power on consumers' reactions to corporate transgression. 企業不祥事への消費者の反応に勢力が与える影響 PLoS ONE, 13(5), e0196819. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196819
We addressed how individuals’ power influences their judgments regarding corporate transgressions. Based on the Situated Focus Theory of Power, which theorizes that powerful people respond more in accordance to circumstantial factors, we tested the interaction of power and the type of corporate discourse offered by the accused company. Across two studies (overall N = 216), we experimentally primed power (Study 1) and manipulated participants’ sense of direct control over the company (Study 2). We consistently found an interaction effect of power and corporate discourse on people’s negative attitudes toward the company—particularly on the unwillingness to use the company’s products. Particularly, high-power individuals were prone to strongly vary their attitudes based on the mitigative/non-mitigative nature of the discourse, while those low in power were unsusceptible to the type of discourse. The results suggest how the potential rise of consumer power in society may critically influence the consumer-corporate relationships following corporate transgressions.
Kase, T. (嘉瀬貴祥), Ueno, Y., Shimamoto, K., & Oishi, K. (2019). Causal relationships between sense of coherence and life skills: Examining the short-term longitudinal data of Japanese youths. Sense of coherenceとライフスキルの因果関係―日本人青年の短期縦断的データを用いた検討― Mental Health & Prevention, 13(1), 14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.mhp.2018.11.005
This study investigated the causal relationships between sense of coherence (SOC) and life skills. Participants (248 university students; 147 men, 101 women; mean age = 20.4 years, SD = 0.9 years) completed the Japanese version of the SOC-29 scale and the Life Skills Scale for Adolescents and Adults. Structural equation modeling (a synchronous effects model and a cross-lagged effects model) indicated that life skills had a certain effect (β = .55 to .75, p < .01) on SOC. This result suggests that improving life skills was effective in strengthening SOC. The findings of this study provide key information concerning the dimensions and stages of SOC and life skills. This can be used to construct a theoretical model and framework for future practical studies on strengthening SOC and conducting life skills training.
Kase, T. (嘉瀬貴祥), Ueno, Y., & Oishi, K. (2018). The overlap of sense of coherence and the Big Five personality traits: A confirmatory study. Sense of coherenceとBig Five性格特性との関係についての検証的研究 Health Psychology Open, 5(2), 1-4. doi: 10.1177/2055102918810654
Sense of coherence is the perception of the world as coherent. Its conceptual similarities to the Big Five personality traits have been demonstrated. We therefore investigated the relationship between sense of coherence and the Big Five. In total, 1088 Japanese youths completed the 29-item Sense of Coherence Scale and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Neuroticism was negatively correlated and extraversion was positively correlated with comprehensibility (r = −.47, .35), manageability (r = −.44, .26), and meaningfulness (r = −.28, .30). These correlations were strong, and the overlap between the two scales was about 36 percent. While the Big Five are related to sense of coherence, their differences cannot be ignored.
Matsunaga, M., Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), Noguchi, Y., Ochi, M. (越智美早), & Yamasue, H. (2018). Culture and cannabinoid receptor gene polymorphism interact to influence the perception of happiness. 文化とカンナビノイド受容体遺伝子多型が相互作用し幸せの知覚に影響する PLoS ONE, 13, e0209552. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209552
Previous studies have shown that a cytosine (C) to thymine (T) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene is associated with positive emotional processing. C allele carriers are more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli including happiness. The effects of several gene polymorphisms related to sensitivity to emotional stimuli, such as that in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR), on emotional processing have been reported to differ among cultures–e.g., between those that are independent and interdependent. Thus, we postulated that the effects of the CNR1 genotype on happiness might differ among different cultures because the concept of happiness varies by culture. We recruited healthy male and female young adults in Japan, where favorable external circumstances determine the concept of happiness, and Canada, where the concept of happiness centers on positive inner feelings, and compared the effects of the CNR1 genotype on both subjective happiness levels (self-evaluation as being a happy person) and situation-specific happiness (happy feelings accompanying various positive events) by using a questionnaire. We found that the effect of CNR1 on subjective happiness was different between the Japanese and Canadian groups. The subjective happiness level was the highest in Japanese individuals with the CC genotype, whereas in Canadian participants, it was the highest in individuals with the TT genotype. Furthermore, the effects of CNR1 genotype on situation-specific happiness were also different between the groups. Happiness accompanied with being surrounded by happy people was the highest among Japanese individuals with the CC genotype, whereas among Canadian individuals, it was the highest in TT genotype carriers. These findings suggest that culture and CNR1 polymorphism interact to influence the perception of happiness.
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), & Suzuki, T.(鈴木貴久) (2018). Effects of beliefs about sanctions on promoting cooperation in a public goods game. サンクションに対する信念が協力に与える影響 Palgrave Communications, 4(1), 148. doi: 10.1057/s41599-018-0203-8
Cooperative behaviour among people facing social dilemmas remains an unsolved puzzle. Sanction systems such as punishment and reward are well-known solutions to social dilemmas. On the one hand, it is theorised that peer sanctions cannot maintain cooperation because of the intrusion of second-order free riders. On the other hand, experimental studies have widely reported that cooperation is sustainable by first-order sanction systems. To understand the divergence between theory and experimental results, we focus on the effects of beliefs about sanctions on promoting cooperation. While previous studies have revealed effects of beliefs about other people’s cooperation in public goods games (PGGs), the effect of beliefs about sanctions have not been considered. We conducted a scenario-based experiment using one-shot PGGs with and without sanction systems. The results revealed that beliefs about sanctions promote cooperation in a PGG when types of sanctions and some psychological attitudes to cooperation are controlled for. Our results indicate that the beliefs of actors promote cooperation despite the possible presence of second-order free riders. A belief about sanctions differs from a preference for cooperative behaviour and the amount a player pays to exercise a sanction. It is necessary to consider players’ beliefs about a sanction when studying its effectiveness.
Takano, Y. （高野陽太郎）, & Osaka, E. （纓坂英子）(2018) “Attention, please” to situation: Replies to commentaries by Uleman, Matsumoto, Hamamura and Takemura, and Vignoles 状況に注目：Uleman, Matsumoto, Hamamura and Takemura, Vignoles による論評への回答 Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 21(4), 346-355. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12347
この論文は、私たちの展望論文（Takano & Osaka, 2018）に寄せられた４編の論評論文に対する回答論文です。日本人論では、長らく「日本人は集団主義的、アメリカ人は個人主義的」と言われてきました。20年前、私たちは日本人とアメリカ人を比較した実証的研究を探索し、見つかった15件の研究がこの通説を支持していないことを報告しました（Takano & Osaka, 1999）。新しい展望論文では、その後に発表された研究を中心に、新たに20件の実証的研究を調べ、それらの研究が全体としてはこの通説を支持していないという同じ結論に至りました。この展望論文に対する４編の論評論文は、いずれも、「通説は妥当ではない」という点で、私たちと意見を同じくしていました。通説が何十年ものあいだ世界中で信奉されてきたことを思えば、これは驚くべきことです。この回答論文では、集団主義・個人主義の問題を考える際には「状況」を考慮に入れることが重要であることを指摘し、「状況」との関連で、「集団主義・個人主義は1次元的な概念か多次元的な概念か」、「集団レベルでの文化差（⇔個人レベルでの文化差）を測定することはできるか」、「文化間での有意差を一律に文化差と捉えてよいか」等の理論的な問題を検討しました。
Takano and Osaka (2018) tested the validity of the common view that Japanese are more collectivistic than Americans by reviewing empirical studies published mainly during recent two decades, and found that this common view was not supported by most of the reviewed studies. All the four commentaries on this review of ours shared with us the basic judgment that the common view is untenable. In this reply, we present arguments to resolve some doubts cast on our review, and then argue that situation is a key concept to investigate critical issues related to individualism and collectivism such as their dimensionality and distinction between societal level and individual level cultural difference.
