日本の社会心理学者たちは,活発な研究活動を展開・公表しており,その成果は日本語による論文であれば例えば日本社会心理学会の機関誌である「社会心理学研究」等の学会誌に掲載され,また学術書として公刊されています.一方,当然のことながら学問に国境はなく,特に近年では国際的な論文誌や書籍にその成果が掲載されることも増えてきました.しかし,こうした国際的成果をくまなく知ることは,あまりにそのフィールドが広いためにあまり容易ではありませんでした.

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Miura, & Kobayashi (2016)

Miura, A.(三浦麻子), & Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎) (2016).
Survey satisficing inflates stereotypical responses in online experiment: The case of immigration study.
オンライン調査に際する「努力の最小限化」は心理学研究の結果を歪める:自国民と他国民のイメージ評価を用いた実験的研究
Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1563.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01563

Though survey satisficing, grudging cognitive efforts required to provide optimal answers in the survey response process, poses a serious threat to the validity of online experiments, a detailed explanation of the mechanism has yet to be established. Focusing on attitudes toward immigrants, we examined the mechanism by which survey satisficing distorts treatment effect estimates in online experiments. We hypothesized that satisficers would display more stereotypical responses than non-satisficers would when presented with stereotype-disconfirming information about an immigrant. Results of two experiments largely supported our hypotheses. Satisficers, whom we identified through an instructional manipulation check (IMC), processed information about immigrants’ personality traits congruently with the stereotype activated by information provided about nationality. The significantly shorter vignette reading time of satisficers corroborates their time-efficient impression formation based on stereotyping. However, the shallow information processing of satisficers can be rectified by alerting them to their inattentiveness through use of a repeated IMC.

オンライン調査に回答する際に協力者が応分の注意資源を割こうとしない行動(努力の最小限化;Satisfice)が心理学の研究結果に及ぼす影響について検討しました。調査冒頭で努力の最小限化をした協力者は、事後の人物イメージ評価において、その人が他国民の場合は、その人の性格に関する情報よりも、その人の国籍に応じたステレオタイプにひきずられた回答をする傾向がありました。しかし、こうした傾向は、努力の最小限化に警告を与え、回答者の行動を修正することである程度解消されることがわかりました。

Kawamoto et al. (2017)

Kawamoto, T. (川本 大史), Ura, M. (浦 光博), & Hiraki, K. (2017). 
Curious people are less affected by social rejection. 
好奇心旺盛な人は拒絶の影響を受けにくい 
Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 264-267. 
doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.006

Recent studies have revealed that curiosity—seeking new information and experiences—can improve psychological and social functioning. However, the social nature of curiosity remains poorly understood. We tested whether curious people show better psychological adaptation because (1) they have less rejection sensitivity, and (2) they are less susceptible to daily social rejection experiences. These two hypotheses were supported by a cross-sectional study (N = 500, 20–39 years old). We found that rejection sensitivity partially mediates the relationship between curiosity and psychological adaptation (life satisfaction and depression). Furthermore, curiosity moderated the relationships between perceived daily social rejection experiences and life satisfaction: Curious people are buffered against such aversive effects, relative to less curious people. Our findings suggest one possible explanation for why curious people experience better psychological functioning: They appear to be less affected by social rejection. 

Suzuki et al. (2016)

Suzuki, T.(鈴木貴久), Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), & Boase, J. (2016).
Political Conversations as Civic Engagement: Examining Patterns from Mobile Communication Logs in Japan.
市民参加としての政治的会話:日本のモバイルコミュニケーションログパターンの検証
Mobile Media, Political Participation, and Civic Activism in Asia, Part of the series Mobile Communication in Asia: Local Insights, Global Implications, pp 57-79.
doi: 10.1007/978-94-024-0917-8_4

Political conversation is regarded as an important form of political participation and civic engagement. Although significant differences have been found in the level of political conversation between countries, studies on political conversation in Japan are scarce. In this study, we investigated political conversation between people, considering the kinds of dyads in personal networks in Japan and how partners are selected. We pursued an exploratory analysis of the features of dyads in political conversation through mobile communication logs, comparing those in Japan and the US. For both countries, the results show that discussion of important topics and the number of voice calls in the afternoon was significant predictors of political conversations. In Japan, discussing with other people and family were more significant predictors than for the US. These results may have important implications for clarifying the extent to which political conversations take place, with whom, and how they occur as a by-product of other topics.

Kameda et al. (2016)

Kameda, T.(亀田達也), Inukai, K.(犬飼佳吾), Higuchi, S., Ogawa, A., Kim, H., Matsuda, T., & Sakagami, M. (2016).
Rawlsian maximin rule operates as a common cognitive anchor in distributive justice and risky decisions.
ロールズのマキシミン基準は分配的正義とリスキーな決定に際する一般的な認知的アンカーとして機能する
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Published online before print September 29, 2016.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1602641113

Distributive justice concerns the moral principles by which we seek to allocate resources fairly among diverse members of a society. Although the concept of fair allocation is one of the fundamental building blocks for societies, there is no clear consensus on how to achieve “socially just” allocations. Here, we examine neurocognitive commonalities of distributive judgments and risky decisions. We explore the hypothesis that people’s allocation decisions for others are closely related to economic decisions for oneself at behavioral, cognitive, and neural levels, via a concern about the minimum, worst-off position. In a series of experiments using attention-monitoring and brain-imaging techniques, we investigated this “maximin” concern (maximizing the minimum possible payoff) via responses in two seemingly disparate tasks: third-party distribution of rewards for others, and choosing gambles for self. The experiments revealed three robust results: (i) participants’ distributive choices closely matched their risk preferences—“Rawlsians,” who maximized the worst-off position in distributions for others, avoided riskier gambles for themselves, whereas “utilitarians,” who favored the largest-total distributions, preferred riskier but more profitable gambles; (ii) across such individual choice preferences, however, participants generally showed the greatest spontaneous attention to information about the worst possible outcomes in both tasks; and (iii) this robust concern about the minimum outcomes was correlated with activation of the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), the region associated with perspective taking. The results provide convergent evidence that social distribution for others is psychologically linked to risky decision making for self, drawing on common cognitive–neural processes with spontaneous perspective taking of the worst-off position.

Nakayachi, & Nagaya(2016)

Nakayachi, K. (中谷内一也), & Nagaya, K. (長谷和久). (2016). 
The Effects of the Passage of Time from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake on the Public’s Anxiety about a Variety of Hazards. 
2011年の東日本大震災からの時間の経過が多様なハザードに対する人々の不安に与える影響
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(9), 866. 
doi:10.3390/ijerph13090866

This research investigated whether the Japanese people’s anxiety about a variety of hazards, including earthquakes and nuclear accidents, has changed over time since the Tohoku Earthquake in 2011. Data fromthree nationwide surveys conducted in 2008, 2012, and 2015 were compared to see the change in societal levels of anxiety toward 51 types of hazards. The same two-phase stratified random sampling method was used to create the list of participants in each survey. The results showed that anxiety about earthquakes and nuclear accidents had increased for a time after the Tohoku Earthquake, and then decreased after a four-year time frame with no severe earthquakes and nuclear accidents. It was also revealed that the anxiety level for some hazards other than earthquakes and nuclear accidents had decreased at ten months after the Earthquake, and then remained unchanged after the four years. Therefore, ironically, a major disaster might decrease the public anxiety in general at least for several years.

