Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (in press). Altruism does not always lead to a good reputation: A normative explanation. 利他行動は常には良い評判に繋がらない：規範的説明 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2020.104021
Individuals who engage in altruistic behaviors generally acquire a good reputation. However, recent studies have suggested that altruists are not always welcomed by others. We examined the possibility that norm-deviant altruism leads to unfavorable evaluations; distributing quite large amounts of one’s resources could be less favored because the behavior deviates from social norms. In four studies, participants rated their feelings (i.e., liking and respect) toward a person who distributed his/her resources to others. We found that altruistic behavior that deviates from social norms was less favorably regarded than modestly altruistic behavior (Study 1–4), specifically in a culture with low tolerance for norm deviation (Japan; Study 3) and especially when the degree of the deviance was high (Study 2). These findings suggest that altruistic behavior is less favored when the behavior deviates from social norms and norm deviation is evaluated negatively.
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (in press). Effects of cost and benefit of prosocial behavior on reputation. 社会的行動のコストとベネフィットが評判に及ぼす影響 Social Psychological and Personality Science. doi: 10.1177/1948550620929163
Prosocial behavior consists of a cost to the actor and a benefit of others. Previous studies have shown that prosocial actors generally receive positive social evaluations from observers. However, it is unknown how each component of prosocial behavior (i.e., cost and benefit) influences the two dimensions of person perception (i.e., warmth and competence). Thus, three studies investigated the independent effects of cost and benefit on the perceived warmth and competence of the actor. In Study 1, participants read a series of vignettes about a protagonist incurring a cost to benefit another individual and rated the warmth and competence of each protagonist. Although benefit enhanced both perceived warmth and competence, cost enhanced only perceived warmth. Studies 2a and 2b separately manipulated costs and benefits of prosocial behaviors in vignettes and confirmed the results of Study 1. Thus, this study demonstrated the independent effects of cost and benefit on person perception.
Asano, R. (浅野良輔), Igarashi, T. (五十嵐祐), & Tsukamoto, S. (塚本早織) (2020). The Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities: Measurement invariance and psychometric properties in an adult Japanese sample. 日本の成人サンプルにおけるHEMA尺度の測定不変性と心理測定学的特性 Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1220. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01220
Hedonic pleasure orientation (seeking enjoyment), hedonic relaxation orientation (seeking comfort), and eudaimonic orientation (seeking meaning) are major ways that people pursue well-being. We investigated the measurement invariance and psychometric properties of the Hedonic and Eudamonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale in a Japanese adult sample (N = 1,892). The Japanese HEMA scale demonstrated measurement invariance at the configural, metric, scalar, and strict levels across gender and age groups. Latent mean differences of the scale across these demographic groups were less than small. The scale showed high internal consistency and six-week test-retest reliability and reasonable correlations with life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, psychological well-being, and interdependent happiness. In sum, these findings suggest that the Japanese HEMA scale is useful to capture hedonic and eudaimonic conceptions of well-being as orientations. It is hoped that our findings will stimulate further research on well-being using the HEMA scale.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (野村理朗) (2020). Neural Representations of Awe: Distinguishing Common and Distinct Neural Mechanisms. 畏敬の念の神経表象：神経メカニズムの共通性と差異を区別する Emotion, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/emo0000771
Awe is an emotional response to perceptually vast stimuli that transcend one’s current frames of reference. The psychological form and function of awe differ between two types: positive-awe, which arises from perceptually aesthetic experiences (e.g., the beauty of nature, spiritual experiences, or the virtue of a leader), and threat-awe, which is triggered by threatening stimuli (e.g., natural disasters, wrathful god, or a leader’s coercive charisma). Here, using functional MRI, we investigated common and distinct neural responses to experiences of positive- and threat-awe, elicited by watching awe-inspiring videos. We found that both awe experiences deactivated the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in contrast to control conditions (positive-awe vs. amusement; threat-awe vs. fear), which suggest that awe experiences generally involve the “schema liberation” process since the left MTG plays a critical role in matching existing schema to events. In addition, positive-awe was associated with increased functional connectivity between the MTG and the anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, which are associated with the aesthetic reward process, and the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is involved in the self-other representation. Threat-awe was associated with increased functional connectivity between the MTG and amygdala, which detects and processes threat stimuli, as well as between the amygdala and SMG. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying the complex psychological processes of awe vary as a function of the type of awe. The implications of these results regarding our understanding of the neural basis of awe and the future directions of human social cognition research are discussed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). The pattern of age differences in self-esteem is similar between males and females in Japan: Gender differences in developmental trajectories of self-esteem from childhood to old age. 日本における自尊心の年齢差のパターンは男女間で類似している: 児童期から老年期の自尊心の発達的軌跡の性差 Cogent Psychology, 7: 1756147 doi: 10.1080/23311908.2020.1756147
The current research examined gender differences in age difference patterns of self-esteem in Japan. Previous research has shown that self-esteem is high in childhood, decreases in adolescence, and increases gradually in adulthood and old age in Japan. However, gender differences in the pattern of age differences in self-esteem had not been investigated sufficiently. Gender differences are important for understanding human psychology and behavior. Therefore, I analyzed two cross-sectional datasets from large (Study 1: N = 15,965, Study 2: N = 5,258) and diverse samples ranging from elementary school students to older adults in their 60s. Results showed that the patterns of age differences in self-esteem are consistent between males and females. Thus, regarding the global evaluation of the self, males and females show a similar pattern over the life course.
Saito, T., Sudo, R. (須藤竜之介), & Takano, Y. (2020). The gaze bias effect in toddlers: Preliminary evidence for the developmental study of visual decision‐making. 幼児の視線カスケード現象の予備的検討 Developmental Science (Early View) doi: 10.1111/desc.12969
Several studies have investigated the interactive relationship between attention and decision‐making, which is known as the gaze bias effect. Although the generalizability of the gaze bias effect has recently been observed among young and older adults, it remains unknown in which developmental period individuals start to exhibit this relationship. This question was addressed in the current study by recruiting 58 toddlers aged 2–4 years. Participants were asked to do a two‐alternative forced‐choice task in which they chose one of two soft toys they preferred while their eye movements were recorded. Results demonstrated that toddlers exhibited gaze bias regardless of age. We also found that the number of gaze shifts during the task increased according to age. These results suggest that the interactive relationship between attention and decision is acquired by the age of two. The implications of the increased number of gaze shifts for visual decision‐making are discussed.
Nozaki, Y. (野崎優樹), & Mikolajczak, M. (2020). Extrinsic emotion regulation. 他者の情動の調整 Emotion, 20(1), 10-15. doi: 10.1037/emo0000636
To date, the field of emotion regulation (ER) has largely focused on intrinsic ER (i.e., regulation of one’s own emotions) and has only recently started to investigate extrinsic ER (i.e., regulation of another person’s emotions). This article selectively reviews current findings in order to answer the following questions: (a) What is extrinsic ER, and how can it be distinguished from related constructs such as emotion contagion, empathy, prosocial behavior, and social support? (b) How can we best model the processes through which extrinsic ER occurs as well as individual differences in extrinsic ER ability? The answers show that although extrinsic ER has much in common with intrinsic ER, the 2 cannot be equated. Research is therefore needed on the extrinsic side of ER.
Emotion regulationの特集号（担当編集委員：Kateri McRae and James J. Gross）への掲載論文です。近年多くの注目を集める「他者の情動の調整 (extrinsic emotion regulation) に関して，概念の定義および心的メカニズムのモデルをまとめました。
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一). (2019). Self-compassion and time perception of past negative events. セルフコンパッションと過去のネガティブな出来事に関する時間の捉え方. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-019-01293-6
This study examined relationships among self-compassion, subjective distance, and time perception related to past negative events. Self-compassion involves a broad, mindful understanding of suffering without getting entangled in suffering. Therefore, self-compassion might enable people to feel subjectively distant from past adverse events and help them develop adaptive emotional reactions and time perception (i.e., meaning-making about time) concerning the events.