Asano, R. (浅野良輔), Tsukamoto, S. (塚本早織), Igarashi, T. (五十嵐祐), & Huta, V. (in press). Psychometric properties of measures of hedonic and eudaimonic orientations in Japan: The HEMA Scale. 日本における快楽志向・幸福志向尺度の心理測定学的特性：HEMA尺度 Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9954-z
The Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale measures well-being as a series of orientations. We investigated the HEMA scale’s psychometric properties among two Japanese samples in longitudinal studies over periods of one month (N = 385) and two months (N = 224). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified three subscales of the HEMA scale: hedonic pleasure orientation, hedonic relaxation orientation, and eudaimonic orientation. On average, at a given point in time, the correlations between subscales were r = .58 for the hedonic pleasure and hedonic relaxation orientations; r = .56 for the hedonic pleasure and eudaimonic orientations; and r = .26 for the hedonic relaxation and eudaimonic orientations—while the internal consistencies were αs > .80 for all subscales. In both studies, the three HEMA subscales had test-retest correlations averaging rs = .51, which suggests that these orientations are temporally quite stable, yet they are also amenable to change. Longitudinal analyses showed correlations between the HEMA scale and external criteria: hedonic pleasure orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, personal growth, purpose in life, and sense of meaning; hedonic relaxation orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, calm affect, and personal growth; and eudaimonic orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, personal growth, purpose in life, and sense of meaning. Implications for future research on the HEMA scale are discussed.
Nishina K.（仁科国之）, Takagishi H.（高岸治人）, Fermin A. S. R., Inoue-Murayama M., Takahashi H., Sakagami, M., Yamagishi T.（山岸俊男） (2018). Association of the oxytocin receptor gene with attitudinal trust: role of amygdala volume. オキシトシン受容体遺伝子と信頼態度の関連：扁桃体の体積の役割 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13, 1091-1097. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsy075
Previous studies have shown that genetic variations in rs53576, a common variant of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) resulting from a single nucleotide polymorphism involving an adenine (A)/guanine (G) transition, are associated with attitudinal trust in men. However, the pathway from gene to behaviour has not been elucidated. We conducted the present study to determine whether amygdala volume mediates the association between OXTR rs53576 genotypes and attitudinal trust. Our results revealed that the left amygdala volume was significantly smaller in GG men than in AA and AG men, whereas it was significantly smaller in AA and AG women than in GG women. In addition, the left amygdala volume was negatively associated with attitudinal trust in men, whereas there was no such association in women. We also found a significant mediation effect of the left amygdala volume on the association between OXTR rs53576 genotypes and attitudinal trust in men. The results of our study suggest that the left amygdala volume plays a pivotal role in the association between OXTR rs53576 genotypes and attitudinal trust in men.
Kawamoto, T. (川本大史), & Hiraki, K. (in press). Parental presence with encouragement alters feedback processing in preschoolers: An ERP study. 親の応援が5歳児のフィードバック処理を変える：ERP研究 Social Neuroscience doi: 10.1080/17470919.2018.1527250
External feedback plays an important role in adapting to the environment; however, feedback processing in preschoolers has not been fully understood. The present event-related brain potential (ERP) study sought to understand the influence of parental presence with encouragement on feedback processing by focusing on reward positivity (RewP: mean amplitude between 200–350 ms). Five-year-old children (N = 21) completed an animal search task both alone (the alone condition) and with a parent who offered words of encouragement (the with a parent condition). ERPs were recorded while they received negative and positive feedback. We found a larger RewP amplitude in response to positive feedback in the with a parent condition relative to in the alone condition. In addition, differences in RewP between positive and negative feedback were only observed in the with a parent condition. These findings suggest that everyday parental encouragement has the potential to promote differential positive and negative feedback processing possibly by enhancing the reward value of positive feedback.
Horita, Y.（堀田結孝） & Takezawa, M. （竹澤正哲） (2018). Cultural differences in strength of conformity explained through pathogen stress: A statistical test using hierarchical Bayesian estimation 病原体の蔓延度から説明される同調傾向の文化差：階層ベイズによる推定 Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1921. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01921
The severity of the environment has been found to have played a selective pressure in the development of human behavior and psychology, and the historical prevalence of pathogens relate to cultural differences in group-oriented psychological mechanisms, such as collectivism and conformity to the in-group. However, previous studies have also proposed that the effectiveness of institutions, rather than pathogen stress, can account for regional variation in group-oriented psychological mechanisms. Moreover, previous studies using nations as units of analysis may have suffered from a problem of statistical non-independence, namely, Galton’s problem. The present study tested whether or not regional variation in pathogen stress, rather than government effectiveness, affected collectivism and conformity to social norms by adjusting the effect of global regions using hierarchical Bayesian estimation. We found that the overall effect of pathogen stress remained significant in only one out of the four indices of the regional variability of conformity, and the effects of the government effectiveness also disappeared. Instead, we found that significant effects of both pathogen stress and government effectiveness in specific regions of the world, but these effects were not stable across the measurements. These results indicate that both the effects of pathogen stress and government effectiveness need further reevaluation.
Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). Cultural influences in somatosensory amplification and their association with negative affectivity. 身体感覚の増幅における文化的な影響およびネガティブ感情との関連性 Asian Journal of Social Psychology. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12342
Previous research has indicated that, reflecting East Asians’ holistic attentional style, they are likely to emphasize more somatic symptoms and perceive their internal visceral states less accurately as compared with Westerners. Based on these findings, comparing representative samples of Americans and Japanese participants, this research examined whether somatosensory amplification would vary across cultures. Moreover, by controlling confounding factors, including neuroticism and chronic disorders, the possibility that the association between somatosensory amplification and negative affective states differs across cultures also was tested. The results showed that Japanese exhibit higher somatosensory amplification than do Americans. In both cultures, as neuroticism and the number of chronic disorders increased, negative affective states also increased, leading to higher somatosensory amplification. Whereas negative affective states completely mediated the paths of neuroticism and chronic disorders to somatosensory amplification in the United States, such mediation was partial in Japan. Moreover, the association between somatosensory amplification and negative affective states was weaker in Japanese than in Americans.
Mori, Y., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). The effect of auditory imagery for speech in reading in Japanese. 発話の聴覚的イメージが日本人の読みに与える効果 Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9946-z
Auditory images for speech are preserved and can be accessed during reading. This research, conducted in Japan, examined whether and to what extent previous findings on the influence of speaker-specific auditory images in reading can be generalized to non-English speakers in a different cultural context. In two studies, Japanese participants were asked to read a text aloud after being informed that the text had been written by either a fast speaker or a slow speaker whose speech they were to listen to. The participants read the episode more slowly when it was attributed to a slow speaker than when it was attributed to a fast speaker. Individual differences in one’s mimicry of the speaker moderated the influence of speaker-specific auditory images in reading. The influence was confirmed only for those who consciously mimicked the speaker. In contrast, situational cues manipulated to generate affiliation with and closeness to the speakers did not influence the participants’ reading times.
Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン) (2018). Cultural similarities and differences in social discounting: The mediating role of harmony-seeking. 社会割引における文化的類似と差異：協同調和傾向による媒介 Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1426. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01426
One’s generosity to others declines as a function of social distance, which is known as social discounting. We examined cultural similarities and differences in social discounting and the mediating roles of the two aspects of interdependence (self-expression and distinctiveness of the self) as well as the two aspects of independence (harmony-seeking and rejection avoidance). Using the same procedure that previous researchers used to test North Americans, Study 1 showed that compared to North Americans, Japanese discount more steeply a partner’s outcomes compared to their own future outcomes, whereas the decrease in the subjective value of the partner’s outcomes accelerates less as a function of social distance. To examine the cultural similarities and differences in social discounting in more detail, Study 2 tested Japanese and Germans and found that the hyperbolic with exponent model fitted the participants’ discounting behaviors better than the other models, except for the loss condition in Germans where the utility of the q-exponential model was indicated. Moreover, although the social discounting rate was higher in Japanese than in Germans, the cultural difference was limited to the gain frame. However, the decline in a person’s generosity accelerated less as a function of social distance in Japanese than in Germans. Furthermore, the cultural difference in the social discounting in gains was mediated by the level of harmony-seeking, which was higher in Germans than in Japanese. Implications for individuals’ generosity against the backdrop of cultural characteristics are discussed.
Kusano, K. (草野広大) and Kemmelmeier, M. (2018). Ecology of freedom: Competitive tests of the role of pathogens, climate, and natural disasters in the development of socio-political freedom. 自由の生態学：病原体、気候、自然災害が社会・政治的自由の発達に与える役割の競争的検証 Front. Psychol. 9:954. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00954
Many countries around the world embrace freedom and democracy as part of their political culture. However, culture is at least in part a human response to the ecological challenges that a society faces; hence, it should not be surprising that the degree to which societies regulate the level of individual freedom is related to environmental circumstances. Previous research suggests that levels of societal freedom across countries are systematically related to three types of ecological threats: prevalence of pathogens, climate challenges, and natural disaster threat. Though their incidence overlaps, the literature has not yet provided a competitive test. Drawing upon the ecocultural framework, we tested five rival hypotheses, alternately focused on the above ecological factors and their interactions with economic wealth in explaining country variations in socio-political freedom. Focusing on data from 150 countries, we performed a series of linear mixed-effects regressions predicting freedom in the domains of politics, media, and economy. We found that countries with higher pathogen prevalence were more likely to suppress democracy and media freedom. Economic wealth, however, moderated the effect of pathogen prevalence on economic freedom, with the main effect being only found among wealthy countries, but not among poor countries. In contrast, natural disaster threat predicted political freedom and press freedom only among poor countries, consistent with the idea that disaster threat accompanied by poor resources promote socio-political freedom as a means of increasing collective survival. Throughout our analyses, we found no support for hypotheses based on climatic challenges. In addition, our multilevel approach revealed that country scores for socio-political freedom were highly clustered within world regions, accounting for substantial portions of variance. Overall, the present research offers a nuanced view of the interplay between ecology and wealth in the emergence of socio-political freedom. We discuss new directions in future research considering methodological and theoretical contributions of the present findings.
文化心理学では、環境が社会や心理にどのように影響を与えるのかと言う点について、様々な研究がなされてきた。先行研究は、主に病原体、気候、自然災害の３つの環境要因と、個人主義や民主主義などの国レベルの自由の指標の関係を検証する研究が多く行われて来た。病原体、気候、自然災害などの要因は、互いに独立していない環境要因であるにも関わらず、先行研究では、これらの要因についての理論を包括的に検証する試みがなされていなかった。そこで本研究では、これら３つの環境要因と、経済的豊かさ（GDP per capita）を全て考慮したモデルを検証した。さらに本研究は、先行研究の国レベルの分析における統計的な誤り（独立性の仮定）を指摘し、マルチレベル分析を用いることで、独立性の無視によって起こる推定バイアスを部分的に調整した。その結果、病原菌感染率の低い国においては、民主主義が高まる傾向にある、といった示唆が得られた。
Takano, Y.（高野陽太郎） & Osaka, E. （纓坂英子） (2018). Comparing Japan and the United States on individualism/collectivism: A follow-up review 集団主義・個人主義に関する日米比較： 展望の続報 Asian Journal of Social Psychology doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12322
It has been long believed that the Japanese are typical collectivists whereas Americans are typical individualists. To examine the validity of this common view, we formerly reviewed 15 empirical studies that compared Japanese and Americans regarding individualism/collectivism (I/C), and found that the overwhelming majority of those studies had not supported the common view (Takano & Osaka, 1999). In this follow-up, we reviewed 20 additional empirical studies (7 behavioral studies, 13 questionnaire studies), most of which had been published after the former review. When combined with the formerly reviewed 15 studies, 19 studies reported no clear difference, and 11 studies reported that Japanese were more individualistic than Americans. These 30 studies are inconsistent with the common view. Only 5 studies supported the common view, even when we included 3 studies whose validity was questionable. After it was formerly found that the common view was not supported empirically, a variety of alternative accounts were presented regarding the reason for this finding. We examined three major accounts in light of the reviewed studies and found that none of them was congruent with the empirical data. Thus, it seems to be reasonable to conclude that the common view is not valid.
日本人論では、長らく「日本人は集団主義的、アメリカ人は個人主義的」だと論じられてきました。20年前、私たちは日本人とアメリカ人を比較した実証的研究を探索し、見つかった15件の研究がこの通説を支持していないことを報告しました（Takano & Osaka, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 1999）。今回は、その後に発表された研究を中心に、新たに20件の実証的研究を調べ、やはり全体としては通説を支持していないことを見出しました。また、前回の報告について、通説を支持する立場から提出された主な別解釈を３つ取り上げ、それらが実証的研究とは一致しないことも明らかにしました。
Shimotomai, A. （下斗米淳）（2018） Parental social power, co-parenting, and child attachment: early to late japanese adolescence transitions. 親の社会的勢力、協働子育て、そして子どもの愛着： 初期から後期青年期にかけての推移 Current Psychology, 20, 1-12. doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9811-0
The purposes of this study were to examine how adolescents’ perceptions of parental powers and how bases of power between the father and the mother separately impact adolescents’ attachment to their father and mother, as well as the changing pattern of such impact. The participants were 44 junior high school students (M = 14.32 years old), 88 high school students (M = 17.27 years old), and 61 university students (M = 20.54 years old) in Japan. Adolescents’ attachment to their parents and their perceptions of parental social powers were assessed. The results indicated that adolescents had a significantly high perceptions of parental expert power. Moreover, the similarity between parental powers strongly impacted the behavioral bonds of adolescents’ attachment. Furthermore, powers between parents mutually defined and influenced the attachment of late adolescents to their parents. Thus, the present study could point out adolescents’ rebuilding their parent-child relationships and the interdependence of parents in child-rearing. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of co-parenting and the social adjustment of parents and children.
Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), Furutani, K.(古谷嘉一郎), & Alimardani, M. (2018). Preliminary validation of Japanese version of the Parental Burnout Inventory and its relationship with perfectionism. 日本語版子育てバーンアウト尺度の妥当性検討および完全主義との関連 Frontiers in Psychology, 9:970. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00970
Parenting is a precious experience and also a very hard task, which could result in parental burnout for some parents. The present study sought to validate a Japanese version of the Parental Burnout Inventory (PBI-J) by replicating and extending the pioneering work of Roskam et al. (2017). We conducted a web survey (N = 1200) to first validate the PBI-J and second to investigate the association between the PBI-J and perfectionism as a new interrelation. Similar to the prior study of Roskam et al. (2017), confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of three-factor structure of the PBI-J: emotional exhaustion, lack of personal accomplishment, and emotional distancing. In addition, we found low to moderate correlations of parental burnout with job burnout, parental stress, and depression. These findings provided initial evidence for validity of the PBI-J and suggested that parental burnout appeared to be different from job burnout. Our further evaluation of perfectionism confirmed such a difference between parental and job burnout by showing that parental perfectionism [i.e., combination of parental personal standards (PS) and parental concern over mistakes (CM)] has a unique contribution to parental burnout than does job perfectionism (i.e., combination of job PS and job CM). In addition, CM was positively correlated with burnout in both domains whereas the associations between PS and burnout were more complex. Finally, the proportion of parents experiencing burnout was estimated to lie somewhere between 4.2 and 17.3% in Japan. Overall, the present study confirmed preliminary validity of the PBI-J and found that parental perfectionism is one of the vulnerability factors in parental burnout.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一), & Niiya, Y. (新谷優) (2018). Can self-compassion help people regulate unattained goals and emotional reactions toward setbacks? セルフコンパッションは達成できなかった目標の制御やその挫折経験への情動反応の制御を促すのか Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 239-244. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.029
The current study examined whether self-compassion helps individuals cope with the experience of unattainable goals. Because self-compassion entails taking a balanced perspective of one’s suffering and maintaining emotional stability, this study predicted that individuals high in self-compassion would be more likely to disengage from their unattained goals and reengage in an alternative important goal, and thus, be less likely to experience negative emotions toward their setback in goal attainment. Japanese undergraduates (N = 177), who had completed a measure of self-compassion a week prior, recalled their personal failure of goal attainment and answered items about the degree of goal disengagement, goal reengagement, and current negative emotions toward their setback. Structural equation modeling showed that self-compassion was positively related to goal reengagement and goal disengagement, and that self-compassion had a significant negative indirect effect on current negative emotions via goal disengagement, in addition to a negative direct effect. These results were mainly in accordance with predictions, suggesting that self-compassion is a psychological resource for coping with setbacks in goal attainment.
Li, L. M. W., Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Hamamura, T., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). Culture and Decision Making: Influence of Analytic Versus Holistic Thinking Style on Resource Allocation in a Fort Game. 文化と意思決定：要塞ゲームでの資源分配における分析的 vs. 包括的思考様式による影響 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology doi: 10.1177/0022022118778337
People have to make different decisions every day, in which culture affects their strategies. This research examined the role of analytic versus holistic thinking style on resource allocation across cultures. We expected that, analytic thinking style, which refers to a linear view about the world where objects’ properties remain stable and separate, would make people concentrate their resource allocation corresponding to the current demand, whereas holistic thinking style, which refers to a nonlinear view that people perceive change to be a constant phenomenon and the universe to be full of interconnected elements, would encourage people to spread out their resource allocation. In Study 1, Hong Kong Chinese, a representative group of holistic cultures, and European Canadians, a representative group of analytic cultures, completed a resource allocation task (i.e., fort game). The results showed that the allocation pattern of European Canadians was more concentrated than that of Hong Kong Chinese and holistic thoughts predicted a less concentrated allocation pattern. To test causality, thinking styles were manipulated in Study 2, in which mainland Chinese were primed with either holistic thinking style or analytic thinking style. The results showed that the allocation pattern was more concentrated in the analytic condition than that in the holistic condition, which was explained by greater perceived predictability in the analytic condition. Implications of these findings on cross-cultural decision-making research and applied research were discussed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (in press). The rise in individualism in Japan: Temporal changes in family structure, 1947-2015. 日本文化の個人主義化：家族構造の経時的変化, 1947-2015 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
The present research examined whether Japanese culture became more individualistic between 1947 and 2015 by investigating temporal changes in indicators of family structure. Previous research has shown that Japanese culture has become more individualistic. However, the amount of research investigating temporal changes in individualism in Japan is small. Thus, it is important to examine whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating indicators that have not been used in previous research. Therefore, indicators of family structure that have been validated as indices of individualism were used to examine whether people came to live more independently from other family members. Analyses indicated that the rate of people living alone, the rate of nuclear households, and the divorce rate increased, while the rate of three-generation households and the household size decreased. These results showed that family structure became more individual-based in Japan, suggesting that Japanese culture changed toward greater individualism.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2018). Economic shifts and cultural changes in individualism: A cross-temporal perspective. 経済的変化と文化の個人主義化：経時的な観点からの検討 In A. Uskul & S. Oishi (Eds.), Socioeconomic environment and human psychology: Social, ecological, and cultural perspectives (pp. 247-270). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190492908.003.0010
This chapter discusses the relationship between economic affluence and individualism from a cross-temporal perspective. Previous research has indicated that wealth and individualism are positively correlated at both the individual and the national level. This chapter discusses whether this relationship is also found at the temporal level. This chapter consists of three parts. First, a theory about the association between economic affluence and individualism is summarized. Second, the chapter introduces empirical evidence on temporal changes in individualism and their relationship with economic development in three cultures (United States, Japan, China). These studies indicated that the three cultures have shifted toward greater individualism over time. Moreover, these changes in individualism were positively linked to increases in economic affluence at the annual level. Third, the chapter is summarized and directions for future research are raised. Overall, this chapter discusses how socioecological factors and human psychologies/behaviors are associated particularly from a cross-temporal perspective.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (in press). Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the right temporoparietal junction enhances the self-effacing bias in Japanese individuals. 右側頭頭頂接合部に対する経頭蓋直流刺激が日本人の自己卑下バイアスに与える影響 Culture and Brain.
Identifying the cause of social events enables us to understand why our environment interacts with us in a certain way. Although previous studies suggest that the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is associated with internal attribution, the causal relationship remains unclear. The present study, firstly, aimed to investigate whether and how the attributional tendency could change with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the rTPJ. Secondly, since Japanese individuals tend to perform self-effacing attribution as a socially adaptive behavior, we examined whether the increased activation of the rTPJ, which facilitates the process of shaping self-concept from another perspective, might increase self-effacing attributions specifically among individuals who are highly sensitive to social rewards. Consistent with these predictions, we found that the increased activation of the rTPJ enhanced self-effacing bias, and this relationship was specifically observed among high reward dependent (RD) individuals. We also revealed that it took a longer time for the high RD participants to avoid self-responsibility for failure after the stimulation. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the rTPJ could exacerbate self-blaming tendencies in Japanese individuals.
Nakayachi, K. (中谷内 一也), Johnson, B., & Koketsu, K. (2018). Effects of acknowledging uncertainty about earthquake risk estimates on San Francisco Bay area residents’ beliefs, attitudes, and intentions. 地震のリスク評価には不確実性があることを認めることがサンフランシスコ湾岸住民の信念、態度、行動意図にどのような影響をもたらすのか Risk Analysis, 38(4), 666-679.
We test here the risk communication proposition that explicit expert acknowledgment of uncertainty in risk estimates can enhance trust and other reactions. We manipulated such a scientific uncertainty message, accompanied by probabilities (20%, 70%, implicit [“will occur”] 100%) and time periods (10 or 30 years) in major (≥magnitude 8) earthquake risk estimates to test potential effects on residents potentially affected by seismic activity on the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (n = 750). The uncertainty acknowledgment increased belief that these specific experts were more honest and open, and led to statistically (but not substantively) significant increases in trust in seismic experts generally only for the 20% probability (vs. certainty) and shorter versus longer time period. The acknowledgment did not change judged risk, preparedness intentions, or mitigation policy support. Probability effects independent of the explicit admission of expert uncertainty were also insignificant except for judged risk, which rose or fell slightly depending upon the measure of judged risk used. Overall, both qualitative expressions of uncertainty and quantitative probabilities had limited effects on public reaction. These results imply that both theoretical arguments for positive effects, and practitioners’ potential concerns for negative effects, of uncertainty expression may have been overblown. There may be good reasons to still acknowledge experts’ uncertainties, but those merit separate justification and their own empirical tests.