Ogihara et al. (2016)

Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二), Uchida, Y. (内田由紀子), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2016). 
Losing confidence over time: Temporal changes in self-esteem among older children and early adolescents in Japan, 1999-2006. 
自信の経時的な低下:1999年から2006年の日本の小学生・中学生における自尊感情の経時的変化
SAGE Open, 6(3), 1-8. 

We examined temporal changes in self-esteem among elementary and middle school students in Japan. Previous research has shown that self-esteem decreased among various sectors of the population, from middle school students to adults between 1984 and 2010 in Japan. However, it was unclear whether such temporal changes are also present at earlier stages of development (e.g., in elementary school) and in individual subgroups (e.g., each gender and developmental stage). Identifying such boundary conditions of temporal change will contribute to a better understanding of how cultures change over time. We analyzed representative and large-sample time-series data collected by the Japanese government in 1999 and 2006. Results showed that self-esteem decreased among elementary and middle school students regardless of gender and developmental stage. We suggest that from an early stage of development and among a broad range of the population in Japan, people’s general self-evaluations became more negative between 1999 and 2006.

関連論文: Ogihara (2016)

Eom, K. (2016)

Eom, K., Kim, H. S., Sherman, D. K., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2016).
Cultural variability in the link between environmental concern and support for environmental action. 
環境への配慮と環境にやさしい行動との関係が文化で異なる
Psychological Science.
doi: 10.1177/0956797616660078

Research on sustainability behaviors has been based on the assumption that increasing personal concerns about the environment will increase proenvironmental action. We tested whether this assumption is more applicable to individualistic cultures than to collectivistic cultures. In Study 1, we compared 47 countries (N = 57,268) and found that they varied considerably in the degree to which environmental concern predicted support for proenvironmental action. National-level individualism explained the between-nation variability above and beyond the effects of other cultural values and independently of person-level individualism. In Study 2, we compared individualistic and collectivistic nations (United States vs. Japan; N = 251) and found culture-specific predictors of proenvironmental behavior. Environmental concern predicted environmentally friendly consumer choice among European Americans but not Japanese. For Japanese participants, perceived norms about environmental behavior predicted proenvironmental decision making. Facilitating sustainability across nations requires an understanding of how culture determines which psychological factors drive human action. 

Takagishi et al. (2016)

Takagishi, H. (高岸治人), Fujii, T. (藤井貴之), Nishina, K. (仁科国之), Okada, H. (2016). 
Fear of Negative Evaluation Moderates the Effect of Subliminal Fear Priming on Rejection of Unfair Offers in the Ultimatum Game. 
評価不安は不公平提案の拒否における閾下恐怖プライミング効果を調節する
Scientific Reports, 6, 31446.
doi:10.1038/srep31446

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the tendency to fear negative evaluation moderates the effect of fear emotion on the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). A photograph of a fearful face or landscape was displayed subliminally (i.e., for 10 ms) before the proposer’s offer in the UG was presented to participants. We used the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNES) to measure participants’ anxiety regarding negative evaluations from others. Results showed a significant interaction between FNES and condition (fearful face vs. landscape) in relation to the rejection of an unfair offer. Furthermore, the mean rejection rate of an unfair offer was significantly higher in the fearful face condition relative to that in the landscape condition among participants whose FNES scores were higher than the median; however, this difference was not observed in participants whose FNES scores were lower than the median. These results suggest that fear of negative evaluation moderates the effect of subliminal fear priming on the rejection of unfair offers in the UG, and that negative emotion induced by unconscious stimuli enhances rejection of these unfair offers.

Sugiura et al. (2017)

Sugiura, H.(杉浦仁美), Mifune, N. (三船恒裕), Tusboi, S.(坪井翔), & Yokota, K. (横田晋大) (2017)
Gender differences in intergroup conflict: The effect of outgroup threat priming on social dominance orientation.
(集団間葛藤における性差:外集団脅威プライミングが社会的支配志向に及ぼす効果)
Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 262–265.
doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.013

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of outgroup threat priming on social dominance orientation (SDO). Evolutionary psychologists have proposed the adaptive psychological mechanism to intergroup conflict is specific to males. We predicted that the mechanism would function as enhancement of an orientation concerning hierarchical group relations by cueing outgroup threat. We hypothesized that male participants would demonstrate a higher level of SDO than females by outgroup threat priming in a laboratory experiment. One hundred sixty-seven undergraduate students participated in the experiment that measured SDO after an outgroup priming task. Consistent with our hypothesis, results showed that males had a higher level of SDO than females by cue of outgroup threat, while females did not reveal any significant effects of the outgroup threat cue on SDO.

Murayama, & Miura (2016)

Murayama, A. (村山綾), & Miura, A. (三浦麻子) (2016).
Two Types of Justice Reasoning About Good Fortune and Misfortune: A Replication and Beyond. 
幸運・不運に対する2種類の公正推論
Social Justice Research, First Online: 04 August 2016.
doi:10.1007/s11211-016-0269-7

While research into justice reasoning has progressed extensively, the findings and implications have been mainly limited to Western cultures. This study investigated the relationship between immanent and ultimate justice reasoning about others’ misfortune and good fortune in Japanese participants. The effects of goal focus and religiosity, which previously have been found to foster justice reasoning, were also tested. Participants were randomly assigned to one condition of a 2 (goal focus: long term or short term) × 2 (target person’s moral value: respected or thief) × 2 (type of luck: misfortune or good fortune) design. For immanent justice reasoning, the results revealed that a “bad” person’s misfortune was attributed to their past misdeeds, while a “good” person’s good fortune was attributed to their past good deeds. Regarding ultimate justice reasoning, it was found that a good person’s misfortune was connected more to future compensation than their good fortune, whereas a bad person’s misfortune was not reasoned about using ultimate justice. There was no significant effect of religiosity or goal focus on justice reasoning, which is inconsistent with the findings of previous studies. The necessity of directly examining cultural differences is discussed in relation to extending and strengthening the theory of justice reasoning.

2種類の公正推論を促進させると言われる、宗教性や長期目標への焦点化は、日本人を対象とした検討では効果がみられなかったものの、道徳的価値の低い人物の不運は内在的公正推論が行われ、道徳的価値の高い人物の不運は究極的公正推論が行われるという傾向は先行研究と一貫していたという内容です。また、このような先行研究の再現性の検討に加えて、幸運に対する公正推論についても新たに検討しました。

Asano et al. (2016)

Asano, R. (浅野良輔), Ito, K., & Yoshida, T. (吉田俊和) (2016).
Shared relationship efficacy of dyad can increase life satisfaction in close relationships: Multilevel study.
親密な関係における共有された関係効力性は人生満足度を高める
PLoS ONE, 11 (7), e0159822.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159822

Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed.