Two hundred eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to a negative (n = 139) or a positive (n = 143) event condition. After completing measures of self-compassion and self-esteem, they recalled either a negative or a positive event and estimated how far away they subjectively felt from that event. They also indicated the elapsed time from the event and responded to items assessing their emotional reactions and meaning-making about time.
Self-compassion was associated with greater subjective distance from negative events, r = −.23, p = .005. Moreover, greater subjective distance mediated the relations of self-compassion to lower negative emotional reactions, B = − 0.147, 95% CI [− 0.292, − 0.034], and lower tendency to think that time was wasted on negative events, B = − 0.053, 95% CI [− 0.146, − 0.008]. Importantly, self-compassion was not related to subjective distance from positive events, r = .11, p = .182.
Results imply that people with high self-compassion would likely feel subjectively distant from past adverse events, which might help prevent negative meaning-making about time and negative emotional reactions concerning the events.
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Okada, I.(岡田勇), Taguchi, T., & Muto, M. (2019). Effect of voluntary participation on an alternating and a simultaneous prisoner's dilemma. 自発的参加を導入した逐次手番・同時手番繰返し囚人のジレンマの研究 Physical Review E, 100(3), 032304. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.100.032304
We studied the evolution of cooperation in the framework of evolutionary game theory, implementing voluntary participation in the prisoner’s dilemma. Although previous studies have tried to overcome the dilemma by introducing voluntary participation called a “loner,” the question of which strategies among various strategies including voluntary participation are adaptive under competitive circumstances is still an unsolved puzzle. Here we have developed a model that consists of all possible strategies using a one-period memory of past actions. This model enables us to analyze a “melting pot” of strategies, wherein several strategies interact and compete with each other. Our results revealed that one strategy, in which one escapes if a partner defects or cooperates if a partner becomes a loner, dominates and maintains cooperation in an alternating prisoner’s dilemma game. However, the so-called “win-stay, lose-shift” strategy dominates in a simultaneous prisoner’s dilemma game. Our simulations clearly show that voluntary participation in the prisoner’s dilemma game works in the alternating situation rather than the simultaneous one.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), Niiya, Y. (新谷優), & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一). (2019). When life gives you lemons, make lemonade: Self-compassion increases adaptive beliefs about failure. セルフコンパッションは失敗に関する適応的な信念を促進する Journal of Happiness Studies. doi:10.1007/s10902-019-00172-0
Two studies were conducted to examine how self-compassion relates to beliefs about failure. Study 1 (N = 252) showed that, after controlling for self-esteem, trait self-compassion correlated positively with the belief that failures are learning opportunities and part of life, and negatively with the belief that failures are aversive and something that must be avoided. In Study 2, participants (N = 124) first recalled their weaknesses, then wrote either (a) a compassionate message toward themselves (self-compassion condition), (b) a description of their strengths (self-reflection condition), or (c) a list of Japanese prefectures (control condition), and completed measures of state self-compassion and beliefs about failure. Self-compassion manipulation increased positive responses to the self (comprising self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness components of the Self-Compassion Scale) relative to control, which in turn, predicted a stronger belief that failures are learning opportunities. Self-reflection manipulation also predicted this adaptive belief by increasing the positive responses relative to control and, more importantly, it also increased negative responses to the self (comprising self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification components of the Self-Compassion Scale), which, in turn, predicted the beliefs that failures are aversive and must be avoided. In sum, this research confirms that people high in self-compassion hold adaptive beliefs about failures; it also suggests that one could promote adaptive beliefs by increasing the positive responses to the self and decrease maladaptive beliefs by decreasing the negative responses to the self.
Yokota, K. (横田晋大), Tsuboi, S. (坪井翔), Mifune, N. (三船恒裕), & Sugiura, H. (杉浦仁美) (2019). A conceptual replication of the male warrior hypothesis using the outgroup threat priming method 外集団脅威プライミングを用いた男性戦士仮説の概念的追試 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 10(1), 1-3. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2019.67
A conceptual replication of Yuki and Yokota’s (2009) study to test the validity of the male warrior hypothesis was conducted. They reported that ingroup bias was triggered by the perceptual cue of outgroup threat, based on the use of a priming method in a minimal group situation among men only. In this study, the stimulus of outgroup threat priming and the measurement of ingroup bias were modified to test the effect of outgroup threat priming on ingroup bias. The results revealed failure to replicate and thus no bias generated by priming among men.
Mifune, N. (三船恒裕), Inamasu, K. (稲増一憲), Kohama, S., Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), & Tago, A. (2019). Social dominance orientation as an obstacle to intergroup apology 社会的支配志向性が集団間謝罪の障壁となる PLoS ONE, 14(1), e0211379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211379
Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) has engaged the interest of social and personality psy- chologists as it has deep implications for the psychology of intergroup conflict, particularly regarding factors such as prejudice and discrimination, as well as international conflict reso- lution. Nevertheless, few studies have directly assessed how SDO relates to intergroup rec- onciliation. This study (effective N = 819) measured participants’ SDO along with their attitudes toward various governmental apologies to test the hypothesis that SDO is associ- ated with unwillingness to issue intergroup apologies. The results showed that SDO was negatively correlated with supportive attitudes toward government-issued international apol- ogies. This negative correlation remained intact after controlling for the effects of political conservatism and militarism.
Meng, X., Ishii, T.(石井辰典), Sugimoto, K., Song, R., Moriguchi, Y., & Watanabe, K. (accepted) Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile 敵対者の微笑み：5-6歳児は "微笑んだいじわる" の顔をよく記憶する Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Remembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children between 5 and 6 years of age. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later for rewards (stickers) by answering quiz questions. Then, they participated in the coin-collecting game wherein individual persons with smiling or angry expressions appeared one at a time on a computer monitor. These same individuals then either gave coins to or took them away from the children, leading to congruent (smiling giver and angry taker) and incongruent (smiling taker and angry giver) conditions. After the game, children had to choose between two faces to indicate which one previously appeared in the game. Participants recognized faces better under the incongruent conditions. In particular, the smiling taker was recognized significantly better than the angry taker, whereas no difference was observed for the smiling and angry givers. Evidently, 5-to-6-year-old-children remember better individuals whose facial expression or appearance is incongruent with their expected behavior.
Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン), & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2019). Cultural variation in reactions to a group member’s vicarious choice and the role of rejection avoidance. ある集団成員による代理的な選択に対する反応の文化的差異とそれにおける排除回避傾向の役割 Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1311. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01311
Extending the literature on culture and the personal or interpersonal construction of choices, this research investigates consequences of an ingroup member’s vicarious decision for the entire group and the mechanism behind cultural variation. In Study 1, Japanese people showed, compared to Germans, greater acceptance of vicarious choice and evaluated the ingroup member who had chosen on their behalf more positively. Using mediation analyses and priming methods, Studies 2 and 3 identified rejection avoidance to partly explain culturally diverse reactions to vicarious choices. These findings suggest that the mechanism behind cultural differences in choice is related to variation in strength of the motivation to maintain social approval.