Nakayachi, K. (中谷内 一也) (2018). Effects of providing measures against earthquakes: Experimental studies on the perceived risks of disasters and disaster preparedness intentions in Japan. 地震対策用品を提供することの効果：日本における災害リスク認知と準備行動意図に関する実験的研究 Natural Hazards, 90(3), 1329-1348.
This research examined the effects of providing measures against disasters on recipients’ perceived risks and preparedness intentions by conducting two experimental studies. A provision of a set of emergency food was manipulated in the first experiment. Participants (N = 143) were randomly assigned to the provided condition or non-provided condition. In the second experiment (N = 123), provision of an emergency toilet kit was manipulated. The results of the two experiments consistently indicated that (1) the provision of a measure increased the recipients’ perceived risks of the disaster concerned, (2) it increased their preparedness intentions for the disaster, and (3) it had no effects on perceived risks of or preparedness intentions against disasters unrelated to the measure provided. These results were contrary to the prediction deduced from the protection effect and single action effect. The findings in this study encourage promoting the risk management policy of providing people with disaster measures as the first step in disaster preparedness.
Morimoto, Y. (森本裕子), Yamasaki, S., Ando, S., et al. (2018). Purpose in life and tobacco use among community-dwelling mothers of early adolescents 地域在住の思春期早期児童母親において、人生の意義を感じる程度はタバコ（不）使用と関連する BMJ Open 2018;8:e020586. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020586
Objectives: The rising prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-attributable deaths among women is of worldwide concern. In particular, smoking prevention for mothers in early midlife is a significant international public health goal. A higher sense of purpose in life (PIL) is thought to reduce detrimental health behaviours. However, little is known about the association between a sense of PIL and tobacco use. This study investigates this association among community-dwelling mothers of early adolescents. Design: This population-based cross-sectional study uses a self-reported questionnaire from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey, a large community-based survey conducted in Japan between 2012 and 2015. Setting Participants were randomly recruited from the resident registries of three municipalities in Tokyo, Japan. Participants: A total of 4478 children and their primary parents participated. Responses from 4063 mothers with no missing data were analysed (mean age=42.0 years (SD=4.2)). Measures: Participants’ tobacco use, including the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was documented using a questionnaire. PIL was assessed using a Purpose in Life scale derived from Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scale. Results: Greater PIL was associated with a decreased likelihood of tobacco use, even when adjusted for confounders (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.91). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that PIL was inversely associated with tobacco consumption among mothers. These associations remained after controlling for psychological distress, socioeconomic factors and frequency of alcohol consumption among moderate to heavy smokers (OR=0.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.86), while attenuated among light smokers. Conclusions: Increasing PIL may be a valuable intervention for reducing tobacco use among women in early midlife. This study can contribute to our understanding of the psychology of smoking behaviour and shed light on the targeted intervention to reduce tobacco use among early midlife mothers.
人生に意義を感じる程度（Purpose in life）は、様々な健康指標や健康行動との関連が指摘されています。本研究では、10歳児の母親である中年女性（平均42歳）を対象に、人生に意義を感じる程度と喫煙行動の関連を検討しました。その結果、SESや飲酒、心理的ストレス状態を調整しても、人生に意義を感じる程度が高いほど喫煙が少ないことを明らかにしました。また、先行研究で指摘されていた、心理的ストレス状態が喫煙を促進する効果は、人生に意義を感じる程度を調整すると有意ではありませんでした。
Nozaki, Y. (野崎優樹) (2018). Cross-cultural comparison of the association between trait emotional intelligence and emotion regulation in European-American and Japanese populations. ヨーロッパ系アメリカ人と日本人を対象とした特性情動知能と情動調整の関連の文化比較 Personality and Individual Differences, 130, 150-155. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.04.013
Although a large body of evidence supports trait emotional intelligence as a positive indicator of well-being, the processes that underlie trait emotional intelligence remain unclear. Emotion regulation is considered a core component of trait emotional intelligence. Given that the consequences of emotion regulation strategies differ between European-American and Eastern Asian populations, culture could moderate the association between these strategies and trait emotional intelligence. Two studies examined whether culture moderated the link between trait emotional intelligence and emotion regulation strategies in European-American and East Asian Japanese populations. The results revealed important cultural similarities and differences in the association between trait emotional intelligence and emotion regulation. Regarding cultural similarities, trait emotional intelligence was positively associated with reappraisal in both groups. With respect to cultural differences, trait emotional intelligence was negatively associated with suppression in European-American, but not Japanese, individuals. These findings are consistent with the notion that emotionally intelligent people are more likely to use adaptive strategies and less likely to use maladaptive strategies to regulate their emotion within their own cultural frameworks. Moreover, the current research provided novel insight into the moderating effect of culture on the emotion regulation process underlying the trait emotional intelligence construct.
Uchida, S., Yamamoto, H. (山本仁志), Okada, I., & Sasaki, T. (2018). A Theoretical Approach to Norm Ecosystems : Two Adaptive Architectures of Indirect Reciprocity Show Different Paths to the Evolution of Cooperation. 規範エコシステムへの理論的アプローチ: 二つの適応的アーキテクチャが示す異なる協力の進化への道筋 Frontiers in Physics, 6(February), 14. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2018.00014
Indirect reciprocity is one of the basic mechanisms to sustain mutual cooperation, by which beneficial acts are returned, not by the recipient, but by third parties. This mechanism relies on the ability of individuals to know the past actions of others, and to assess those actions. There are many different systems of assessing others, which can be interpreted as rudimentary social norms (i.e., views on what is “good” or “bad”). In this paper, impacts of different adaptive architectures, i.e.,ways for individuals to adapt to environments, on indirect reciprocity are investigated.We examine two representative architectures: one based on replicator dynamics and the other on genetic algorithm. Different from the replicator dynamics, the genetic algorithm requires describing the mixture of all possible norms in the norm space under consideration. Therefore, we also propose an analytic method to study norm ecosystems in which all possible second order social norms potentially exist and compete. The analysis reveals that the different adaptive architectures show different paths to the evolution of cooperation. Especially we find that so called Stern-Judging, one of the best studied norms in the literature, exhibits distinct behaviors in both architectures.On one hand, in the replicator dynamics, Stern-Judging remains alive and gets a majority steadily when the population reaches a cooperative state. On the other hand, in the genetic algorithm, it gets a majority only temporarily and becomes extinct in the end.
Kambara, A.（神原歩）（2017） Effects of experiencing visual illusion and Susceptibility to biases in one's social judgment 錯視を経験すると、自分の社会的判断や推論の歪みに自覚が高まるか？ Perceptual and Motor Skills, SAGE Open DOI: 10.1177/2158244017745937
Despite the evidence for existing biases in social judgment, people often fail to recognize biases in their own social judgments.
This study investigated whether people become aware of their own susceptibility to various biases by experiencing visual
illusions that challenge confidence in personal perceptions. A total of 88 participants were grouped by whether or not
they gazed at illusory motion graphics and by whether they rated themselves or others on bias susceptibility. Participants
who gazed at visual illusions rated themselves as having more biases in their social judgments than participants who did not
see visual illusions. These findings suggest that bias denial may partially result from insufficient opportunities to recognize
inaccuracies in personal perceptions.