Tanaka, Ohtsuki, & Ohtsubo (2016)

Tanaka, H.(田中大貴), Ohtsuki, H., & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介) (2016).
The price of being seen to be just: An intention signalling strategy for indirect reciprocity.
正当と見なされるためのコスト:間接互恵性状況での意図シグナル戦略
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 20160694. 
doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0694

Cooperation among strangers is a marked characteristic of human sociality. One prominent evolutionary explanation for this form of human cooperation is indirect reciprocity, whereby each individual selectively helps people with a ‘good’, but not ‘bad’ reputation. Some evolutionary analyses have underscored the importance of second-order reputation information (the reputation of a current partner’s previous partner) for indirect reciprocity as it allows players to discriminate justified ‘good’ defectors, who selectively deny giving help to ‘bad’ partners, from unjustified ‘bad’ defectors. Nevertheless, it is not clearwhether people in fact make use of second-order information in indirect reciprocity settings. As an alternative, we propose the intention signalling strategy, whereby defectors are given the option to abandon a resource as a means of expunging their ‘bad’ reputation. Our model deviates from traditional modelling approaches in the indirect reciprocity literature in a crucial way—we show that first-order information is sufficient to maintain cooperation if players are given an option to signal their intention. Importantly, our model is robust against invasion by both unconditionally cooperative and uncooperative strategies, a first step towards demonstrating its viability as an evolutionarily stable strategy. Furthermore, in two behavioural experiments, when participants were given the option to abandon a resource so as to mend a tarnished reputation, participants not only spontaneously began to use this option, they also interpreted others’ use of this option as a signal of cooperative intent.

(間接互恵状況での評判について再検討した研究です。これまでの間接互恵性研究では、非協力者への協力を拒むという正当な理由に基づく非協力を、正当なものかどうか判断するのは観察者の役割とされてきました。しかし、それでは観察者は多くの情報を利用してひとりの非協力者の行為が正当かどうかを判断せねばならず、実験をすると必ずしもそのような複雑な判断がなされていないということがわかっていました。そこで、本研究では、非協力した人自身に自分の意図をシグナルする機会を与えることで間接互恵性の評判がうまく機能することをモデルの分析で示し、その後、実験で人々が意図シグナル戦略を用いることを示しました。)

Ezaki et al. (2016)

Ezaki, T., Horita, Y. (堀田結孝), Takezawa, M. (竹澤正哲), & Masuda, N. (2016). 
Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin. 
強化学習によって条件付き協力とその気まぐれないとこを説明する 
Plos Computational Biology, 12(7), e1005034.
Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show conditional cooperation behavior and its moody variant. Mechanisms underlying these behaviors largely remain unclear. Here we provide a proximate account for this behavior by showing that individuals adopting a type of reinforcement learning, called aspiration learning, phenomenologically behave as conditional cooperator. By definition, individuals are satisfied if and only if the obtained payoff is larger than a fixed aspiration level. They reinforce actions that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes and anti-reinforce those yielding unsatisfactory outcomes. The results obtained in the present study are general in that they explain extant experimental results obtained for both so-called moody and non-moody conditional cooperation, prisoner’s dilemma and public goods games, and well-mixed groups and networks. Different from the previous theory, individuals are assumed to have no access to information about what other individuals are doing such that they cannot explicitly use conditional cooperation rules. In this sense, myopic aspiration learning in which the unconditional propensity of cooperation is modulated in every discrete time step explains conditional behavior of humans. Aspiration learners showing (moody) conditional cooperation obeyed a noisy GRIM-like strategy. This is different from the Pavlov, a reinforcement learning strategy promoting mutual cooperation in two-player situations. 

LeClair et al. (2016)

LeClair, J., Sasaki, J. Y., Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Shinada, M. (品田瑞穂), Kim, H. S. (2016).
Gene–culture interaction: influence of culture and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism on loneliness.
遺伝子と文化の相互作用:文化とオキシトシン受容体遺伝子の多相性が孤独感に及ぼす影響
Culture and Brain, 1-17.
Previous research has shown that culture and genes can interact to influence social behaviors. Variation of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs53576 polymorphism has been linked to differential susceptibility to cultural influences with genetically susceptible individuals showing more culturally typical behaviors. The present research focuses on a psychological outcome of such behaviors, specifically loneliness, which is an outcome related to well-being. We also considered attachment style as a mediator for the interaction between culture and OXTR genetic variation on loneliness. Previous gene–culture interaction research shows that G-allele carriers may be genetically predisposed to show more culturally typical behaviors and psychological tendencies, compared to A-allele carriers. Thus, we expected that genetically susceptible Japanese would show a more avoidant attachment style (a pattern more common in Japan), while susceptible Americans would show a more secure attachment style (a pattern more common in the U.S.). In both cultures, we expected that greater avoidant relationship tendencies would predict greater loneliness. Participants (217 American and 153 Japanese students) completed scales to measure loneliness and attachment style, and provided saliva for genotyping. As predicted, culture moderated the link between genetic susceptibility and loneliness, with G-allele Americans showing less loneliness than A-allele carriers. Further, the link was mediated by attachment style. Our study extends existing research by showing that gene–culture interactions on relationship patterns have consequences for psychological well-being outcomes.

Tabuchi, & Miura (2016)

Tabuchi, M.(田渕恵), & Miura, A. (三浦麻子) (2016).
Intergenerational Interactions when Transmitting Wisdom from Older to Younger Generations.
高齢者から若者への知恵の伝達における世代間相互作用
Educational Gerontology.
doi: 10.1080/03601277.2016.1205392
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of young people’s reactions on changes in older people’s generativity when wisdom is transmitted to the younger people. Participants included 48 male adults aged 63–77 years. Each participant was assigned to either the “wisdom from experiences of failure” or the “wisdom from experiences of success” condition. Participants expressed narratives to younger “listeners” or recipients, who were confederates and were instructed to respond either empathetically or neutrally. Results showed that only in the “wisdom from experiences of failure” condition, generativity was promoted when young recipients responded in an empathic manner and decreased when the young recipients responded in a neutral manner. Based on these results, the differential effects of responses from younger individuals to older persons’ transmission of stories about negative experiences are discussed.

Otsubo, & Tamada (2016)

Otsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), & Tamada, S. (2016).
Social attention promotes partner intimacy.
社会的注意はパートナーとの親密性を促進する
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 21-24.
doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.45
Social animals develop intimate bonds with their social partners. However, bond formation entails the risk of being exploited by partners. Previous studies have shown that people monitor partner attention to themselves to assess commitment to the relationship. Accordingly, a partner’s social attention promotes the receiver’s intimacy with the partner. This study expanded previous finding by manipulating partner attention in a naturalistic manner. In particular, naïve participants were assigned to one of two roles (i.e., signal Sender and Receiver) in the laboratory. Receiver first wrote a self-instruction essay, and Sender read it under either of two instructions: to pay close attention to the content of the essay (the high attention condition) or to some peripheral aspects of the essay (the low attention condition). After reading the essay, Sender’s memory of the essay was assessed. Naturally, Sender recalled it more accurately in the high attention condition. Knowing Sender’s accuracy, Receiver reported a sense of intimacy toward Sender. Receiver’s intimacy was higher in the high attention condition than in the low attention condition. Therefore, this study confirmed that paying attention to a partner, which translates to accurate understanding of the partner, promotes the intimacy in the partner.