Kuroda, K. (黒田起吏), & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (in press). You watch my back, I'll watch yours: Emergence of collective risk monitoring through tacit coordination in human social foraging. 困ったときはお互い様：集団リスク状況における暗黙の協調行動の創発 Evolution and Human Behavior, in press. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2019.05.004
Predation risk is a significant concern when social animals including humans engage in foraging. When people search for resources together, individuals often find themselves in a producer–scrounger game, in which some individuals bear the cost of risk monitoring while others can free ride on those efforts. A theoretically rational strategy is to mix foraging and risk monitoring randomly with the same probability across all members, but such uncoordinated action often yields inefficiencies of under- or over-supply of risk monitoring in a group. Here, we examined whether people could spontaneously develop a coordinated risk-monitoring system, alternating vigilance and foraging in a pair. Given that human cooperation is vulnerable to fear of exploitation and emotional arousal under risk, we hypothesized that such sources of anxiety would be potential disruptors to coordination. In a laboratory experiment, two participants worked on a “treasure hunt” task simultaneously, in which they chose between low or high vigilance against predators during foraging without verbal communication. If one chose high vigilance with personal cost, it yielded a spillover benefit to the other. Besides behavioral choices, each participant’s physiological arousal (skin conductance response) and cognitive effort (tonic pupil dilation) were measured during the task. Results showed that some pairs were actually able to develop a role-alternating system over time through tacit coordination, but coordinated action was also vulnerable to anxiety and mistrust among participants. Overall, these results imply that, besides the mutual behavioral control that often characterizes repeated interaction, cognitive control of emotional arousal may be a critical psychological factor for the emergence of coordinated cooperation.
Igarashi, T. （五十嵐祐） (2019) Development of the Japanese version of the three-item loneliness scale. 日本語版孤独感尺度（3項目）の開発 BMC Psychology, 7:20 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-019-0285-0
Loneliness is a major risk factor for mental and physical health worldwide. The Three-Item Loneliness Scale (TIL Scale; Hughes et al., 2004) has been widely applied to measure loneliness in a simplified format, but no validated Japanese version has been developed. This study adapted the TIL Scale into Japanese and tested its reliability and validity. [Methods] The original English version of the TIL Scale was translated into Japanese, and the expressions of the Japanese version were confirmed by a back translation procedure. The translated scale was then administered to Japanese respondents recruited from an online research panel (N = 1020) and an online crowdsourcing service (N = 500). To analyze the data containing polytomous responses to the items in the scale, this study used categorical Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Generalized Partial Credit Model based on the Item Response Theory. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale, this study examined factorial validity, reliability, information curves, and the associations of the scale score with demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and living arrangements), the scores of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (R-UCLA), the Big Five scale of personality traits, and the sizes of personal networks. [Results] The translated TIL Scale showed essential unidimensionality and characteristics to differentiate among respondents at different levels of loneliness. The scale score was related positively with the scores of R-UCLA and neuroticism and negatively with the scores of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, and the sizes of overall and support networks. Those who were unmarried and alone recorded a higher score on the scale than those who were married and living with someone. Age showed a negative correlation with the scale score only in Sample 1, in which the equal allocation procedure was introduced for the age stratum. [Conclusions] The results indicate that the Japanese version of the TIL Scale demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for the assessment of loneliness.
本研究では、Hughes et al. (2004) の孤独感尺度短縮版（3項目）の邦訳版を作成し、オンラインのサンプルから収集したデータを用いて、項目応答理論に基づいて項目の特性を分析したのち、UCLA孤独感尺度やBig Five、個人の属性との基準関連妥当性を検討しています。従来の研究では、20項目のUCLA孤独感尺度が多く用いられてきましたが、本研究の知見は、3項目の短縮版が一定の識別力と妥当性を有することを示すものであり、さまざまな領域での応用が期待されます。
Nawata, K. (縄田健悟) (2019). A glorious warrior in war: Cross-cultural evidence of honor culture, social rewards for warriors, and intergroup conflict 戦争における栄光の戦士：名誉の文化，戦士への社会的報酬，集団間紛争の比較文化的論拠 Group Processes & Intergroup Relations doi: 10.1177/1368430219838615
Previous research has shown that honor culture and honor ideology enhance interpersonal and intergroup aggressiveness at the individual level. This study aimed to examine collective-level relationships among honor culture, social rewards for warriors, and intergroup conflict. To demonstrate these relationships, I used the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, which contains data on 186 mainly preindustrial societies from all over the world. The analysis demonstrated that honor culture, which values males’ toughness and aggression, has a positive relationship with frequency of intergroup conflicts. In addition, social rewards (praise, prestige, and status) for warriors mediated the relationship between honor culture and frequency of intergroup conflict. These results imply that the collective-level processes of honor culture enhance intergroup conflicts through the social reputations of warriors who participate in war.
これまでの研究は、名誉文化と名誉イデオロギーが個人レベルでの対人間・集団間の攻撃性を高めることを明らかにしてきた。 本研究の目的は，名誉文化，戦士への社会的報酬，集団間紛争に関する集合レベルの関係を検証することである。 本研究ではStandard Cross-Cultural Sampleという人類学分野のデータセットを利用して分析した。ここには主に前産業社会の世界186データが含まれている。 分析の結果，男性のタフさと攻撃性を重視する名誉文化は集団間紛争の頻度と正の関係にあることが示された。 さらに、戦士への社会的報酬（賞賛、特権、地位）は，名誉文化と集団間紛争の頻度との関係を媒介した。 以上の結果は、集合レベルの名誉文化のプロセスが，戦争に参加する戦士の社会的評判を通じて集団間紛争を激化する可能性を示唆している。
Ishiguro, C., Takagishi, H. (高岸治人), Sato, Y., Seow, A. W., Takahashi, A., Abe, Y., Hayashi, T., Kakizaki, H., Uno, K., Okada, H., Kato, E. (in press). Effect of dialogical appreciation based on visual thinking strategies on art-viewing strategies. 絵画鑑賞における視覚的思考戦略に基づく対話型鑑賞の効果 Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts doi: 10.1037/aca0000258
This study examines how educational interventions involving art viewing affect students’ art-viewing behaviors and their evaluations of artworks. We focused on Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS), a typical intervention implemented in schools and museums, and examined its educational effect by comparing it to another common intervention: lectures on art history. To conduct this experiment, we recruited a sample of undergraduate students who were then assigned to a VTS condition or a lecture condition. The participants viewed 10 specific artworks both before and after receiving the educational intervention, and their eye movements and evaluations of each picture were measured and contrasted. The results showed that the participants who were assigned to the VTS condition increased the amount of time they spent viewing the artworks, whereas the lecture interventions had no observable effect on any measurement. The participants’ favorability toward the artworks was not affected by either intervention. These findings reveal a new aspect of the effects of employing VTS in art education regarding art viewing.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2019). A decline in self-esteem in adults over 50 is not found in Japan: age differences in self-esteem from young adulthood to old age. 日本では50歳以降の自尊心の低下は見られない：成人期から老年期における自尊心の年齢差 BMC Research Notes, 12, 274. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4289-x
The current research examined age differences in self-esteem in Japan from young adults aged 20 to the elderly aged 69 with a focus on self-esteem trajectories from middle age to old age. Previous research in European American cultures has indicated that self-esteem rises from young adulthood into middle age, and sharply declines starting in one’s 50s or 60s. However, it was unclear whether this sharp drop would be found in Japan. Therefore, the present research investigated whether the same age differences were present in Japan by analyzing data from a large and diverse sample. Results showed that self-esteem increases from young adulthood into middle age, consistent with previous research. However, the sharp decline after the age of 50 was not found, which is different from the pattern in European American cultures. This may be related to a finding that people in East Asian cultures show more humble attitudes toward themselves.
Tanibe, T. (谷辺哲史), Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), Tomabechi, T. (苫米地飛), Masamoto, T. (正本拓), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2019). Attributing mind to groups and their members on two dimensions. 集団とその成員に対する心の帰属の二次元性 Frontiers in Psychology, 10:840. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00840
Psychological research has revealed that people attribute mental states to groups such as companies, especially to those groups that are highly entitative. Moreover, attributing a mind to a group results in the decreased attribution of mind to individual group members. Recent research has demonstrated that the minds of others are perceived in two dimensions—agency and experience. The present study investigated the possibility that this two-dimensional structure exists in mind attribution to groups, and group entitativity has different patterns of relations with these dimensions. A vignette experiment revealed that highly entitative groups were attributed both agency and experience to greater degrees compared to non-entitative groups, while group entitativity reduced only the attribution of agency to the individual group members. Individual members were attributed an equivalent amount of experience regardless of group entitativity. Mind attribution to individual members showed an unpredicted third factor of other-recognition, which was positively related to group entitativity. The implications of mind attribution to moral issues were discussed.
