Horita, Y. (堀田結孝), Takezawa, M. (竹澤正哲), Inukai, K.（犬飼佳吾）, Kita, T. (喜多敏正), & Masuda, N. (2017). Reinforcement learning accounts for moody conditional cooperation behavior: experimental results. 強化学習は気分的条件付き協力行動を説明する：実験研究 Scientific Reports, 7, 39275. doi:10.1038/srep39275
In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner’s dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior. We observed MCC behavior in both games, but the MCC that we observed was different from that observed in the past experiments. In the present study, whether or not a focal participant cooperated previously affected the overall level of cooperation, instead of changing the tendency of cooperation in response to cooperation of other participants in the previous time step. We found that, across different conditions, reinforcement learning models were approximately as accurate as a MCC model in describing the experimental results. Consistent with the previous computational studies, the present results suggest that reinforcement learning may be a major proximate mechanism governing MCC behavior.
Shibuya, A.（渋谷明子）, Teramoto, M.（寺本水羽）, & Shoun, A.（祥雲暁代） (2016). Toward Individualistic Cooperative Play: A Systematic Analysis of Mobile Social Games in Japan. 日本のモバイルソーシャルゲームの社会的要素について系統的分析を行い、個人プレイだが、協力要素があるゲームが多い点などを指摘 In Dal Yong Jin (ed). Mobile Gaming in Asia: Politics, Culture and Emerging Technologies (Part of the series Mobile Communication in Asia: Local Insights, Global Implications). pp 207-225. ISBN: 978-94-024-0824-9 (Print) 978-94-024-0826-3 (Online)
This study examines the social features of the 31 most popular games in Japan’s rapidly expanding mobile social game market, as ranked through a survey of 2660 teenagers and young adults in November 2013. Results showed that all 31 games had at least one of the three social features, namely, connections to social networking services (SNSs), competition, and cooperation. In the games, SNS connections were present in 84 % of games, competition in 87 % of games, cooperation in 94 %. Among the cooperative features, individualistic cooperative play was more prevalent than team play. Keywords：Smartphones Social features Social games Systematic analysis Mobile device.
Machery, E., Stich, S., Rose, D., Chatterjee, A., Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり), Struchiner, N., Sirker, S., Usui, N., & Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明) (2015). Gettier across cultures. ゲティア問題の比較文化的検討 Noûs, 1-20. doi: 10.1111/nous.12110
In this article, we present evidence that in four different cultural groups that speak quite different languages (Brazil, India, Japan, and the USA) there are cases of justified true beliefs that are not judged to be cases of knowledge. We hypothesize that this intuitive judgment, which we call “the Gettier intuition,” may be a reflection of an underlying innate and universal core folk epistemology, and we highlight the philosophical significance of its universality.
Kudo, D. (工藤大介), & Nagaya, K. (長谷和久). (2017). Effects of Matching and Mismatching Messages on Purchase Avoidance Behavior following Major Disasters. 東日本大震災後の買い控え低減に向けたメッセージの一致効果・不一致効果の有効性 Psychology & Marketing, 34.
Following major disasters, purchase avoidance behavior toward products that are caused by stigma often results. For example, after the Tohoku Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, consumers have avoided products from Fukushima. Attempts have been made to diminish this purchase avoidance behavior, but have been found to be ineffective. The reasons for ineffectiveness of strategies within this context were empirically examined based on matching and mismatching effects of messages. In two studies (Study 1, N = 113; Study 2, N = 364), the effects of affective messages and cognitive messages were compared, and the effectiveness of affective messages was found to be consistently weaker than that of cognitive messages. Message producers often present affective messages with the expectation of observing the matching effect. However, findings suggest that these presentation strategies will fail, and that the mismatching effect should be used instead. The best method of message presentation to reduce purchase avoidance behavior in a disaster area is discussed.
Ozaki, Y. (尾崎由佳), Goto, T. (後藤崇志), Kobayashi, M. (小林麻衣), & Hofmann, W. (2017). Counteractive control over temptations: Promoting resistance through enhanced perception of conflict and goal value. 誘惑に対する反作用的統制：葛藤と目標価値の知覚増幅による抵抗の促進 Self and Identity, 17. doi:10.1080/15298868.2016.1269668
The present research explored people’s everyday practice of counteractive control. Experience sampling was used to test our prediction that strong temptations would promote self-control. Participants were 237 Japanese citizens with ages ranging from 18 to 69. Results indicated that perceived temptation prompted stronger resistance and restraint of behaviors, compared to those cases where no conflict was perceived. In addition, multilevel path analysis revealed the underlying process such that (a) a strong desire toward temptation intensified perception of conflict; (b) perceived conflict bolstered the value of goals that were in disagreement with the temptation; and (c) highly valued goals promoted self-control (i.e., stronger resistance and hence less yielding to temptation).