Fujii et al. (2016)

Fujii, T.(藤井貴之), Goto, A.(後藤晶), & Takagishi, H.(高岸治人) (2016).
Does facial width-to-height ratio predict Japanese professional football players’ athletic performance?
顔の幅と高さの比率は日本人プロサッカー選手の競技成績を予測するか?
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 37-40.
doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.49
A number of studies have shown that facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR)—the distance between the two zygomatic arches (width) compared with the distance from the top of the lip to the bottom of the eyebrows (height)—is related to aggression and is reflective of testosterone levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between fWHR and the athletic performance of Japanese professional football players. Photographs of 343 Japanese professional football players were measured for fWHR and compared with the number of goals scored and penalty cards (yellow and red) acquired in the 2012 season. The results showed that fWHR was not associated with the number of goals scored in any football position. However, the number of penalty cards acquired was positively associated with fWHR only in the forward offensive position. These findings showed that fWHR is not related to goals scored by Japanese football players, but is related to the penalty cards acquired in the offensive domain.

Ogihara (2016)

Ogihara, Y.(荻原祐二) (2016).
Age Differences in Self-Liking in Japan: The Developmental Trajectory of Self-Esteem from Elementary School to Old Age.
日本における自己好意の年齢差:小学生から高齢者における自尊感情の発達的軌跡の検討
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 33-36.
doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.48
The present research examined age differences in self-liking (an important component of self-esteem) across a broad range of the population in Japan, from elementary school students to the elderly. Previous research in the U.S. has shown that self-esteem levels in childhood are high, decline during adolescence, rise gradually in adulthood and drop in old age. However, it was unclear whether this pattern holds for other cultures. As self-esteem is significantly affected by culture, it is important to reveal its developmental trajectory not only in European American cultures, but also in other cultures. Therefore, the current research analyzed a large, highly representative cross-sectional dataset from Japan. Results showed that levels of self-liking were high for elementary school students, declined among middle school and high school students, and rose gradually among adults, replicating the developmental trajectory of self-esteem found in prior research.

Hiraishi et al. (2016)

Hiraishi, K.(平石界), Murasaki, K., Okuda, H., & Yamate, M. (2016).
Sexual and Romantic Overperception among a Japanese young sample: A Replication of Haselton (2003)
男は好意を過剰評価する(Haselton, 2003)の直接的追試
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 29-32.
doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.47
 
Based on Error Management Theory, Haselton (2003) argued that men would have a cognitive bias to overperceive sexual interests in women. She demonstrated that US female undergraduates had more experiences of being misperceived of their sexual interests by men whilst such biases were not existent with male undergraduates. Bendixen (2014) replicated the findings with an undergraduate sample from a more gender equal society, Norway. We conducted a direct replication of Haselton (2003) with a sample from a less gender equal society, Japan, and found the same trend. In addition, we found that Japanese women were more likely to be overperceived of their romantic interests although the effects were weaker. 

Eien et al. (2016)

Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Miyamoto, Y. (宮本百合), Ma, X., & Hitokoto, H. (一言英文) (2016).
To accept one’s fate or be its master: Culture, control, and workplace choice. 
運命を受け入れる、それともその支配者になる:文化、コントロール、職場選択
Frontiers in Psychology.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00936
 
Utilizing three student (Study 1) and non-student samples (Study 2), we examined cultural differences in workplace choice for North Americans, Germans, and Japanese. We focused on the desire for control as a potential mediator (i.e., the underlying mechanism) to explain cultural differences in this important life decision. Given culturally divergent embodiments of independent vs. interdependent models of agency, we expected and found that, compared to North Americans and Germans, Japanese were more likely to prefer a workplace with a payment system that maintains social order rather than one that rewards individual achievement. Furthermore, we found that Japanese tend to give greater consideration to family opinions in their choice of workplace. As predicted, desire for control (i.e., the motivation to have control over various events) was stronger for North Americans and Germans than Japanese, and explained cultural differences in choice of workplace.

Ishii, & Eisen (2016)

Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン) (2016).
Measuring and Understanding Emotions in East Asia.
東アジアにおける感情の測定と理解
In H. Meiselman (Ed.), Emotion Measurement (Pp. 629-644). Woodhead Publishing. 
ISBN: 9780081005088
Emotions are understood as psychological processes in an innate and automatic system, leading people to behave adaptively in an environment, which helps them survive. However, people’s subjective experiences of emotions are not just a direct reflection of this system; rather, these are the result of how people interpret physiological responses based on implicit beliefs and norms regarding interpersonal relationships in society. These findings are documented in cumulative studies in cultural psychology. Over the last two decades, cultural psychologists have explored the relationship between culture and the mind and have reported that psychological processes, including daily emotional experiences, vary across cultures (eg, Mesquita & Frijda, 1992; Suh, Diener, Oishi, & Triandis, 1998). In this chapter, we describe the theoretical framework of emotions from a cross-cultural perspective and review a selection of related findings on the cultural dependence of emotions. We also address the core question of this book—how to measure emotions, focusing on online responses and the situational approach—as well as give advice on how to measure emotions in East Asia and propose future directions.

Masuda et al. (2016)

Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Kimura, J. (2016).
When does the culturally dominant mode of attention appear or disappear? Comparing patterns of eye movement during the visual flicker task between European Canadians and Japanese. 
文化的に優勢な注意様式はどんな時に生じ、または生じないか? カナダ人と日本人における視覚的フリッカー課題間の眼球運動パターンの比較
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
doi: 10.1177/0022022116653830
 
Previous findings in culture and attention reported mixed results. While some studies demonstrated systematic cultural variations in patterns of eye movement, other studies reported that the magnitude of the effects is minor. To further scrutinize when cultural variations in attention are attenuated or enhanced, we conducted a new series of visual flicker tasks while making changes in focal figures more salient than those in the background. European Canadian and Japanese participants searched for a change in a pair of quickly alternating still images. The task consisted of two parts: In the majority of trials, we set a change in part of either the focal object or the background (change trials), while in some trials, a pair of identical images was presented unbeknownst to participants (no-change trials), which resulted in forcing participants to search for a nonexistent change for 1 min. We then measured patterns of eye movement during each type of trial. The results of the change trials indicated that there were no cultural variations in change detection styles, nor were there cultural variations in eye movement patterns except for the total fixation duration, suggesting in general that both groups exhibited similar bottom-up patterns of attention. However, in the no-change trials, there were substantial cultural variations in eye movement patterns: European Canadians substantially attended to the focal figures longer and more frequently than to the backgrounds, whereas Japanese equally allocated their attention to both the focal figures and the backgrounds, suggesting that culturally unique top-down patterns were more evident.

Jung (2016)

Jung, K. H. (鄭珪煕) (2016).
Happiness as an Additional Antecedent of Schadenfreude. 
シャーデンフロイデの付加的先行要因としての幸福感
Journal of Positive Psychology.
doi: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1173224
The current study examined whether dispositionally happy individuals feel less happiness when another person experiences a misfortune. Happy individuals are known to be less vulnerable to upward comparison information. In addition, schadenfreude is elicited by upward comparison targets (e.g. high achievers and tall poppies). Thus, it was assumed that happiness would decrease schadenfreude. The lower level of hostile feelings in happy individuals, which are elicited by threats to one’s person and inferiority heightened when confronted with a high achiever, was hypothesized to decrease schadenfreude. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with scenario experiments, and the hypotheses were supported in both studies. Regression analyses revealed a significant direct effect of happiness on a reduction in schadenfreude. How not feeling schadenfreude when witness another person’s misfortune helps people maintain and/or increase their happiness is discussed.