Saito, Y. (齋藤美松), Ueshima, A. (上島淳史), Tanida, S. (谷田林士), & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (in press). How does social information affect charitable giving?: Empathic concern promotes support for underdog recipient 社会情報は寄付行動にどのような影響を与えるか: 共感的配慮が判官びいきを促進する Social Neuroscience doi: 10.1080/17470919.2019.1599421
Charitable giving represents a unique cooperative characteristic of humans. In today’s environment with social media, our charitable decisions seem to be influenced by social information such as a project’s popularity. Here we report three experiments that examined people’s reactions to social information about a charitable endeavor and their psychophysiological underpinnings. Participants were first solicited to make donations to either the Africa or Syria project of UNICEF. Then participants were provided an opportunity to learn social information (i.e., how much each project had raised from previous participants) and change their decision if desired. Contrary to expectation, participants who learned that their initial preferences were consistent with the majority of previous participants’ choices exhibited a sizable tendency to switch to the less popular project in their final choices. This anti-conformity pattern was robust across the three experiments. Eye-tracking data (gaze bias and pupil dilation) indicated that these “Changers” were more physiologically aroused and formed more differential valuations between the two charity projects, compared to “Keepers” who retained their initial preferences after viewing the social information. These results suggest that social information about relative popularity may evoke empathic concern for the worse-off target, in line with the human tendency to avoid unequal distributions.
Hiraoka, D.（平岡大樹）, & Nomura, M. (野村理朗) （in press）. Maternal Childhood Adversity, OXTR Genotype and Cognitive Load Impact on Perceptual and Behavioral Responses to Infant Crying 乳児泣き声への反応に母親の被養育経験・オキシトシン受容体遺伝子多型・認知的負荷が影響を与える Psychoneuroendocrinology doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.03.005
The crying of infants elicits aversive feelings and poses. Maternal childhood maltreatment can have negative parenting ability consequences and interact with the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) to predict maternal response to infant distress stimuli. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of individual vulnerability differences to situational cognitive load in parenting situations. The current study, in which 124 mothers participated in a standardized infant vocalization paradigm, examined three-way interaction on subjective empathy, behavior intention, and handgrip force response to a crying infant. Participants were asked to squeeze a handgrip dynamometer at maximal and half strength while memorizing a meaningless alphabet syllable as the cognitive load manipulation. Significant interactions were also observed between OXTR rs53576, childhood adversity, and cognitive load when predicting excessive force and harsh response intention on hearing a crying infant. These findings suggested that, as the G allele carriers of OXTR rs53576 appear to be susceptible to the effects of severe childhood adversity, inter- and intra-individual approaches are needed when assessing maternal responses to infant stimuli.
Omi, Y. （尾見康博）(2019). Corporal punishment in extracurricular sports activities (bukatsu) represents an aspect of Japanese culture. 部活における体罰は日本文化の一側面を表している In L.Tateo (ed.) Educational dilemmas: A cultural psychological perspective. NY: Routledge Pp.139-145.
Yoshiya Furukawa (古川善也), Ken'ichiro Nakashima (中島健一郎), Tsukawaki, R. (塚脇涼太)& Yasuko Morinaga (森永康子) (in press). Guilt as a signal informing us of a threat to our morality. 道徳性への脅威を知らせるシグナルとしての罪悪感 Current Psychology doi: 10.1007/s12144-019-0144-4
Some studies have shown the possibility that people feel guilt not only due to interpersonal problems but also when experiencing threats to their own internal morality (e.g. Eskine et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(5), 947-950, 2013), whereas other studies have shown that guilt-induced behaviours can restore individuals’ sense of moral person (e.g. Gneezy et al. Management Science, 58(1), 179–187, 2012; Zhong et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 859–862, 2010). These findings suggest that guilt can strongly reflect how much individuals deviate from what they perceive to be adequate moral person. Therefore, we proposed that guilt works as an alert system that signals people about threats to their morality. We used the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464-1480, 1998) to investigate if an individual’s moral self decreased in the situation where that individual felt guilt. Results showed that implicit moral self in the guilt condition was lower than that in the control condition when controlling for individual variation in moral self. Our findings provide a new perspective on the function of guilt and generate new hypotheses about the relationship between guilt and behaviours.
Furukawa, Y. (古川善也), Nakashima, K. (中島健一郎), & Morinaga, Y. (森永康子) (2019). Guilt Signals a Crisis of Rejection: Two Types of Individual Differences Related to Social Rejection Have Dissimilar Effects on Guilt and Compensatory Behavior. 罪悪感は排斥の脅威をシグナルする：2つのタイプの社会的排斥に関する個人差が罪悪感と補償行動に異なる効果を持つ。 Japanese Psychological Research, 61(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1111/jpr.12199
We investigated whether feelings of guilt, which signal crises in interpersonal relationships (Baumeister, Stillwell, & Heatherton, 1994), are differently evoked by two types of individual differences in social rejection: rejection detection capability (Kawamoto, Nittono, & Ura, 2015) and rejection sensitivity (Downey & Feldman, 1996). Using the hypothetical scenario method, we found that in situations with a potential risk of being rejected as a consequence of causing another person harm (i.e., harm‐present condition), participants with higher rejection detection capability felt more guilt and engaged in more compensatory behavior towards the victims. In addition, guilt mediated the relationship between rejection detection capability and compensatory behavior. Conversely, in situations with no potential risk of being rejected (i.e., harm‐absent condition), participants with higher rejection sensitivity felt more guilt but did not engage in much compensatory behavior. These results suggest that individual differences in social rejection foster different responses to specific threats.
Toyokawa, W. (豊川 航), Whalen, A. & Laland, NK. (2019). Social learning strategies regulate the wisdom and madness of interactive crowds. 社会的学習戦略が群知能と集合愚とを制御する Nature Human Behaviour, doi: 10.1038/s41562-018-0518-x
Why groups of individuals sometimes exhibit collective ‘wisdom’ and other times maladaptive ‘herding’ is an enduring conundrum. Here we show that this apparent conflict is regulated by the social learning strategies deployed. We examined the patterns of human social learning through an interactive online experiment with 699 participants, varying both task uncertainty and group size, then used hierarchical Bayesian model fitting to identify the individual learning strategies exhibited by participants. Challenging tasks elicit greater conformity among individuals, with rates of copying increasing with group size, leading to high probabilities of herding among large groups confronted with uncertainty. Conversely, the reduced social learning of small groups, and the greater probability that social information would be accurate for less-challenging tasks, generated ‘wisdom of the crowd’ effects in other circumstances. Our model-based approach provides evidence that the likelihood of collective intelligence versus herding can be predicted, resolving a long-standing puzzle in the literature.
Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2018). Impact of consumer power on consumers' reactions to corporate transgression. 企業不祥事への消費者の反応に勢力が与える影響 PLoS ONE, 13(5), e0196819. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196819
We addressed how individuals’ power influences their judgments regarding corporate transgressions. Based on the Situated Focus Theory of Power, which theorizes that powerful people respond more in accordance to circumstantial factors, we tested the interaction of power and the type of corporate discourse offered by the accused company. Across two studies (overall N = 216), we experimentally primed power (Study 1) and manipulated participants’ sense of direct control over the company (Study 2). We consistently found an interaction effect of power and corporate discourse on people’s negative attitudes toward the company—particularly on the unwillingness to use the company’s products. Particularly, high-power individuals were prone to strongly vary their attitudes based on the mitigative/non-mitigative nature of the discourse, while those low in power were unsusceptible to the type of discourse. The results suggest how the potential rise of consumer power in society may critically influence the consumer-corporate relationships following corporate transgressions.