Fujii, T.（藤井貴之）, Schug, J.（ジョアンナ・シューグ）, Nishina, K.（仁科国之）, Takahashi, T., Okada, H., & Takagishi, H.（高岸治人）(2016). Relationship between Salivary Oxytocin Levels and Generosity in Preschoolers. 未就学児における唾液中オキシトシンレベルと気前良さの関係 Scientific Reports, 6: 38662 doi: 10.1038/srep38662
This study examined the association between salivary oxytocin (sOT) levels and generosity in preschoolers. Fifty preschoolers played two dictator games (DG) by deciding how to allocate 10 chocolates between themselves and another child, who was either from the same class as the participant (ingroup member), or an unknown child from another class (outgroup member). sOT levels were assessed in saliva collected from the children immediately prior to the DG tasks. While sOT levels were negatively associated with allocations made to both ingroup and outgroup members by boys, among girl sOT levels were positively related to allocations made to ingroup members, and unrelated to allocations made to outgroup members. These results suggest sex differences in the association between salivary oxytocin and generosity.
Toyokawa, W.（豊川航）, Saito, Y.（斎藤美松）, & Kameda, T.(亀田達也) (2016). Individual differences in learning behaviours in humans: asocial exploration tendency does not predict reliance on social learning （学習行動の個人差: 単独課題での探索傾向は、集団課題での社会情報利用を予測しない） Evolution & Human Behavior. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.11.001
A number of empirical studies have suggested that individual differences in asocial exploration tendencies in animals may be related to those in social information use. However, because the ‘exploration tendency’ in most previous studies has been measured without considering the information-gathering processes, it is yet hard to conclude that the animal asocial exploration strategies may be tied to social information use. Here, we studied human learning behaviour in both asocial and social two-armed bandit tasks. By fitting reinforcement learning models including asocial and/or social decision processes, we measured each individual’s (1) asocial exploration tendency and (2) social information use. We found consistent individual differences in the exploration tendency in the asocial tasks. We also found substantive heterogeneity in the adopted learning strategies in the social task: Nearly one-third of participants used predominantly the copy-when-uncertain strategy, while the remaining two-thirds were most likely to have relied only on asocial learning. However, we found no significant individual association between the exploration frequency in the asocial task and the use of the social information in the social task. Our results suggest that the social learning strategies may be independent from the asocial exploration strategies in humans.
Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Miura, A.(三浦麻子), & Inamasu, K.(稲増一憲) (2017). Media priming effect: A preregistered replication experiment. （メディアのプライミング効果：プレレジストレーションを伴う再現可能性検証実験） Journal of Experimental Political Science, 4(1), 81-94.
Iyengar et al. (1984) discovered the media priming effect, positing that by drawing attention to certain issues while ignoring others, television news programs help define the standards by which presidents are evaluated. We conducted a direct replication of Experiment 1 by Iyengar et al. (1984), with some changes. Specifically, we (a) collected data from Japanese undergraduates; (b) reduced the number of conditions to two; (c) used news coverage of the issue of relocating US bases in Okinawa as the treatment; (d) measured issue-specific evaluations of the Japanese Prime Minister in the pretreatment questionnaire; and (e) performed statistical analyses that are more appropriate for testing heterogeneity in the treatment effect. We did not find statistically significant evidence of media priming. Overall, the results suggest that the effects of media priming may be quite sensitive either to the media environment or to differences in populations in which the effect has been examined.
メディアのプライミング効果（メディアが報道するニュースは，議題設定機能を果たすだけでなく，受け手（一般市民）がどの政治的争点が重要かを判断するかを判断する際の基準の形成にも影響を与える）を実証した研究としてしばしば引用されるIyengar, Kinder, Peters, and Krosnick (1984)の実験1を追試したものです．結果はNullでした．
Hikichi, H. (引地博之), AIda, J., Kondo, K., Tsuboya, T., Matsuyama, Y., Suburamanian, S. V., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Increased risk of dementia in the aftermath of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami 東日本大震災における被災経験と認知症リスクの関連 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1607793113.