Iwai, & Shishido (2015)

Iwai, N.(岩井紀子), & Shishido, K. (2015).
The Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident on People’s Perception of Disaster Risks and Attitudes Toward Nuclear Energy Policy.
東日本大震災・福島第一原子力発電所の事故が災害リスクの認知および原子力政策への態度に与えた影響
Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research, 2(3), 172-195.
doi: 10.15206/ajpor.2015.2.3.172
Multiple nationwide opinion surveys, carried out by the government (cabinet office), major media (national newspapers and NHK), the National Institute for Environmental Studies, and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, have revealed that the Fukushima nuclear accident has heightened people’s perception of disaster risks, fear of nuclear accidents, and increased recognition of pollution issues, and has changed public opinion on nuclear energy policy. The opinion gap on nuclear energy policy between specialists and lay people has widened since the disaster. The results of the Japanese General Social Survey data show that objections to the promotion of nuclear energy are strong among females, and weaker among young males and the supporters of the LDP. These findings are similar to the data collected after the Chernobyl accident. People who live in a 70km radius of nuclear plants tend to evaluate nuclear disaster risks higher. Distance from nuclear plants and the perception of earthquake risk interactively correlate with opinions on nuclear issues. Among people whose evaluation of earthquake risk is low, those who live nearer to the plants are more likely to object to the abolishment of nuclear plants. It was also found that the nuclear disaster has changed people’s behavior; they now try to save electricity. The level of commitment to energy saving is found to relate to opinions on nuclear issues.

Shikishima et al. (2015)

Shikishima, C.(敷島千鶴), Hiraishi, K.(平石界), Yamagata, S., Ando, J., & Okada, M. (2015).
Genetic factors of individual differences in decision making in economic behavior: A Japanese twin study using the Allais problem.
経済行動の意思決定における個人差に寄与する遺伝要因:アレのパラドクスを用いた日本の双生児研究
Frontiers in Psychology.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01712
Why does decision making differ among individuals? People sometimes make seemingly inconsistent decisions with lower expected (monetary) utility even when objective information of probabilities and reward are provided. It is noteworthy, however, that a certain proportion of people do not provide anomalous responses, choosing the alternatives with higher expected utility, thus appearing to be more “rational.” We investigated the genetic and environmental influences on these types of individual differences in decision making using a classical Allais problem task. Participants were 1,199 Japanese adult twins aged 20–47. Univariate genetic analysis revealed that approximately a third of the Allais problem response variance was explained by genetic factors and the rest by environmental factors unique to individuals and measurement error. The environmental factor shared between families did not contribute to the variance. Subsequent multivariate genetic analysis clarified that decision making using the expected utility theory was associated with general intelligence and that the association was largely mediated by the same genetic factor. We approach the mechanism underlying two types of “rational” decision making from the perspective of genetic correlations with cognitive abilities.

Hayase (2016)

Hayase, K. (早瀬光司) (2016).
Concerns Involving the Self:  What Is It That You Really Worry  about, Regret, or Are Anxious about,  When Things Do Not Go Right for You? 
「自分の思い通りにしたい、という思い」:物事が自分の思い通りにならないとき、人が心配したり、後悔したり、不安になったりしている本当の的(まと)は何か?
Psychology, 7(4), 627-647.
doi: 10.4236/psych.2016.74065
In two studies conducted in the US and Japan in 2012, more than 1000 respondents in each country were asked to report their subjective opinions and attitudes about situations that caused them regret, concern, worry, and anxiety. Although exploratory factor analyses extracted many latent factors from the 80 questions, a common latent inner factor was extracted from five questions that examined key psychological phenomena: worry at the present time, bothersome concerns in the present, regret for the past, anxiety about the future, and unpleasant experience in the past. Confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling of the latent variables (SEM/LV) provided convincing evidence of the existence of the common latent inner factor in both countries. Because each of the five key phenomena reflected concerns involving the self, the common latent inner factor was labeled “Being unable to detach from concerns involving the self.” The same latent inner factor was also confirmed in SEM/LV of the combined US- Japanese data. Women, younger people, and people with lower levels of education were less able to detach from concerns involving the self than were men, older people, and people with higher levels of education. This was true in the samples from both independent (US) and interdependent (Japan) cultures. Psychological and philosophical implications of the latent inner factor were discussed.

Shibuya (2017)

Shibuya, K. (渋谷和彦) (2017).
Bridging between Cyber Politics and Collective Dynamics of Social Movement.
Khosrow-Pour, M. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (4th Edition), IGI Global.

Ishiyama (2013)

Ishiyama, R. (石山玲子) (2013).
Japan: Why So Few Women Journalists?
Byerly, C. M. (2013). (Ed.)  The Palgrave International Handbook of Women and Journalism, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 404-418.
ISBN 978-1-137-27324-6
This handbook offers the first global study of women’s employment in news using survey data. It comprises chapters on 29 nations from all regions of the world, authored by local researchers who have a depth of knowledge about their nations’ culture, history, gender relations and journalism.

Kase et al. (2016)

Kase, T.(嘉瀬貴祥), Endo, S., & Oishi, K. (2016).
Process linking social support to mental health through a sense of coherence in Japanese university students.
日本人大学生におけるソーシャル・サポートが首尾一貫感覚を介して精神的健康と結びつく過程の検討
Mental Health & Prevention.
doi: 10.1016/j.mhp.2016.05.00
This study aims to investigate the relationships among mental health, a “sense of coherence” (SOC), and social support in Japanese university students with a focus on gender differences. Participants (548 university students) completed General Health Questionnaire-12, of the SOC-13 scales, and of the social support scale. Structural equation modeling indicates indicate that improvement in social support may be effective in strengthening SOC as a precaution against the decline of mental health in university students. Additionally, it is suggested that enhancing support from friends in males and support from family members and special people in females is effective in strengthening SOC.

Tsuboya et al. (2016)

Tsuboya, T., Aida, J., Hikichi, H.(引地博之), Subramanian, SV., Kondo, K., Osaka, K., & Kawachi, I. (2016).
Predictors of depressive symptoms following the Great East Japan earthquake: A prospective study.
東日本大震災後のうつ症状発症の予測要因:震災前のデータを活用した前向き研究の結果から
Social Science & Medicine.
doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.05.026
We sought to investigate prospectively the association between exposure to disaster (the 2011 East Japan Earthquake) and change in depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adult survivors. We used two waves of data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), an ongoing population-based, prospective cohort study in Japan. A unique feature of our study was the availability of information about mental health status pre-dating the disaster. Our sample comprised community-dwelling survivors aged 65 and older, who responded to surveys in 2010 (i.e. one year before the disaster) and in 2013 (n = 3464). We categorized disaster exposure according to three types of experiences: loss of family/friends, property damage, and disruption in access to medical service. Our main outcome was change in depressive symptoms, measured by the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS). Among the participants, 917 (26.5%) reported losing a family member to the disaster, while a further 537 (15.5%) reported losing a friend. More than half of the participants reported some damage to their homes. After adjusting for demographics and baseline mental health, people whose homes were completely destroyed had significantly elevated depressive symptom scores three years later (+1.22 points, 95%CI: 0.80, 1.64, p < 0.0001). Disruption of psychiatric care was also associated with change in GDS scores (+2.51 points, 95%CI: 1.28, 3.74, p < 0.0001). By contrast, loss of family/friends was no longer associated with GDS after 3 years; +0.18 points (95%CI: −0.018, 0.37, p = 0.08) for loss of family, and −0.045 points (95%CI: −0.28, 0.19, p = 0.71) for loss of friends. Three years after the disaster, survivors of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami appeared to have recovered from loss of loved ones. By contrast, property loss and disruption of psychiatry care were associated with persistent adverse impact on mental health.