Kase, T. (嘉瀬貴祥), Ueno, Y., Shimamoto, K., & Oishi, K. (2019). Causal relationships between sense of coherence and life skills: Examining the short-term longitudinal data of Japanese youths. Sense of coherenceとライフスキルの因果関係―日本人青年の短期縦断的データを用いた検討― Mental Health & Prevention, 13(1), 14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.mhp.2018.11.005
This study investigated the causal relationships between sense of coherence (SOC) and life skills. Participants (248 university students; 147 men, 101 women; mean age = 20.4 years, SD = 0.9 years) completed the Japanese version of the SOC-29 scale and the Life Skills Scale for Adolescents and Adults. Structural equation modeling (a synchronous effects model and a cross-lagged effects model) indicated that life skills had a certain effect (β = .55 to .75, p < .01) on SOC. This result suggests that improving life skills was effective in strengthening SOC. The findings of this study provide key information concerning the dimensions and stages of SOC and life skills. This can be used to construct a theoretical model and framework for future practical studies on strengthening SOC and conducting life skills training.
Kase, T. (嘉瀬貴祥), Ueno, Y., & Oishi, K. (2018). The overlap of sense of coherence and the Big Five personality traits: A confirmatory study. Sense of coherenceとBig Five性格特性との関係についての検証的研究 Health Psychology Open, 5(2), 1-4. doi: 10.1177/2055102918810654
Sense of coherence is the perception of the world as coherent. Its conceptual similarities to the Big Five personality traits have been demonstrated. We therefore investigated the relationship between sense of coherence and the Big Five. In total, 1088 Japanese youths completed the 29-item Sense of Coherence Scale and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Neuroticism was negatively correlated and extraversion was positively correlated with comprehensibility (r = −.47, .35), manageability (r = −.44, .26), and meaningfulness (r = −.28, .30). These correlations were strong, and the overlap between the two scales was about 36 percent. While the Big Five are related to sense of coherence, their differences cannot be ignored.
Matsunaga, M., Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), Noguchi, Y., Ochi, M. (越智美早), & Yamasue, H. (2018). Culture and cannabinoid receptor gene polymorphism interact to influence the perception of happiness. 文化とカンナビノイド受容体遺伝子多型が相互作用し幸せの知覚に影響する PLoS ONE, 13, e0209552. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209552
Previous studies have shown that a cytosine (C) to thymine (T) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene is associated with positive emotional processing. C allele carriers are more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli including happiness. The effects of several gene polymorphisms related to sensitivity to emotional stimuli, such as that in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR), on emotional processing have been reported to differ among cultures–e.g., between those that are independent and interdependent. Thus, we postulated that the effects of the CNR1 genotype on happiness might differ among different cultures because the concept of happiness varies by culture. We recruited healthy male and female young adults in Japan, where favorable external circumstances determine the concept of happiness, and Canada, where the concept of happiness centers on positive inner feelings, and compared the effects of the CNR1 genotype on both subjective happiness levels (self-evaluation as being a happy person) and situation-specific happiness (happy feelings accompanying various positive events) by using a questionnaire. We found that the effect of CNR1 on subjective happiness was different between the Japanese and Canadian groups. The subjective happiness level was the highest in Japanese individuals with the CC genotype, whereas in Canadian participants, it was the highest in individuals with the TT genotype. Furthermore, the effects of CNR1 genotype on situation-specific happiness were also different between the groups. Happiness accompanied with being surrounded by happy people was the highest among Japanese individuals with the CC genotype, whereas among Canadian individuals, it was the highest in TT genotype carriers. These findings suggest that culture and CNR1 polymorphism interact to influence the perception of happiness.
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), & Suzuki, T.(鈴木貴久) (2018). Effects of beliefs about sanctions on promoting cooperation in a public goods game. サンクションに対する信念が協力に与える影響 Palgrave Communications, 4(1), 148. doi: 10.1057/s41599-018-0203-8
Cooperative behaviour among people facing social dilemmas remains an unsolved puzzle. Sanction systems such as punishment and reward are well-known solutions to social dilemmas. On the one hand, it is theorised that peer sanctions cannot maintain cooperation because of the intrusion of second-order free riders. On the other hand, experimental studies have widely reported that cooperation is sustainable by first-order sanction systems. To understand the divergence between theory and experimental results, we focus on the effects of beliefs about sanctions on promoting cooperation. While previous studies have revealed effects of beliefs about other people’s cooperation in public goods games (PGGs), the effect of beliefs about sanctions have not been considered. We conducted a scenario-based experiment using one-shot PGGs with and without sanction systems. The results revealed that beliefs about sanctions promote cooperation in a PGG when types of sanctions and some psychological attitudes to cooperation are controlled for. Our results indicate that the beliefs of actors promote cooperation despite the possible presence of second-order free riders. A belief about sanctions differs from a preference for cooperative behaviour and the amount a player pays to exercise a sanction. It is necessary to consider players’ beliefs about a sanction when studying its effectiveness.
Takano, Y. （高野陽太郎）, & Osaka, E. （纓坂英子）(2018) “Attention, please” to situation: Replies to commentaries by Uleman, Matsumoto, Hamamura and Takemura, and Vignoles 状況に注目：Uleman, Matsumoto, Hamamura and Takemura, Vignoles による論評への回答 Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 21(4), 346-355. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12347
この論文は、私たちの展望論文（Takano & Osaka, 2018）に寄せられた４編の論評論文に対する回答論文です。日本人論では、長らく「日本人は集団主義的、アメリカ人は個人主義的」と言われてきました。20年前、私たちは日本人とアメリカ人を比較した実証的研究を探索し、見つかった15件の研究がこの通説を支持していないことを報告しました（Takano & Osaka, 1999）。新しい展望論文では、その後に発表された研究を中心に、新たに20件の実証的研究を調べ、それらの研究が全体としてはこの通説を支持していないという同じ結論に至りました。この展望論文に対する４編の論評論文は、いずれも、「通説は妥当ではない」という点で、私たちと意見を同じくしていました。通説が何十年ものあいだ世界中で信奉されてきたことを思えば、これは驚くべきことです。この回答論文では、集団主義・個人主義の問題を考える際には「状況」を考慮に入れることが重要であることを指摘し、「状況」との関連で、「集団主義・個人主義は1次元的な概念か多次元的な概念か」、「集団レベルでの文化差（⇔個人レベルでの文化差）を測定することはできるか」、「文化間での有意差を一律に文化差と捉えてよいか」等の理論的な問題を検討しました。
Takano and Osaka (2018) tested the validity of the common view that Japanese are more collectivistic than Americans by reviewing empirical studies published mainly during recent two decades, and found that this common view was not supported by most of the reviewed studies. All the four commentaries on this review of ours shared with us the basic judgment that the common view is untenable. In this reply, we present arguments to resolve some doubts cast on our review, and then argue that situation is a key concept to investigate critical issues related to individualism and collectivism such as their dimensionality and distinction between societal level and individual level cultural difference.