No previous study has been able to examine the association by taking account of risk factors for dementia before and after the disaster. We prospectively examined whether experiences of a disaster were associated with cognitive decline in the aftermath of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 km west of the epicenter 7 mo before the earthquake and tsunami. Approximately 2.5 y after the disaster, the follow-up survey gathered information about personal experiences of disaster as well as incidence of dementia from 3,594 survivors (82.1% follow-up rate). Our primary outcome was dementia diagnosis ascertained by in-home assessment during the follow-up period. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,566), 38.0% reported losing relatives or friends in the disaster, and 58.9% reported property damage. Fixed-effects regression indicated that major housing damage and home destroyed were associated with cognitive decline: regression coefficient for levels of dementia symptoms = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01 to 0.23 and coefficient = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.40, respectively. The effect size of destroyed home is comparable to the impact of incident stroke (coefficient = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.36). The association between housing damage and cognitive decline remained statistically significant in the instrumental variable analysis. Housing damage appears to be an important risk factor for cognitive decline among older survivors in natural disasters.
Oshio, A.(小塩真司), Mieda, T., Taku, K. (2016) Younger people, and stronger effects of all-or-nothing thoughts on aggression: Moderating effects of age on the relationships between dichotomous thinking and aggression. 二分法的思考と攻撃性の関係を年齢が仲介する（若年ほど効果が強い） Cogent Psychology, 3(1). doi: 10.1080/23311908.2016.1244874
Binary or dichotomous thinking may lead to aggression throughout people’s lifespan; additionally, relationships are likely to be affected by types of aggression (i.e. physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility) as well as gender and age. Using large-scale data (N = 2,315), the current study tested if age or gender moderated dichotomous thinking’s correlation with four different types of aggression. Participants (Mage = 36.1, SD = 16.2, range = 18–69) completed the Dichotomous Thinking Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Dichotomous thinking differentially affected aggression depending on participants’ age: dichotomous thinking and aggression were more strongly correlated in younger participants. Individuals’ tendency to think dichotomously appeared relatively stable; however, age appeared to moderate dichotomous thinking’s effects.
Ishii, K. (石井健一) (2017). Online communication with strong ties and subjective well-being in Japan. 日本人の幸福感と強い紐帯とのオンラインコミュニケーション Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 129–137. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.09.033
Recent developments in communication technologies have changed how people connect and interact with each other. This study investigates whether and how online communication with strong ties (mobile phone and social networking service [SNS]) enhances subjective well-being in Japan. Study 1 examined whether the correlation between happiness and mobile phone use was mediated by the number of offline and online friends. Study 2 assessed the associations between the Japanese relationship-oriented value “interdependent self-view,” life satisfaction, and the use of SNS. Results indicate that only the use of LINE (an instant messaging application), which is the most popular SNS in Japan, was significantly correlated with life satisfaction and interdependent self-view. The number of friends (offline and online) mediated the effect of LINE use on life satisfaction. Interdependent self-view was significantly correlated with the frequency of LINE use, homogeneity of LINE friends, and life satisfaction. These results indicate that the use of a dominant online communication method with strong ties is significantly correlated with subjective well-being, and this significant correlation is mediated by the number of offline and online friends.
Niiya, Y.（新谷優） (2016). Does a favor request increase liking toward the requester? 頼み事をされるとその人への好意は増すか？ Journal of Social Psychology, 156(2), 211-221. doi: 10.1080/00224545.2015.1095706
Although a request for help can impose a burden on the provider and has the potential of harming a relationship, the theory of amae suggests that in fact it could help promote a stronger relationship. In an experiment, both Japanese and American participants who were asked for help from a confederate increased their liking of the confederate relative to the baseline. Sociable impression of the confederate and perceived closeness of the relationship also increased relative to the baseline. There was, however, no such increase when participants helped the confederate without receiving a direct request. This study suggests that despite the potential risks to relationships, asking favors can provide opportunities for requesters to build and promote relationships.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二). (2016). The Change in Self-Esteem among Middle School Students in Japan, 1989-2002. 1989年から2002年の日本の中学生における自尊感情の経時的変化 Psychology, 7, 1343-1351. doi: 10.4236/psych.2016.711136
This paper examined temporal changes in self-esteem among middle school students in Japan from 1989 to 2002. Previous research showed that self-esteem decreased among middle school students between 1999 and 2006. However, it was unclear whether such a decrease was also present in other periods of time. To obtain a better understanding of how people adapt to socio-economic environments, it is important to gain a more comprehensive view of such long-term cultural/social changes. Therefore, to supplement the findings of the existing research on changes in self-esteem, we analyzed large-sample time-series data collected in Japan in 1989 and 2002. We found that middle schoolers’ self-esteem decreased from 1989 to 2002, consistent with previous research. Thus, our study extends the previous research by presenting additional data showing the decrease in self-esteem in Japan.