Schug et al. (2016)

Schug, J.(シューグ・ジョアンナ),  Takagishi, H.(高岸治人),  Benech, C., & Okada, H. (2016).
The development of theory of mind and positive and negative reciprocity in preschool children.
未就学児における互恵性と心の理論の発達
Frontiers in Psychology.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00888
This study examined the relation between the acquisition of false-beliefs theory of mind and reciprocity in preschoolers. Preschool-aged children completed a task assessing the understanding of false beliefs, and played an Ultimatum Game (UG) with another child in a face-to-face setting. Negative reciprocity was assessed by examining the rejection of unfair offers made by another child in the UG, while positive reciprocity by examining allocations made by participants in a Dictator Game (DG) following the UG. The results indicated that children who had passed a task assessing first-order false beliefs were more likely to make generous offers in a DG following a fair offer made by their partner in a proceeding UG, but that the false beliefs theory of mind was unrelated to the rejection of unfair offers in the UG.

Ueda et al. (2016)

Ueda, R., Ashida, H., Yanagisawa, K.(柳澤邦昭), & Abe, N. (2016).
The neural basis of individual differences in mate poaching.
略奪愛の個人差に関わる神経基盤
Social Neuroscience.
doi: 10.1080/17470919.2016.1182065
This study tested the hypothesis that individual differences in the activity of the orbitofrontal cortex, a region implicated in value-based decision-making, are associated with the preference for a person with a partner, which could lead to mate poaching. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), male participants were presented with facial photographs of (a) attractive females with a partner, (b) attractive females without a partner, (c) unattractive females with a partner, and (d) unattractive females without a partner. The participants were asked to rate the degree to which they desired a romantic relationship with each female using an 8-point scale. The participants rated attractive females higher than unattractive females, and this effect was associated with ventral striatum activation. The participants also indicated lower ratings for females with a partner than for females without a partner, and this effect was associated with parietal cortex activation. As predicted, the participants characterized by higher orbitofrontal activity demonstrated a greater willingness to engage in a romantic relationship with females who have a partner compared with females who do not have a partner. These results are the first to provide a possible neural explanation for why certain individuals are willing to engage in mate poaching.

Hikichi et al. (2016)

Hikichi, H.(引地博之), Aida, J., Tsuboya, T., Kondo, K., & Kawachi, I. (2016).
Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami.
地域の社会的な結びつきは外傷後ストレス障害(PTSD)の発症を予防するか?東日本大震災前後のパネルデータを用いた解析結果から
American Journal of Epidemiology.
doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv335

In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter 7 months before the earthquake and tsunami. A follow-up survey was conducted approximately 2.5 years after the disaster. We used a spatial Durbin model to examine the association of community-level social cohesion with the individual risk of PTSD. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,567), 11.4% of respondents reported severe PTSD symptoms. In the spatial Durbin model, individual- and community-level social cohesion before the disaster were significantly associated with lower risks of PTSD symptoms (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98 and odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.90, respectively), even after adjustment for depression symptoms at baseline and experiences during the disaster (including loss of loved ones, housing damage, and interruption of access to health care). Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster.

Mifune et al.(2016)

Mifune, N.(三船恒裕), Hizen, Y., Kamijo, Y., & Okano, Y. (2016).
Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict.
集団対集団だと個人間よりも攻撃的になるかと思ったけど、そうじゃなかったぜ!
PLOS ONE.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154859
In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect) belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear.

Ishii et al. (2016)

Ishii, K.(石井敬子), Rule, N. O., & Toriyama, R.(鳥山理恵) (2016).
Context Sensitivity in Canadian and Japanese Children’s Judgments of Emotion.
Current Psychology, 1-8.
doi: 10.1007/s12144-016-9446-y
Previous studies showed that East Asians are more sensitive than North Americans to contextual information, and that the cultural differences in context sensitivity emerge in preschool children. Yet, little is known about whether this generalizes to children’s emotional judgments. The present study tested Canadian and Japanese preschool children and examined cross-culturally the extent to which facial expressions of surrounding people influence judgments of a target person’s emotion. Japanese children were more likely than Canadian children to judge an emotionally-neutral target as more negative (positive) when the background emotion was negative (positive), demonstrating an assimilation effect. Canadian children, however, showed a contrast effect: judging the target person’s neutral emotion as more negative when the background emotion was positive. These data extend extant understanding of emotion recognition by illuminating nuances in perceptual processes across developmental and cultural lines.

Yamagishi et al. (2016)

Yamagishi, T. (山岸俊男), Takagishi, H.(高岸治人), Fermin, A. S. R., Kanai, R., Li, Y.(李楊), & Matsumoto, Y.(松本良恵) (2016).
Cortical thickness of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predicts strategic choices in economic games.
背外側前頭前野の皮質厚が経済ゲームにおける戦略選択を予測する
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(20) 5582-5587.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523940113
Human prosociality has been traditionally explained in the social sciences in terms of internalized social norms. Recent neuroscientific studies extended this traditional view of human prosociality by providing evidence that prosocial choices in economic games require cognitive control of the impulsive pursuit of self-interest. However, this view is challenged by an intuitive prosociality view emphasizing the spontaneous and heuristic basis of prosocial choices in economic games. We assessed the brain structure of 411 players of an ultimatum game (UG) and a dictator game (DG) and measured the strategic reasoning ability of 386. According to the reflective norm-enforcement view of prosociality, only those capable of strategically controlling their selfish impulses give a fair share in the UG, but cognitive control capability should not affect behavior in the DG. Conversely, we support the intuitive prosociality view by showing for the first time, to our knowledge, that strategic reasoning and cortical thickness of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were not related to giving in the UG but were negatively related to giving in the DG. This implies that the uncontrolled choice in the DG is prosocial rather than selfish, and those who have a thicker dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and are capable of strategic reasoning (goal-directed use of the theory of mind) control this intuitive drive for prosociality as a means to maximize reward when there are no future implications of choices.