Matsunaga, M., Kawamichi, H., Umemura, T., Hori, R., Shibata, E., Kobayashi, F., Suzuki, K., Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), Noguchi, Y., Ochi, M. (越智美早), Yamasue, H., & Ohira, H. (大平英樹) (2017). Neural and genetic correlates of susceptibility to others' happiness. 他者の幸せに対する影響の受けやすさの神経的および遺伝的要因 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 718. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00718
Happiness is regarded as one of the most fundamental human goals. Given recent reports that positive feelings are contagious (e.g., the presence of a happy person enhances others’ happiness) because of the human ability to empathize (i.e., sharing emotions), empathic ability may be a key factor in increasing one’s own subjective level of happiness. Based on previous studies indicating that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene [HTR2A rs6311 guanine (G) vs. adenine (A)] is associated with sensitivity to emotional stimuli and several mental disorders such as depression, we predicted that the polymorphism might be associated with the effect of sharing happiness. To elucidate the neural and genetic correlates of the effect of sharing happiness, we first performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a “happy feelings” evocation task (emotional event imagination task), during which we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend experiencing a positive-valence event (presence or absence). We recruited young adult women for this fMRI study because empathic ability may be higher in women than in men. Participants felt happier (p < 0.01) and the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network, which spans the medial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, temporal poles, and precuneus, was significantly more active (p < 0.05) in the presence condition than in the absence condition regardless of event valence. Moreover, participants with the GG (p < 0.01) and AG (p < 0.05) genotypes of HTR2A experienced happier feelings as well as greater activation of a part of the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network (p < 0.05) during empathy for happiness (neutral/presence condition) than those with the AA genotype. In a follow-up study with a vignette-based questionnaire conducted in a relatively large sample, male and female participants were presented with the same imagined events wherein their valence and the presence of a friend were manipulated. Results showed genetic differences in happiness-related empathy regardless of sex (p < 0.05). Findings suggest that HTR2A polymorphisms are associated with the effect of sharing happiness by modulating the activity of the mentalizing/theory-of-mind network.
Miyajima, T. (宮島健)*, & Meng, X.* (2017). Experiencing physical warmth affects implicit attitudes and altruistic behavior toward outgroup in females. 物理的温かさの経験は，女性において，外集団に対する潜在的態度と利他行動に影響する BMC research notes. 10:648 (*equal contribution) doi: 10.1186/s13104-017-2972-3
Experiencing physical warmth has been demonstrated to influence interpersonal warmth. However, the effects of this metaphorical link in an intergroup context is not clear. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of physical warmth on implicit attitudes and behavior toward outgroup members in a Japanese–Chinese intergroup context. After touching either a warm or cold cup for 3 min, the Japanese participants were required to complete the single-target implicit association test, which aimed to measure their implicit attitudes toward imagined Chinese people, and to express their willingness to participate in the experiments of a Chinese individual whom they interacted directly without compensation, aiming to measure their prosocial behavior toward a real outgroup member.
The results demonstrated that female participants who touched the warm (vs. cold) cup showed more positive attitudes and helping behavior toward the Chinese individual. Furthermore, the correlation between those attitudes and helping behaviors supports the effects of enhanced implicit attitudes and further suggests that experiencing physical warmth could increase prosocial response to outgroup members in real interactions. However, the male participants showed a reversed, but not statistically significant, effect of physical warmth on the implicit attitude.
Ishii, T. (石井辰典) (2017). Mentalizing, but Not Autistic Traits, Predicts Religious Belief in a Sample of Healthy Japanese Youth. メンタライジング能力が宗教的信念を予測する：健康な日本人青年を対象とした検討 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 8(2), 32-35. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2017.61.
The present research examined the hypothesis that religious belief is derived from humans’ mentalizing ability in the context of East Asia where polytheistic religion is the mainstream. Two studies were conducted with a Japanese healthy sample, and both revealed that contrary to the hypothesis, autistic traits did not predict religious belief, whereas mentalizing predicted increased religious belief as expected. These findings suggest that further empirical and theoretical investigations on the origin of religious belief are needed.
Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男), Li, Y.(李楊), Fermin, A.S.R, Kanai, R., Takagishi, H.(高岸治人), Matsumoto, Y.(松本良恵), Kiyonari, T. (清成透子) & Sakagami, M.(2017) Behavioural Differences and Neural Substrates of Altruistic and Spiteful Punishment 利他的と攻撃的な罰の行動的差異と神経基盤 Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 14654 (2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-15188-w
Altruistic punishment following social norm violations promotes human cooperation. However, experimental evidence indicates that some forms of punishment are spiteful rather than altruistic. Using two types of punishment games and seven non-strategic games, we identified strong behavioural differences between altruistic and spiteful punishers. Altruistic punishers who rejected unfair offers in the ultimatum game and punished norm violators in the third-party punishment game behaved pro-socially in various non-strategic games. Spiteful punishers who rejected unfair offers in the ultimatum game but did not punish norm violators in the third-party punishment game behaved selfishly in non-strategic games. In addition, the left caudate nucleus was larger in spiteful punishers than in altruistic punishers. These findings are in contrast to the previous assumption that altruistic punishers derive pleasure from enforcement of fairness norms, and suggest that spiteful punishers derive pleasure from seeing the target experience negative consequences.
Jayles, B., Kim, H. (金ヘリン), Escobedo, R., Cezerad, S., Blanchet, A., Kameda, T. (亀田達也), Sire, C., & Theraulaz, G. (2017). How social information can improve estimation accuracy in human groups. 社会情報は人間集団における推定の精度をどのように向上させ得るか Proceesings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Early Edition (Nov. 8, 2017). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1703696114
In our digital and connected societies, the development of social networks, online shopping, and reputation systems raises the questions of how individuals use social information and how it affects their decisions. We report experiments performed in France and Japan, in which subjects could update their estimates after having received information from other subjects. We measure and model the impact of this social information at individual and collective scales. We observe and justify that, when individuals have little prior knowledge about a quantity, the distribution of the logarithm of their estimates is close to a Cauchy distribution. We find that social influence helps the group improve its properly defined collective accuracy. We quantify the improvement of the group estimation when additional controlled and reliable information is provided, unbeknownst to the subjects. We show that subjects’ sensitivity to social influence permits us to define five robust behavioral traits and increases with the difference between personal and group estimates. We then use our data to build and calibrate a model of collective estimation to analyze the impact on the group performance of the quantity and quality of information received by individuals. The model quantitatively reproduces the distributions of estimates and the improvement of collective performance and accuracy observed in our experiments. Finally, our model predicts that providing a moderate amount of incorrect information to individuals can counterbalance the human cognitive bias to systematically underestimate quantities and thereby improve collective performance.
Ozono, H.（大薗博記）, Kamijo, Y., & Shimizu, K. (2017). Punishing second-order free riders before first-order free riders: The effect of pool punishment priority on cooperation 1次のフリーライダーより先に2次のフリーライダーを罰するべし：プール罰の優先順位が協力に及ぼす効果 Scientific Reports, 7, 14379. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13918-8
Second-order free riders, who do not owe punishment cost to first-order free riders in public goods games, lead to low cooperation. Previous studies suggest that for stable cooperation, it is critical to have a pool punishment system with second-order punishment, which gathers resources from group members and punishes second-order free riders as well as first-order free riders. In this study, we focus on the priority of punishment. We hypothesize that the pool punishment system that prioritizes second-order punishment is more likely to achieve cooperation than the system that prioritizes first-order punishment, because the former is more likely to obtain sufficient punishment resources. In the experiments, we compare four pool punishment systems: 1To2 (first-order punishment to second-order punishment), 2To1 (second-order punishment to first-order punishment), 1ONLY (first-order punishment only), and 2ONLY (second-order punishment only). We find that the 2To1 and 2ONLY systems can receive more support than the 1To2 and 1ONLY systems and only the 2To1 system can achieve high cooperation. However, the effect of priority of second-order punishment is observed only when the punishment ratio (PR) is low (Experiment 1), not high (Experiment 2), in which the punishment resource is relatively abundant.