関連論文(Previous research)：Ogihara, Uchida, & Kusumi (2016)
Matsumoto, Y.(松本良恵), Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男), Li, Y.(李楊), & Kiyonari, T.(清成透子) (2016). Prosocial Behavior Increases with Age across Five Economic Games. （向社会的行動は年齢と共に増加する：5つの経済ゲームによる検討） PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158671
Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20–59) and sex. Participants played five economic games each separated by a few months. We demonstrated that prosocial behavior increased with age beyond early adulthood and this effect was shown across all five economic games. A similar, but weaker, age-related trend was found in one of three social value orientation measures of prosocial preferences. We measured participants’ belief that manipulating others is a wise strategy for social success, and found that this belief declined with age. Participants’ satisfaction with the unilateral exploitation outcome of the prisoner’s dilemma games also declined with age. These two factors—satisfaction with the DC outcome in the prisoner’s dilemma games and belief in manipulation—mediated the age effect on both attitudinal and behavioral prosociality. Participants’ age-related socio-demographic traits such as marriage, having children, and owning a house weakly mediated the age effect on prosociality through their relationships with satisfaction with the DC outcome and belief in manipulation.
Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男), Li, Y.(李楊), Matsumoto, Y.(松本良恵), Kiyonari, T.(清成透子) (2016) Moral Bargain Hunters Purchase Moral Righteousness When it is Cheap: Within-Individual Effect of Stake Size in Economic Games. （モラルバーゲンハンターはモラルの正しさを購買する．ただし，安ければ：経済ゲームにおける個人内ステイクサイズの効果） Scientific Reports, 6: 27824. doi: 10.1038/srep27824
Despite the repeatedly raised criticism that findings in economic games are specific to situations involving trivial incentives, most studies that have examined the stake-size effect have failed to find a strong effect. Using three prisoner’s dilemma experiments, involving 479 non-student residents of suburban Tokyo and 162 students, we show here that stake size strongly affects a player’s cooperation choices in prisoner’s dilemma games when stake size is manipulated within each individual such that each player faces different stake sizes. Participants cooperated at a higher rate when stakes were lower than when they were higher, regardless of the absolute stake size. These findings suggest that participants were ‘moral bargain hunters’ who purchased moral righteousness at a low price when they were provided with a ‘price list’ of prosocial behaviours. In addition, the moral bargain hunters who cooperated at a lower stake but not at a higher stake did not cooperate in a single-stake one-shot game.
Miura, A.(三浦麻子), & Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎) (2016). Survey satisficing inflates stereotypical responses in online experiment: The case of immigration study. オンライン調査に際する「努力の最小限化」は心理学研究の結果を歪める：自国民と他国民のイメージ評価を用いた実験的研究 Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1563. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01563
Though survey satisficing, grudging cognitive efforts required to provide optimal answers in the survey response process, poses a serious threat to the validity of online experiments, a detailed explanation of the mechanism has yet to be established. Focusing on attitudes toward immigrants, we examined the mechanism by which survey satisficing distorts treatment effect estimates in online experiments. We hypothesized that satisficers would display more stereotypical responses than non-satisficers would when presented with stereotype-disconfirming information about an immigrant. Results of two experiments largely supported our hypotheses. Satisficers, whom we identified through an instructional manipulation check (IMC), processed information about immigrants’ personality traits congruently with the stereotype activated by information provided about nationality. The significantly shorter vignette reading time of satisficers corroborates their time-efficient impression formation based on stereotyping. However, the shallow information processing of satisficers can be rectified by alerting them to their inattentiveness through use of a repeated IMC.