Mazzoleni et al. (2015)

G. Mazzoleni, K. G. Barnhurst, K. Ikeda(池田謙一), R. C. Maia, H. Wessler (Eds). (2015).
The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication.
政治コミュニケーション国際百科事典
Wiley-Blackwell.
Print + eReference ISBN: 978-1-4614-6171-5
The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication is the definitive single-source reference work on the subject, with state-of-the-art and in-depth scholarly reflection on the key issues within political communication from leading international experts. It is available both online and in print.
  • Explores pertinent/salient topics within political science, sociology, psychology, communication and many other disciplines
  • Theory, empirical research and academic as well as professional debate are widely covered in this truly international and comparative  work
  • Provides clear definitions and explanations which are both cross-national and cross-disciplinary by nature
  • Offers an unprecedented level of authority, accuracy and balance, with contributions from leading international experts in their associated fields
  • Part of The Wiley Blackwell-ICA International Encyclopedias of Communication series, published in conjunction with the International Communication Association

Yanjie, & Ikeda (2014)

Yanjie, B & Ikeda, K.(池田謙一) (2014).
East Asian Social Networks.
東アジアのソーシャル・ネットワークの比較分析
R. Alhajj, & J. Rokne (Eds.) (2014). Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining. Springer.
doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6170-8
The Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining (ESNAM) is the first major reference work to integrate fundamental concepts and research directions in the areas of social networks and  applications to data mining. While ESNAM  reflects the state-of-the-art in  social network research, the field  had its start in the 1930s when fundamental issues in social network research were broadly defined. These communities were limited to relatively small numbers of nodes (actors) and links. More recently the advent of electronic communication, and in particular on-line communities, have created social networks of hitherto unimaginable sizes. People around the world are directly or indirectly connected by popular social networks established using web-based platforms rather than by physical proximity.
Reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of this unique field, the essential contributions of diverse disciplines, from computer science, mathematics, and statistics to sociology and behavioral science, are described among the 300 authoritative yet highly readable entries. Students will find a world of information and insight behind the familiar façade of the social networks in which they participate. Researchers and practitioners will benefit from a comprehensive perspective on the methodologies for analysis of constructed networks, and the data mining and machine learning techniques that have proved attractive for sophisticated knowledge discovery in complex applications. Also addressed is the application of social network methodologies to other domains, such as web networks and biological networks.

Ikeda, & Takemoto (2016)

Ikeda, K.(池田謙一)Takemoto, K.(竹本圭祐) (2016).
Examining Power in Hierarchical Social Networks in East Asia.
東アジア4カ国におけるソーシャル・ネットワーク上の階層構造がもたらす勢力の効果を検討する
G. Steel (Ed). (in press). Power in Contemporary Japan. Palgrave Macmillan.
doi: 10.1057/978-1-137-59193-7
This book discusses Japanese conceptions of power and presents a complex, nuanced look at how power operates in society and in politics. It rejects stereotypes that describe Japanese citizens as passive and apolitical, cemented into a vertically structured, group-oriented society and shows how citizens learn about power in the contexts of the family, the workplace, and politics.
As Japan grapples with the consequences of having one of the oldest and most rapidly ageing populations in the world, it is important for social scientists and policy makers worldwide to understand the choices it makes. Particularly as policy-makers have once again turned their attention to workers, the roles of women, families, and to immigrants as potential ‘solutions’ to the perceived problem of maintaining or increasing the working population. These studies show the ebb and flow of power over time and also note that power is context-dependent ― actors can have power in one context, but not another.

Fujiwara et al. (2016)

Fujiwara, K.(藤原健), Takemura, K.(竹村幸祐), & Suzuki, S. (2016). 
When a smile does not good: Creativity reduction among avoidance-versus approach-oriented individuals in dyadic interactions.
笑顔が良い効果を持たない時:パートナーの笑顔は回避志向の個人の創造性を下げる
International Journal of Innovation Management, 1640007.
doi: 10.1142/S1363919616400077
This study examined the influence of others’ smiles on individuals’ creativity. According to popular belief, individuals get motivated to be more creative when others smile at them. In contrast, we hypothesised that smiles would make avoidance-oriented (versus approach-oriented) individuals less creative, as they may lose the motivation to pursue further novelty once they gain social approval, as implied by a smile. Forty-two participants were paired with a same-sex stranger and randomly assigned to the role of either an “illustrator” or a “commentator.” The illustrators performed the Alien Drawing Task and the commentators gave feedbacks regarding the drawing, which were repeated six times and video-recorded. As expected, the results showed significant interaction effects between others’ smiles and avoidance orientation on creativity: participants high in avoidance orientation showed less creativity when others smiled at them. In addition, nodding had the same effect as a smile did, confirming that social approval decreases the creativity of avoidance-oriented individuals.

Nogami, & Yoshida (2014)

Nogami, T.(野上達也), & Yoshida, F.(吉田富二雄) (2014). 
Disaster myths after the Great East Japan Disaster and the effects of information sources on belief in such myths. 
東日本大震災後の災害神話:神話への「信仰」に情報源が及ぼす効果
Disasters, 38(s2), s190-s205.
doi: 10.1111/disa.12073/
This study examines how well disaster myths were rooted in Japanese people after the Great East Japan Disaster, as well as the effects of information sources on these misconceptions. Five common disaster myths are covered (panic, psychological shock, looting, increases in the crime rate, and material convergence), and information sources were divided into two types: public and private. Three hundred participants were asked how much credit they would give the five myths and which information sources they would rely on in post-disaster situations. The results found that, as in Western societies, these disaster myths do exist among Japanese people. Also, only public sources of disaster information, such as television and Internet news websites, had some effect on the degree of belief in disaster myths, while private sources, such as one’s family, friends, and social networking sites, did not. Factors affecting the degree to which people believe in disaster myths are also discussed.

Mori et al. (2016)

Mori, Y.(森康浩), Ohnuma, S.(大沼進), & Klöckner, C. A. (2016).
The Effects of Social Ties and Local Environment on Appropriate Waste Station Maintenance of Household Waste: A Case Study in Sapporo.
家庭ゴミ捨て場の適切な維持に対する社会的紐帯と地域環境の影響:札幌市の事例研究
Journal of Environmental Information Science, 44(5), 87-98.
“Waste stations”, where residents dispose of household waste, are usually maintained by the residents themselves; however, not all stations are well maintained. It was hypothesized that the level of waste station maintenance would correlate with the degree of social ties in the community, and would be influenced by local environment in the area around the waste station. A combination of observational and survey research methods were employed to test these hypotheses. Self-reported inappropriate disposal behavior and social ties were measured using a questionnaire survey, while the level of maintenance of waste stations and local surrounding environment were recorded using observational methods. Data from 508 residents, assigned to 102 waste stations in 23 local areas of Sapporo, Japan, were analyzed. Sequential regression analysis indicated that social ties in the community was the stronger predictor of the management level of waste station than the self-report disposal behavior. Furthermore, multi-level model tests revealed that the level of management of waste stations was predicted by the local surrounding environment, which provided spatial reminders of community interactions. This indicates that managing the local surrounding environment is an important intervention to encourage appropriate waste station management

Nonami et al. (2015)

Nonami, H.(野波寛), Hirose, Y.(広瀬幸雄), Ohnuma, S.(大沼進), Midden, C., & Ohtomo, S.(大友章司) (2015).
Effects of voice and similarity on procedural fairness and trust: A dual process model of public acceptance based on representatives’ participation.
手続き的公正と信頼に対する声と類似性の効果
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 18(3), 216-224.
doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12097
In citizen participation, a few representatives of the total citizen population participate in discussions with authorities regarding public decisions and policies. The present study examines a dual process model in which the representatives’ voice and similarity of values facilitate public acceptance through procedural fairness and trust in representatives, respectively. The results of an experiment employing a scenario method, which included participants from Japan (n = 211) and the Netherlands (n = 200), indicate that the representatives’ voice increased procedural fairness and public acceptance when the similarity of representatives was high. The effects of representatives’ voice on public acceptance via procedural fairness was supported in both nations, while other effects of representatives’ similarity on acceptance via trust were indicated only in Japan. These results suggest that the indirect voice of citizens, as conveyed by representatives, plays an important role in increasing perceptions of procedural fairness and public acceptance among citizens.