Bjornsdottir, R. T., Tskhay, K. O., Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Rule, N. O. (in press). Cultural differences in perceiving and processing emotions: A holistic approach to person perception. 感情の理解と処理における文化差：対人知覚の包括的なアプローチ Culture and Brain. doi: 10.1007/s40167-017-0053-z
East Asians tend towards holistic styles of thinking whereas Westerners generally think more analytically. Recent work has shown that Western participants perceive emotional expressions in a somewhat holistic manner, however. Specifically, Westerners interpret emotional facial expressions differently when presented with a body displaying a congruent versus incongruent emotional expression. Here, we examined how processing these face-body combinations varies according to cultural differences in thinking style. Consistent with their proclivity towards contextual focus, Japanese perceivers focused more on the body when judging the emotions of face-body composites. Moreover, in line with their greater tendency towards holistic perceptual processing, we found that pairing facial expressions of emotion with emotionally congruent bodies facilitated Japanese participants’ recognition of faces’ emotions to a greater degree than it did for Canadians. Similarly, incongruent face-body combinations impaired facial emotion recognition more for Japanese than Canadian participants. These findings extend work on cultural differences in emotion recognition from interpersonal to intrapersonal contexts with implications for intercultural understanding.
Anderson, C. A., Suzuki, K.(鈴木佳苗), Swing, E. L., Groves, C. L., Gentile, D. A., Prot, S., Lam, C. P., Sakamoto, A.(坂元 章), Horiuchi, Y.(堀内由樹子), Krahé, B., Jelic, M., Liuqing, W., Toma, R., Warburton, W. A., Zhang, X., Tajima, S.(田島 祥), Qing, F., & Petrescu, P. (2017). Media violence and other aggression risk factors in seven nations. 7か国におけるメディア暴力と他の攻撃リスク要因 Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(7), 986-998. doi:10.1177/0146167217703064
Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.
Komoto, Y., Shoun, A.(祥雲暁代), Akiyama, K., Sakamoto, A.(坂元章) et al. (2017). Development and validation of the Pachinko/Pachi-Slot Playing Ambivalence Scale. パチンコ・パチスロ遊技両価性尺度の開発と妥当化 Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health, 7(3) . DOI: 10.1186/s40405-017-0023-6
A scale aimed at measuring ambivalence among people with pachinko/pachi-slot playing disorder, the Pachinko/Pachi-Slot Playing Ambivalence Scale (PPAS), was developed and its reliability and validity ascertained.
A total of 522 participants (average year: 48.0) who were residing in Tokyo Metropolitan Area, and had played pachinko within the previous year completed questions relating to demographics, four gambling-related scales (including South Oaks Gambling Screen) and two general ambivalence scales (including Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire).
Internal consistency (α = 0.87) and test–retest reliability (r = 0.66) were confirmed. The PPAS’s score was associated with each related scale’s score (r = 0.37–0.62).
The PPAS was shown to be consistent with previous scales and useful in clinical settings
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2018). Relationships between two types of reputational concern and altruistic behavior in daily life. 2種類の評判への関心と日常の利他行動の関連. Personality and Individual Differences, 121, 19-24. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.09.003
Although many studies have shown that reputational cues promote altruism, few studies have focused on individual differences. The present study provides novel evidence indicating that the relationship between reputational concern and altruistic behavior differs according to the type of reputational concern involved and the recipients of altruism. Specifically, the relationships between individual differences of two reputational concerns (i.e., praise seeking and rejection avoidance) and the frequency with which participants exhibited altruistic behavior toward various individuals (i.e., family members, friends/acquaintances, and strangers) were examined. As predicted, neither type of reputational concern was significantly associated with altruistic behavior toward family members. This is understandable, as altruistic behavior toward familiar people is unlikely to lead to a good reputation. Conversely, praise seeking predicted altruistic behavior toward friends/acquaintances and strangers, whereas rejection avoidance did not. These findings are consistent with recent literature suggesting the effectiveness of positive reputation systems to promote generosity, relative to negative reputation systems. Furthermore, rejection avoidance was negatively associated with altruistic behavior toward strangers; we discussed the possibility that this was because such behavior was not very normative. Our findings provide useful insight for future studies examining the relationship between reputation and altruistic behavior.
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2017). The norm-dependent effect of watching eyes on donation. "見つめる目"の規範依存的効果の検討. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(5), 659-666. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.05.003
Although many previous studies have shown that eye-like images promote generosity, the mechanism of this “watching eyes effect” remains unclear. One possible cause is the concern for a good reputation as a generous person, while the other is the concerns for a bad reputation as a norm violator. To elucidate which of these two concerns is the main influencer, the present study conducted a laboratory experiment that investigated whether the watching eyes effect changed depending on social norms. If the concern for a good reputation leads to the effect, prosocial behavior would be more likely in the presence of watching eyes, regardless of the social norms involved. However, if the concern for avoiding a bad reputation as a norm violator leads to the effect, watching eyes promote prosocial behavior only in the existence of prosocial norms. In the original study, participants were asked to make a charitable donation under conditions in which eye-like images either were or were not present. In addition to the eye-like images, we manipulated prosocial norms by informing each participant of either high or low mean donation amounts given by previous participants. We found that watching eyes promoted donations only when a prosocial norm existed. This supports the idea that the watching eyes effect is caused by a concern for avoiding a bad reputation from violating norms. However, in a replication study, we were unable to replicate the original results; watching eyes did not promote generosity regardless of the norm. Taken together, we discussed the moderation effect of norms and the possibility of other moderators.
Kawamoto, T. (川本大史) & Furutani, K. (古谷嘉一郎) (2018). The mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty on the relationships between perfectionism dimensions and psychological adjustment/maladjustment among mothers 母親の完全主義次元と心理適応・不適応との関連に対する不確実さ不耐性の媒介効果 Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 62-67. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.10.008
The present study investigated a possible mediating effect of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on the relationship between perfectionism and psychological adjustment/maladjustment as well as the unique and common effects of perfectionism dimensions—personal standards (PS) and concern over mistakes (CM)—on these constructs. Five hundred mothers participated an online survey, completing measures of perfectionism (PS and CM), IU, and psychological adjustment/maladjustment (life satisfaction, depression, and rearing stress). We found that both PS and CM were positively correlated with IU. Mediation analyses indicated that IU mediated the relationship between CM and psychological adjustment/maladjustment regardless of whether PS were partialled out. In contrast, IU had a suppression effect on the relationship between PS and psychological adjustment/maladjustment, but only when CM was not partialled out. Commonality regression analysis revealed that the unique effect of PS on IU (< 0.1%) was much smaller than the common effects of PS and CM on IU (12.3%). In addition, CM had stronger unique effects on all variables than did PS. These findings highlight the importance of investigating both the unique and common effects of perfectionism dimensions on outcome variables. Our findings further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the relationships between perfectionism dimensions and psycho- logical adjustment/maladjustment.
Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Mojaverian, T., Masuno, K., & Kim, H. S. (2017). Cultural Differences in Motivation for Seeking Social Support and the Emotional Consequences of Receiving Support: The Role of Influence and Adjustment Goals. ソーシャルサポートを求める際の動機づけとそれを受け取ることの感情的な帰結における文化差：影響と調整志向の役割 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(9), 1442-1456. doi: 10.1177/0022022117731091
Previous research suggests that the benefits of different types of social support depend on cultural background. However, cultural variations in the underlying motivations for seeking social support and the emotional implications of receiving support have not yet been clearly explored. We hypothesized and found that European Americans emphasized the motivation for self-esteem as a factor in deciding to seek explicit social support (e.g., advice, emotional comfort), whereas Japanese emphasized relational concerns as a factor in deciding to seek implicit social support (e.g., the emotional comfort experienced without disclosing one’s problems). Furthermore, European Americans anticipated experiencing strong feelings of self-esteem and pride regarding receiving support, whereas Japanese anticipated experiencing strong feelings of shame and guilt. Additionally, influence goals mediated cultural differences in the motivation for self-esteem and the experience of self-esteem and pride, whereas adjustment goals mediated cultural differences in relational concerns and the experience of shame and guilt.
Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Miwa, K., Rashid, M., Lee, H., & Mehdi, R. (2017). One label or Two? Linguistic Influences on the Similarity Judgment of Objects Between English and Japanese Speakers. 1つのラベルか、それとも2つのラベルか? 英語と日本語話者間での物の類似性判断における言語の影響 Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1637 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01637
Recent findings have re-examined the linguistic influence on cognition and perception, while identifying evidence that supports the Whorfian hypothesis. We examine how English and Japanese speakers perceive similarity of pairs of objects, by using two sets of stimuli: one in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in English, but only one linguistic category applies in Japanese; and another in which two distinct linguistic categories apply to respective object images in Japanese, but only one applies in English. We conducted four studies and tested different groups of participants in each of them. In Study 1, we asked participants to name the two objects before engaging in the similarity judgment task. Here, we expected a strong linguistic effect. In Study 2, we asked participants to engage in the same task without naming, where we assumed that the condition is close enough to our daily visual information processing where language is not necessarily prompted. We further explored whether the language still influences the similarity perception by asking participants to engage in the same task basing on the visual similarity (Study 3) and the functional similarity (Study 4). The results overall indicated that English and Japanese speakers perceived the two objects to be more similar when they were in the same linguistic categories than when they were in different linguistic categories in their respective languages. Implications for research testing the Whorfian hypothesis and the requirement for methodological development beyond behavioral measures are discussed.
Takano, Y., Ukezono, M., Nakashima, S. F. (中嶋智史), Takahashi, N., & Hironaka, N. (2017). Learning of efficient behaviour in spatial exploration through observation of behaviour of conspecific in laboratory rats. 実験室ラットの空間探索における他個体の行動の観察を通じた効率的行動の学習 Royal Society Open Science, 4, 170121 doi: 10.1098/rsos.170121
Recent studies have suggested that rodent behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of surrounding conspecifics (e.g. emotional contagion and prosocial behaviour). However, little is known about deferred imitation and complex observational learning in rats. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether rats can learn from another rat’s experiences. In a maze, observer rats watched the foraging behaviour of other rats (demonstrators) and then foraged in turn. The results showed that demonstrators explored inefficiently, but observers explored more efficiently after observing inefficient exploration by the demonstrators. This observational learning probably involved the acquisition of an efficient strategy through spatial exploration.
Miyajima, T. (宮島健), & Yamaguchi, H. (山口裕幸) (2017). I Want to but I Won't: Pluralistic Ignorance Inhibits Intentions to Take Paternity Leave in Japan. 取りたいけど取らない: 多元的無知が日本における男性の育児休業の取得意図を抑制する Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1508. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01508
The number of male employees who take paternity leave in Japan has been low in past decades. However, the majority of male employees actually wish to take paternity leave if they were to have a child. Previous studies have demonstrated that the organizational climate in workplaces is the major determinant of male employees’ use of family-friendly policies, because males are often stigmatized and fear receiving negative evaluation from others. While such normative pressure might be derived from prevailing social practices relevant to people’s expectation of social roles (e.g., “Men make houses, women make homes”), these social practices are often perpetuated even after the majority of group members have ceased to support them. The perpetuation of this unpopular norm could be caused by the social psychological phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance. While researches have explored people’s beliefs about gender roles from various perspectives, profound understanding of these beliefs regarding gender role norms, and the accuracy of others’ beliefs remains to be attained. The current research examined the association between pluralistic ignorance and the perpetually low rates of taking paternity leave in Japan. Specifically, Study 1 (n = 299) examined Japanese male employees’ (ages ranging from the 20 s to the 40 s) attitudes toward paternity leave and to estimate attitudes of other men of the same age, as well as behavioral intentions (i.e., desire and willingness) to take paternity leave if they had a child in the future. The results demonstrated that male employees overestimated other men’s negative attitudes toward paternity leave. Moreover, those who had positive attitudes toward taking leave and attributed negative attitudes to others were less willing to take paternity leave than were those who had positive attitudes and believed others shared those attitudes, although there was no significant difference between their desires to take paternity leave. Study 2 (n = 425) replicated these results and further indicated that they could not be explained by the participants’ needs to be socially desirable. Together, our findings suggest that pluralistic ignorance occurs in the context of taking paternity leave in Japanese men, and this leads to the low use of available paternity leave.
Kosugi,K.E.（小杉考司）(2017). Asymmetrical triadic relationship based on the structural difficulty. 構造的困難度に基づく非対称な三者関係の分析 Behaviormetrika,44(2),1--17. doi: 10.1007/s41237-017-0033-9
Using Bayesian inference, this study aims to estimate the magnitude of the cognitive load when a person perceives asymmetric social relations. Some empirical evidence relating to balance theory has shown that a balanced state is comparatively easier to memorize than an unbalanced one. In this study, since a balanced state is defined by structural complexity, an experimental hypothesis was set whereby asymmetric social relationships have different difficulty levels depending on structural complexity. The balanced state of an asymmetric relation as structural difficulty is formally derived from the eigenvalue structure of a Hermitian matrix. Asymmetric triadic relations are modeled as featuring three kinds of structural difficulties according to the eigenvalue decomposition of the Hermitian matrix and pattern-specific difficulties. The differences among the structural difficulties were not sufficiently significant to exceed pattern-specific difficulties, but the Bayes factor of the informational hypothesis of this research yielded positive effects.
Kawamoto, T. (川本大史) (2017). What happens in your mind and brain when you are excluded from a social activity? 社会的に排斥されるとあなたのこころと脳で何が起こるのだろうか？ Frontiers for Young Minds, 5:46. doi: 10.3389/frym.2017.00046
In school and in everyday life, we sometimes experience rejection by classmates, or we might see someone being excluded from an activity. What do excluded individuals feel? How does the brain process information about being socially excluded? In the past few decades, psychologists and social neuroscientists have investigated the influence of social exclusion on our mind, brain, and behavior. Social exclusion is a complex and ambiguous phenomenon, and therefore, we process information about it dynamically and often cope with it flexibly. In this article, I have described the dynamic effects of social exclusion on our mind, brain, and behavior by developing a model of what happens in the brain and the actions people take upon experiencing social exclusion.
Tanibe, T. (谷辺哲史), Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2017). We perceive a mind in a robot when we help it. ロボットを助けるとロボットに心を感じる PLoS ONE, 12(7): e0180952.
People sometimes perceive a mind in inorganic entities like robots. Psychological research has shown that mind perception correlates with moral judgments and that immoral behaviors (i.e., intentional harm) facilitate mind perception toward otherwise mindless victims. We conducted a vignette experiment (N = 129; Mage = 21.8 ± 6.0 years) concerning human-robot interactions and extended previous research’s results in two ways. First, mind perception toward the robot was facilitated when it received a benevolent behavior, although only when participants took the perspective of an actor. Second, imagining a benevolent interaction led to more positive attitudes toward the robot, and this effect was mediated by mind perception. These results help predict what people’s reactions in future human-robot interactions would be like, and have implications for how to design future social rules about the treatment of robots.