Kawamoto, T. (川本 大史), Ura, M. (浦 光博), & Hiraki, K. (2017). Curious people are less affected by social rejection. 好奇心旺盛な人は拒絶の影響を受けにくい Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 264-267. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.006
Recent studies have revealed that curiosity—seeking new information and experiences—can improve psychological and social functioning. However, the social nature of curiosity remains poorly understood. We tested whether curious people show better psychological adaptation because (1) they have less rejection sensitivity, and (2) they are less susceptible to daily social rejection experiences. These two hypotheses were supported by a cross-sectional study (N = 500, 20–39 years old). We found that rejection sensitivity partially mediates the relationship between curiosity and psychological adaptation (life satisfaction and depression). Furthermore, curiosity moderated the relationships between perceived daily social rejection experiences and life satisfaction: Curious people are buffered against such aversive effects, relative to less curious people. Our findings suggest one possible explanation for why curious people experience better psychological functioning: They appear to be less affected by social rejection.
Suzuki, T.（鈴木貴久）, Kobayashi, T.（小林哲郎）, & Boase, J. (2016). Political Conversations as Civic Engagement: Examining Patterns from Mobile Communication Logs in Japan. 市民参加としての政治的会話：日本のモバイルコミュニケーションログパターンの検証 Mobile Media, Political Participation, and Civic Activism in Asia, Part of the series Mobile Communication in Asia: Local Insights, Global Implications, pp 57-79. doi: 10.1007/978-94-024-0917-8_4
Political conversation is regarded as an important form of political participation and civic engagement. Although significant differences have been found in the level of political conversation between countries, studies on political conversation in Japan are scarce. In this study, we investigated political conversation between people, considering the kinds of dyads in personal networks in Japan and how partners are selected. We pursued an exploratory analysis of the features of dyads in political conversation through mobile communication logs, comparing those in Japan and the US. For both countries, the results show that discussion of important topics and the number of voice calls in the afternoon was significant predictors of political conversations. In Japan, discussing with other people and family were more significant predictors than for the US. These results may have important implications for clarifying the extent to which political conversations take place, with whom, and how they occur as a by-product of other topics.
Kameda, T.（亀田達也）, Inukai, K.（犬飼佳吾）, Higuchi, S., Ogawa, A., Kim, H., Matsuda, T., & Sakagami, M. (2016). Rawlsian maximin rule operates as a common cognitive anchor in distributive justice and risky decisions. ロールズのマキシミン基準は分配的正義とリスキーな決定に際する一般的な認知的アンカーとして機能する Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Published online before print September 29, 2016. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1602641113
Distributive justice concerns the moral principles by which we seek to allocate resources fairly among diverse members of a society. Although the concept of fair allocation is one of the fundamental building blocks for societies, there is no clear consensus on how to achieve “socially just” allocations. Here, we examine neurocognitive commonalities of distributive judgments and risky decisions. We explore the hypothesis that people’s allocation decisions for others are closely related to economic decisions for oneself at behavioral, cognitive, and neural levels, via a concern about the minimum, worst-off position. In a series of experiments using attention-monitoring and brain-imaging techniques, we investigated this “maximin” concern (maximizing the minimum possible payoff) via responses in two seemingly disparate tasks: third-party distribution of rewards for others, and choosing gambles for self. The experiments revealed three robust results: (i) participants’ distributive choices closely matched their risk preferences—“Rawlsians,” who maximized the worst-off position in distributions for others, avoided riskier gambles for themselves, whereas “utilitarians,” who favored the largest-total distributions, preferred riskier but more profitable gambles; (ii) across such individual choice preferences, however, participants generally showed the greatest spontaneous attention to information about the worst possible outcomes in both tasks; and (iii) this robust concern about the minimum outcomes was correlated with activation of the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), the region associated with perspective taking. The results provide convergent evidence that social distribution for others is psychologically linked to risky decision making for self, drawing on common cognitive–neural processes with spontaneous perspective taking of the worst-off position.