Asano, R. (浅野良輔), Tsukamoto, S. (塚本早織), Igarashi, T. (五十嵐祐), & Huta, V. (in press). Psychometric properties of measures of hedonic and eudaimonic orientations in Japan: The HEMA Scale. 日本における快楽志向・幸福志向尺度の心理測定学的特性：HEMA尺度 Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9954-z
The Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale measures well-being as a series of orientations. We investigated the HEMA scale’s psychometric properties among two Japanese samples in longitudinal studies over periods of one month (N = 385) and two months (N = 224). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified three subscales of the HEMA scale: hedonic pleasure orientation, hedonic relaxation orientation, and eudaimonic orientation. On average, at a given point in time, the correlations between subscales were r = .58 for the hedonic pleasure and hedonic relaxation orientations; r = .56 for the hedonic pleasure and eudaimonic orientations; and r = .26 for the hedonic relaxation and eudaimonic orientations—while the internal consistencies were αs > .80 for all subscales. In both studies, the three HEMA subscales had test-retest correlations averaging rs = .51, which suggests that these orientations are temporally quite stable, yet they are also amenable to change. Longitudinal analyses showed correlations between the HEMA scale and external criteria: hedonic pleasure orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, personal growth, purpose in life, and sense of meaning; hedonic relaxation orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, calm affect, and personal growth; and eudaimonic orientation was associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, personal growth, purpose in life, and sense of meaning. Implications for future research on the HEMA scale are discussed.
Nishina K.（仁科国之）, Takagishi H.（高岸治人）, Fermin A. S. R., Inoue-Murayama M., Takahashi H., Sakagami, M., Yamagishi T.（山岸俊男） (2018). Association of the oxytocin receptor gene with attitudinal trust: role of amygdala volume. オキシトシン受容体遺伝子と信頼態度の関連：扁桃体の体積の役割 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 13, 1091-1097. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsy075
Previous studies have shown that genetic variations in rs53576, a common variant of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) resulting from a single nucleotide polymorphism involving an adenine (A)/guanine (G) transition, are associated with attitudinal trust in men. However, the pathway from gene to behaviour has not been elucidated. We conducted the present study to determine whether amygdala volume mediates the association between OXTR rs53576 genotypes and attitudinal trust. Our results revealed that the left amygdala volume was significantly smaller in GG men than in AA and AG men, whereas it was significantly smaller in AA and AG women than in GG women. In addition, the left amygdala volume was negatively associated with attitudinal trust in men, whereas there was no such association in women. We also found a significant mediation effect of the left amygdala volume on the association between OXTR rs53576 genotypes and attitudinal trust in men. The results of our study suggest that the left amygdala volume plays a pivotal role in the association between OXTR rs53576 genotypes and attitudinal trust in men.
Kawamoto, T. (川本大史), & Hiraki, K. (in press). Parental presence with encouragement alters feedback processing in preschoolers: An ERP study. 親の応援が5歳児のフィードバック処理を変える：ERP研究 Social Neuroscience doi: 10.1080/17470919.2018.1527250
External feedback plays an important role in adapting to the environment; however, feedback processing in preschoolers has not been fully understood. The present event-related brain potential (ERP) study sought to understand the influence of parental presence with encouragement on feedback processing by focusing on reward positivity (RewP: mean amplitude between 200–350 ms). Five-year-old children (N = 21) completed an animal search task both alone (the alone condition) and with a parent who offered words of encouragement (the with a parent condition). ERPs were recorded while they received negative and positive feedback. We found a larger RewP amplitude in response to positive feedback in the with a parent condition relative to in the alone condition. In addition, differences in RewP between positive and negative feedback were only observed in the with a parent condition. These findings suggest that everyday parental encouragement has the potential to promote differential positive and negative feedback processing possibly by enhancing the reward value of positive feedback.
Horita, Y.（堀田結孝） & Takezawa, M. （竹澤正哲） (2018). Cultural differences in strength of conformity explained through pathogen stress: A statistical test using hierarchical Bayesian estimation 病原体の蔓延度から説明される同調傾向の文化差：階層ベイズによる推定 Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1921. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01921
The severity of the environment has been found to have played a selective pressure in the development of human behavior and psychology, and the historical prevalence of pathogens relate to cultural differences in group-oriented psychological mechanisms, such as collectivism and conformity to the in-group. However, previous studies have also proposed that the effectiveness of institutions, rather than pathogen stress, can account for regional variation in group-oriented psychological mechanisms. Moreover, previous studies using nations as units of analysis may have suffered from a problem of statistical non-independence, namely, Galton’s problem. The present study tested whether or not regional variation in pathogen stress, rather than government effectiveness, affected collectivism and conformity to social norms by adjusting the effect of global regions using hierarchical Bayesian estimation. We found that the overall effect of pathogen stress remained significant in only one out of the four indices of the regional variability of conformity, and the effects of the government effectiveness also disappeared. Instead, we found that significant effects of both pathogen stress and government effectiveness in specific regions of the world, but these effects were not stable across the measurements. These results indicate that both the effects of pathogen stress and government effectiveness need further reevaluation.
Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). Cultural influences in somatosensory amplification and their association with negative affectivity. 身体感覚の増幅における文化的な影響およびネガティブ感情との関連性 Asian Journal of Social Psychology. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12342
Previous research has indicated that, reflecting East Asians’ holistic attentional style, they are likely to emphasize more somatic symptoms and perceive their internal visceral states less accurately as compared with Westerners. Based on these findings, comparing representative samples of Americans and Japanese participants, this research examined whether somatosensory amplification would vary across cultures. Moreover, by controlling confounding factors, including neuroticism and chronic disorders, the possibility that the association between somatosensory amplification and negative affective states differs across cultures also was tested. The results showed that Japanese exhibit higher somatosensory amplification than do Americans. In both cultures, as neuroticism and the number of chronic disorders increased, negative affective states also increased, leading to higher somatosensory amplification. Whereas negative affective states completely mediated the paths of neuroticism and chronic disorders to somatosensory amplification in the United States, such mediation was partial in Japan. Moreover, the association between somatosensory amplification and negative affective states was weaker in Japanese than in Americans.
Mori, Y., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). The effect of auditory imagery for speech in reading in Japanese. 発話の聴覚的イメージが日本人の読みに与える効果 Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9946-z
Auditory images for speech are preserved and can be accessed during reading. This research, conducted in Japan, examined whether and to what extent previous findings on the influence of speaker-specific auditory images in reading can be generalized to non-English speakers in a different cultural context. In two studies, Japanese participants were asked to read a text aloud after being informed that the text had been written by either a fast speaker or a slow speaker whose speech they were to listen to. The participants read the episode more slowly when it was attributed to a slow speaker than when it was attributed to a fast speaker. Individual differences in one’s mimicry of the speaker moderated the influence of speaker-specific auditory images in reading. The influence was confirmed only for those who consciously mimicked the speaker. In contrast, situational cues manipulated to generate affiliation with and closeness to the speakers did not influence the participants’ reading times.
Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン) (2018). Cultural similarities and differences in social discounting: The mediating role of harmony-seeking. 社会割引における文化的類似と差異：協同調和傾向による媒介 Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1426. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01426
One’s generosity to others declines as a function of social distance, which is known as social discounting. We examined cultural similarities and differences in social discounting and the mediating roles of the two aspects of interdependence (self-expression and distinctiveness of the self) as well as the two aspects of independence (harmony-seeking and rejection avoidance). Using the same procedure that previous researchers used to test North Americans, Study 1 showed that compared to North Americans, Japanese discount more steeply a partner’s outcomes compared to their own future outcomes, whereas the decrease in the subjective value of the partner’s outcomes accelerates less as a function of social distance. To examine the cultural similarities and differences in social discounting in more detail, Study 2 tested Japanese and Germans and found that the hyperbolic with exponent model fitted the participants’ discounting behaviors better than the other models, except for the loss condition in Germans where the utility of the q-exponential model was indicated. Moreover, although the social discounting rate was higher in Japanese than in Germans, the cultural difference was limited to the gain frame. However, the decline in a person’s generosity accelerated less as a function of social distance in Japanese than in Germans. Furthermore, the cultural difference in the social discounting in gains was mediated by the level of harmony-seeking, which was higher in Germans than in Japanese. Implications for individuals’ generosity against the backdrop of cultural characteristics are discussed.