Teraguchi & Kugihara (2015)

Teraguchi, T.(寺口司), & Kugihara, N.(釘原直樹) (2015). 
Effects of labeling and group category of evaluators on evaluations of aggression. 
攻撃の評価に対するラベリングと評価者の集団カテゴリの効果
PLoS ONE, 10(12): e0144384.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144384
This study investigated whether the effect of labeling on people’s evaluation of aggression varies according to the group category of the evaluators (i.e., whether they are ingroup members or third parties). Two labeling strategies—the negative labeling of victims (NL strategy) and the positive labeling of aggressors (PL strategy)–were adopted. We conducted an experiment using the hot sauce paradigm, as a way to assess aggressive intent that includes behavioral measures of evaluations. The results suggested that the NL strategy causes ingroup members to evaluate aggression in a more positive light, while the PL strategy has the same effect but on third parties instead. Thus, labeling strategies may increase the severity of aggressors’ reaction and could also be a factor that can escalate a war or conflict.

Nakade, Takagi et al. (2015)

Nakade, M.*, Takagi, D. (高木大資)*, Suzuki, K., Aida, J., Ojima, T., Kondo, K., Hirai, H., & Kondo, N. (*Equal contribution) (2015).
Influence of socioeconomic status on the association between body mass index and cause-specific mortality among older Japanese adults: The AGES Cohort Study.
日本の高齢者におけるBMIと特定死因死亡率の関連に対する社会経済地位の影響
Preventive Medicine, 77, 112-118.
doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.05.015
Objective: Many studies have suggested a U-shaped curve for the association between body size and mortality risks, i.e., mortality risks increased in those who were both overweight and underweight. The strength of the associations may vary according to socioeconomic statuses (SES), as they determine levels of access to healthcare and chronic psychosocial stresses. We investigated the modifying effects of SES on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality.
Method: We used data of participants in the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study in 2003 (n=14,931), who were 65 years or older and physically and cognitively independent at baseline, and residing in eight municipalities in Japan. Data on all-causes mortality and mortality from the three leading causes (cancer, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) was obtained from municipal government registries.
Results: Proportional hazard regression analyses showed that, among men, the associations between overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) and higher mortality risks by any cause were stronger among lower income groups. Even adjusting for multiple confounding factors, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for mortality by all causes among low income group (household income <1.5 million yen) were 1.96 (1.02-3.73) for overweight compared to BMIs between 23.0 and 24.9, whereas they were 0.94 (0.57-1.38) among men in high income group (income >3.1 million yen). The modifying effects of income were not marked among women.
Conclusion: Household income, which may directly reflect accessibility to healthcare and psychosocial stress among older Japanese men, may be an important modifying factor in the health risks attributable to overweight.

Takagi et al.(2016)

Takagi, D. (高木大資), Kondo, N., Takada, M., & Hashimoto, H. (2016).
Educational attainment, time preference, and health-related behaviors: A mediation analysis from the J-SHINE survey.
学業達成,時間選好と健康関連行動―J
Social Science & Medicine, 153, 116-122.
doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.01.054
Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences – the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward – explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25–50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3,457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers/networks, may be more important as modifiable mediators in the link between education and smoking.

Arimitsu (2016)

Arimitsu, K. (有光興起) (2016).
The effects of a program to enhance self-compassion in Japanese individuals: A randomized controlled pilot study.
日本人のセルフ・コンパッションを高めるプログラムの効果
Journal of Positive Psychology.
doi: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1152593
To date, there is no evidence suggesting that a program aimed at increasing self-compassion is effective in interdependent cultures such as Japan. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an Enhancing Self-Compassion Program (ESP) among Japanese individuals in a randomized controlled study. Individuals reporting low self-compassion (N = 40) were randomly assigned to an ESP or wait-list control group. Participants completed self-report questionnaires at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and a three-month follow-up. In the post-treatment and follow-up, ANOVAs revealed that the ESP group (N = 16) had significant improvements in each of the subscales of self-compassion (Cohen’s ds: .91–1.51) except for mindfulness, whereas the control group (N = 12) did not. Greater reductions in negative thoughts and emotions in the ESP group were also found. These gains remained at follow-up. These findings suggest that an ESP may be an effective and acceptable adjunct intervention for Japanese individuals with low self-compassion.

Komiya et al.(2016)

Komiya, A. (小宮あすか), Oishi, S., & Lee, M. (2016).
The rural–urban difference in interpersonal regret.
対人的後悔における田舎の都会の違い
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(4), 513-525.
doi: 10.1177/0146167216636623
The present research examined rural–urban differences in interpersonal regret. In Study 1, participants who grew up in rural areas reported stronger interpersonal regret than those who grew up in large cities. In Study 2, we conducted an experiment and found that participants who were assigned to imagine a rural life reported greater interpersonal regret than those who were assigned to imagine an urban life. Moreover, this rural–urban difference was mediated by the degree to which participants wrote about informal social control such as gossip and reputation concerns. Finally, in Study 3, we used the pictorial eye manipulation, which evokes a concern for informal social control, and found that participants from large cities who were exposed to the eyes reported more intense interpersonal regret than those who were not exposed to the eyes. Together, these studies demonstrate that informal social control is a key to understanding rural–urban differences in interpersonal regret.

Yanagisawa et al.(2016)

Yanagisawa, K.(柳澤邦昭), Abe, N., Kashima. E. S., & Nomura, M.(野村理朗) (2016).
Self-esteem modulates amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex connectivity in response to mortality threats.
死の脅威への反応に際する扁桃体-腹外側前頭前皮質の結合性を調節するセルフエスティーム
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
doi: 10.1037/xge0000121
 
Reminders of death often elicit defensive responses in individuals, especially among those with low self-esteem. Although empirical evidence indicates that self-esteem serves as a buffer against mortality threats, the precise neural mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that self-esteem modulates neural responses to death-related stimuli, especially functional connectivity within the limbic-frontal circuitry, thereby affecting subsequent defensive reactions. As predicted, individuals with high self-esteem subjected to a mortality threat exhibited increased amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) connectivity during the processing of death-related stimuli compared with individuals who have low self-esteem. Further analysis revealed that stronger functional connectivity between the amygdala and the VLPFC predicted a subsequent decline in responding defensively to those who threaten one’s beliefs. These results suggest that the amygdala-VLPFC interaction, which is modulated by self-esteem, can reduce the defensiveness caused by death-related stimuli, thereby providing a neural explanation for why individuals with high self-esteem exhibit less defensive reactions to mortality threats.