Kusano, K. (草野広大) and Kemmelmeier, M. (2018). Ecology of freedom: Competitive tests of the role of pathogens, climate, and natural disasters in the development of socio-political freedom. 自由の生態学：病原体、気候、自然災害が社会・政治的自由の発達に与える役割の競争的検証 Front. Psychol. 9:954. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00954
Many countries around the world embrace freedom and democracy as part of their political culture. However, culture is at least in part a human response to the ecological challenges that a society faces; hence, it should not be surprising that the degree to which societies regulate the level of individual freedom is related to environmental circumstances. Previous research suggests that levels of societal freedom across countries are systematically related to three types of ecological threats: prevalence of pathogens, climate challenges, and natural disaster threat. Though their incidence overlaps, the literature has not yet provided a competitive test. Drawing upon the ecocultural framework, we tested five rival hypotheses, alternately focused on the above ecological factors and their interactions with economic wealth in explaining country variations in socio-political freedom. Focusing on data from 150 countries, we performed a series of linear mixed-effects regressions predicting freedom in the domains of politics, media, and economy. We found that countries with higher pathogen prevalence were more likely to suppress democracy and media freedom. Economic wealth, however, moderated the effect of pathogen prevalence on economic freedom, with the main effect being only found among wealthy countries, but not among poor countries. In contrast, natural disaster threat predicted political freedom and press freedom only among poor countries, consistent with the idea that disaster threat accompanied by poor resources promote socio-political freedom as a means of increasing collective survival. Throughout our analyses, we found no support for hypotheses based on climatic challenges. In addition, our multilevel approach revealed that country scores for socio-political freedom were highly clustered within world regions, accounting for substantial portions of variance. Overall, the present research offers a nuanced view of the interplay between ecology and wealth in the emergence of socio-political freedom. We discuss new directions in future research considering methodological and theoretical contributions of the present findings.
文化心理学では、環境が社会や心理にどのように影響を与えるのかと言う点について、様々な研究がなされてきた。先行研究は、主に病原体、気候、自然災害の３つの環境要因と、個人主義や民主主義などの国レベルの自由の指標の関係を検証する研究が多く行われて来た。病原体、気候、自然災害などの要因は、互いに独立していない環境要因であるにも関わらず、先行研究では、これらの要因についての理論を包括的に検証する試みがなされていなかった。そこで本研究では、これら３つの環境要因と、経済的豊かさ（GDP per capita）を全て考慮したモデルを検証した。さらに本研究は、先行研究の国レベルの分析における統計的な誤り（独立性の仮定）を指摘し、マルチレベル分析を用いることで、独立性の無視によって起こる推定バイアスを部分的に調整した。その結果、病原菌感染率の低い国においては、民主主義が高まる傾向にある、といった示唆が得られた。
Takano, Y.（高野陽太郎） & Osaka, E. （纓坂英子） (2018). Comparing Japan and the United States on individualism/collectivism: A follow-up review 集団主義・個人主義に関する日米比較： 展望の続報 Asian Journal of Social Psychology doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12322
It has been long believed that the Japanese are typical collectivists whereas Americans are typical individualists. To examine the validity of this common view, we formerly reviewed 15 empirical studies that compared Japanese and Americans regarding individualism/collectivism (I/C), and found that the overwhelming majority of those studies had not supported the common view (Takano & Osaka, 1999). In this follow-up, we reviewed 20 additional empirical studies (7 behavioral studies, 13 questionnaire studies), most of which had been published after the former review. When combined with the formerly reviewed 15 studies, 19 studies reported no clear difference, and 11 studies reported that Japanese were more individualistic than Americans. These 30 studies are inconsistent with the common view. Only 5 studies supported the common view, even when we included 3 studies whose validity was questionable. After it was formerly found that the common view was not supported empirically, a variety of alternative accounts were presented regarding the reason for this finding. We examined three major accounts in light of the reviewed studies and found that none of them was congruent with the empirical data. Thus, it seems to be reasonable to conclude that the common view is not valid.
日本人論では、長らく「日本人は集団主義的、アメリカ人は個人主義的」だと論じられてきました。20年前、私たちは日本人とアメリカ人を比較した実証的研究を探索し、見つかった15件の研究がこの通説を支持していないことを報告しました（Takano & Osaka, Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 1999）。今回は、その後に発表された研究を中心に、新たに20件の実証的研究を調べ、やはり全体としては通説を支持していないことを見出しました。また、前回の報告について、通説を支持する立場から提出された主な別解釈を３つ取り上げ、それらが実証的研究とは一致しないことも明らかにしました。
Shimotomai, A. （下斗米淳）（2018） Parental social power, co-parenting, and child attachment: early to late japanese adolescence transitions. 親の社会的勢力、協働子育て、そして子どもの愛着： 初期から後期青年期にかけての推移 Current Psychology, 20, 1-12. doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9811-0
The purposes of this study were to examine how adolescents’ perceptions of parental powers and how bases of power between the father and the mother separately impact adolescents’ attachment to their father and mother, as well as the changing pattern of such impact. The participants were 44 junior high school students (M = 14.32 years old), 88 high school students (M = 17.27 years old), and 61 university students (M = 20.54 years old) in Japan. Adolescents’ attachment to their parents and their perceptions of parental social powers were assessed. The results indicated that adolescents had a significantly high perceptions of parental expert power. Moreover, the similarity between parental powers strongly impacted the behavioral bonds of adolescents’ attachment. Furthermore, powers between parents mutually defined and influenced the attachment of late adolescents to their parents. Thus, the present study could point out adolescents’ rebuilding their parent-child relationships and the interdependence of parents in child-rearing. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of co-parenting and the social adjustment of parents and children.
Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), Furutani, K.(古谷嘉一郎), & Alimardani, M. (2018). Preliminary validation of Japanese version of the Parental Burnout Inventory and its relationship with perfectionism. 日本語版子育てバーンアウト尺度の妥当性検討および完全主義との関連 Frontiers in Psychology, 9:970. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00970
Parenting is a precious experience and also a very hard task, which could result in parental burnout for some parents. The present study sought to validate a Japanese version of the Parental Burnout Inventory (PBI-J) by replicating and extending the pioneering work of Roskam et al. (2017). We conducted a web survey (N = 1200) to first validate the PBI-J and second to investigate the association between the PBI-J and perfectionism as a new interrelation. Similar to the prior study of Roskam et al. (2017), confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of three-factor structure of the PBI-J: emotional exhaustion, lack of personal accomplishment, and emotional distancing. In addition, we found low to moderate correlations of parental burnout with job burnout, parental stress, and depression. These findings provided initial evidence for validity of the PBI-J and suggested that parental burnout appeared to be different from job burnout. Our further evaluation of perfectionism confirmed such a difference between parental and job burnout by showing that parental perfectionism [i.e., combination of parental personal standards (PS) and parental concern over mistakes (CM)] has a unique contribution to parental burnout than does job perfectionism (i.e., combination of job PS and job CM). In addition, CM was positively correlated with burnout in both domains whereas the associations between PS and burnout were more complex. Finally, the proportion of parents experiencing burnout was estimated to lie somewhere between 4.2 and 17.3% in Japan. Overall, the present study confirmed preliminary validity of the PBI-J and found that parental perfectionism is one of the vulnerability factors in parental burnout.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一), & Niiya, Y. (新谷優) (2018). Can self-compassion help people regulate unattained goals and emotional reactions toward setbacks? セルフコンパッションは達成できなかった目標の制御やその挫折経験への情動反応の制御を促すのか Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 239-244. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.029
The current study examined whether self-compassion helps individuals cope with the experience of unattainable goals. Because self-compassion entails taking a balanced perspective of one’s suffering and maintaining emotional stability, this study predicted that individuals high in self-compassion would be more likely to disengage from their unattained goals and reengage in an alternative important goal, and thus, be less likely to experience negative emotions toward their setback in goal attainment. Japanese undergraduates (N = 177), who had completed a measure of self-compassion a week prior, recalled their personal failure of goal attainment and answered items about the degree of goal disengagement, goal reengagement, and current negative emotions toward their setback. Structural equation modeling showed that self-compassion was positively related to goal reengagement and goal disengagement, and that self-compassion had a significant negative indirect effect on current negative emotions via goal disengagement, in addition to a negative direct effect. These results were mainly in accordance with predictions, suggesting that self-compassion is a psychological resource for coping with setbacks in goal attainment.
Li, L. M. W., Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Hamamura, T., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (in press). Culture and Decision Making: Influence of Analytic Versus Holistic Thinking Style on Resource Allocation in a Fort Game. 文化と意思決定：要塞ゲームでの資源分配における分析的 vs. 包括的思考様式による影響 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology doi: 10.1177/0022022118778337
People have to make different decisions every day, in which culture affects their strategies. This research examined the role of analytic versus holistic thinking style on resource allocation across cultures. We expected that, analytic thinking style, which refers to a linear view about the world where objects’ properties remain stable and separate, would make people concentrate their resource allocation corresponding to the current demand, whereas holistic thinking style, which refers to a nonlinear view that people perceive change to be a constant phenomenon and the universe to be full of interconnected elements, would encourage people to spread out their resource allocation. In Study 1, Hong Kong Chinese, a representative group of holistic cultures, and European Canadians, a representative group of analytic cultures, completed a resource allocation task (i.e., fort game). The results showed that the allocation pattern of European Canadians was more concentrated than that of Hong Kong Chinese and holistic thoughts predicted a less concentrated allocation pattern. To test causality, thinking styles were manipulated in Study 2, in which mainland Chinese were primed with either holistic thinking style or analytic thinking style. The results showed that the allocation pattern was more concentrated in the analytic condition than that in the holistic condition, which was explained by greater perceived predictability in the analytic condition. Implications of these findings on cross-cultural decision-making research and applied research were discussed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (in press). The rise in individualism in Japan: Temporal changes in family structure, 1947-2015. 日本文化の個人主義化：家族構造の経時的変化, 1947-2015 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
The present research examined whether Japanese culture became more individualistic between 1947 and 2015 by investigating temporal changes in indicators of family structure. Previous research has shown that Japanese culture has become more individualistic. However, the amount of research investigating temporal changes in individualism in Japan is small. Thus, it is important to examine whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating indicators that have not been used in previous research. Therefore, indicators of family structure that have been validated as indices of individualism were used to examine whether people came to live more independently from other family members. Analyses indicated that the rate of people living alone, the rate of nuclear households, and the divorce rate increased, while the rate of three-generation households and the household size decreased. These results showed that family structure became more individual-based in Japan, suggesting that Japanese culture changed toward greater individualism.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2018). Economic shifts and cultural changes in individualism: A cross-temporal perspective. 経済的変化と文化の個人主義化：経時的な観点からの検討 In A. Uskul & S. Oishi (Eds.), Socioeconomic environment and human psychology: Social, ecological, and cultural perspectives (pp. 247-270). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190492908.003.0010
This chapter discusses the relationship between economic affluence and individualism from a cross-temporal perspective. Previous research has indicated that wealth and individualism are positively correlated at both the individual and the national level. This chapter discusses whether this relationship is also found at the temporal level. This chapter consists of three parts. First, a theory about the association between economic affluence and individualism is summarized. Second, the chapter introduces empirical evidence on temporal changes in individualism and their relationship with economic development in three cultures (United States, Japan, China). These studies indicated that the three cultures have shifted toward greater individualism over time. Moreover, these changes in individualism were positively linked to increases in economic affluence at the annual level. Third, the chapter is summarized and directions for future research are raised. Overall, this chapter discusses how socioecological factors and human psychologies/behaviors are associated particularly from a cross-temporal perspective.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (in press). Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the right temporoparietal junction enhances the self-effacing bias in Japanese individuals. 右側頭頭頂接合部に対する経頭蓋直流刺激が日本人の自己卑下バイアスに与える影響 Culture and Brain.
Identifying the cause of social events enables us to understand why our environment interacts with us in a certain way. Although previous studies suggest that the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is associated with internal attribution, the causal relationship remains unclear. The present study, firstly, aimed to investigate whether and how the attributional tendency could change with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the rTPJ. Secondly, since Japanese individuals tend to perform self-effacing attribution as a socially adaptive behavior, we examined whether the increased activation of the rTPJ, which facilitates the process of shaping self-concept from another perspective, might increase self-effacing attributions specifically among individuals who are highly sensitive to social rewards. Consistent with these predictions, we found that the increased activation of the rTPJ enhanced self-effacing bias, and this relationship was specifically observed among high reward dependent (RD) individuals. We also revealed that it took a longer time for the high RD participants to avoid self-responsibility for failure after the stimulation. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the rTPJ could exacerbate self-blaming tendencies in Japanese individuals.
Nakayachi, K. (中谷内 一也), Johnson, B., & Koketsu, K. (2018). Effects of acknowledging uncertainty about earthquake risk estimates on San Francisco Bay area residents’ beliefs, attitudes, and intentions. 地震のリスク評価には不確実性があることを認めることがサンフランシスコ湾岸住民の信念、態度、行動意図にどのような影響をもたらすのか Risk Analysis, 38(4), 666-679.
We test here the risk communication proposition that explicit expert acknowledgment of uncertainty in risk estimates can enhance trust and other reactions. We manipulated such a scientific uncertainty message, accompanied by probabilities (20%, 70%, implicit [“will occur”] 100%) and time periods (10 or 30 years) in major (≥magnitude 8) earthquake risk estimates to test potential effects on residents potentially affected by seismic activity on the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (n = 750). The uncertainty acknowledgment increased belief that these specific experts were more honest and open, and led to statistically (but not substantively) significant increases in trust in seismic experts generally only for the 20% probability (vs. certainty) and shorter versus longer time period. The acknowledgment did not change judged risk, preparedness intentions, or mitigation policy support. Probability effects independent of the explicit admission of expert uncertainty were also insignificant except for judged risk, which rose or fell slightly depending upon the measure of judged risk used. Overall, both qualitative expressions of uncertainty and quantitative probabilities had limited effects on public reaction. These results imply that both theoretical arguments for positive effects, and practitioners’ potential concerns for negative effects, of uncertainty expression may have been overblown. There may be good reasons to still acknowledge experts’ uncertainties, but those merit separate justification and their own empirical tests.
Nakayachi, K. (中谷内 一也) (2018). Effects of providing measures against earthquakes: Experimental studies on the perceived risks of disasters and disaster preparedness intentions in Japan. 地震対策用品を提供することの効果：日本における災害リスク認知と準備行動意図に関する実験的研究 Natural Hazards, 90(3), 1329-1348.
This research examined the effects of providing measures against disasters on recipients’ perceived risks and preparedness intentions by conducting two experimental studies. A provision of a set of emergency food was manipulated in the first experiment. Participants (N = 143) were randomly assigned to the provided condition or non-provided condition. In the second experiment (N = 123), provision of an emergency toilet kit was manipulated. The results of the two experiments consistently indicated that (1) the provision of a measure increased the recipients’ perceived risks of the disaster concerned, (2) it increased their preparedness intentions for the disaster, and (3) it had no effects on perceived risks of or preparedness intentions against disasters unrelated to the measure provided. These results were contrary to the prediction deduced from the protection effect and single action effect. The findings in this study encourage promoting the risk management policy of providing people with disaster measures as the first step in disaster preparedness.