Nakayachi, K. (中谷内一也), & Nagaya, K. (長谷和久). (2016). The Effects of the Passage of Time from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake on the Public’s Anxiety about a Variety of Hazards. 2011年の東日本大震災からの時間の経過が多様なハザードに対する人々の不安に与える影響 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(9), 866. doi:10.3390/ijerph13090866
This research investigated whether the Japanese people’s anxiety about a variety of hazards, including earthquakes and nuclear accidents, has changed over time since the Tohoku Earthquake in 2011. Data fromthree nationwide surveys conducted in 2008, 2012, and 2015 were compared to see the change in societal levels of anxiety toward 51 types of hazards. The same two-phase stratified random sampling method was used to create the list of participants in each survey. The results showed that anxiety about earthquakes and nuclear accidents had increased for a time after the Tohoku Earthquake, and then decreased after a four-year time frame with no severe earthquakes and nuclear accidents. It was also revealed that the anxiety level for some hazards other than earthquakes and nuclear accidents had decreased at ten months after the Earthquake, and then remained unchanged after the four years. Therefore, ironically, a major disaster might decrease the public anxiety in general at least for several years.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二), Uchida, Y. (内田由紀子), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2016). Losing confidence over time: Temporal changes in self-esteem among older children and early adolescents in Japan, 1999-2006. 自信の経時的な低下：1999年から2006年の日本の小学生・中学生における自尊感情の経時的変化 SAGE Open, 6(3), 1-8.
We examined temporal changes in self-esteem among elementary and middle school students in Japan. Previous research has shown that self-esteem decreased among various sectors of the population, from middle school students to adults between 1984 and 2010 in Japan. However, it was unclear whether such temporal changes are also present at earlier stages of development (e.g., in elementary school) and in individual subgroups (e.g., each gender and developmental stage). Identifying such boundary conditions of temporal change will contribute to a better understanding of how cultures change over time. We analyzed representative and large-sample time-series data collected by the Japanese government in 1999 and 2006. Results showed that self-esteem decreased among elementary and middle school students regardless of gender and developmental stage. We suggest that from an early stage of development and among a broad range of the population in Japan, people’s general self-evaluations became more negative between 1999 and 2006.
関連論文： Ogihara (2016)
Eom, K., Kim, H. S., Sherman, D. K., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2016). Cultural variability in the link between environmental concern and support for environmental action. 環境への配慮と環境にやさしい行動との関係が文化で異なる Psychological Science. doi: 10.1177/0956797616660078
Research on sustainability behaviors has been based on the assumption that increasing personal concerns about the environment will increase proenvironmental action. We tested whether this assumption is more applicable to individualistic cultures than to collectivistic cultures. In Study 1, we compared 47 countries (N = 57,268) and found that they varied considerably in the degree to which environmental concern predicted support for proenvironmental action. National-level individualism explained the between-nation variability above and beyond the effects of other cultural values and independently of person-level individualism. In Study 2, we compared individualistic and collectivistic nations (United States vs. Japan; N = 251) and found culture-specific predictors of proenvironmental behavior. Environmental concern predicted environmentally friendly consumer choice among European Americans but not Japanese. For Japanese participants, perceived norms about environmental behavior predicted proenvironmental decision making. Facilitating sustainability across nations requires an understanding of how culture determines which psychological factors drive human action.
Takagishi, H. (高岸治人), Fujii, T. (藤井貴之), Nishina, K. (仁科国之), Okada, H. (2016). Fear of Negative Evaluation Moderates the Effect of Subliminal Fear Priming on Rejection of Unfair Offers in the Ultimatum Game. 評価不安は不公平提案の拒否における閾下恐怖プライミング効果を調節する Scientific Reports, 6, 31446. doi:10.1038/srep31446
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the tendency to fear negative evaluation moderates the effect of fear emotion on the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). A photograph of a fearful face or landscape was displayed subliminally (i.e., for 10 ms) before the proposer’s offer in the UG was presented to participants. We used the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNES) to measure participants’ anxiety regarding negative evaluations from others. Results showed a significant interaction between FNES and condition (fearful face vs. landscape) in relation to the rejection of an unfair offer. Furthermore, the mean rejection rate of an unfair offer was significantly higher in the fearful face condition relative to that in the landscape condition among participants whose FNES scores were higher than the median; however, this difference was not observed in participants whose FNES scores were lower than the median. These results suggest that fear of negative evaluation moderates the effect of subliminal fear priming on the rejection of unfair offers in the UG, and that negative emotion induced by unconscious stimuli enhances rejection of these unfair offers.
Sugiura, H.（杉浦仁美）, Mifune, N. (三船恒裕）, Tusboi, S.（坪井翔）, & Yokota, K. （横田晋大） (2017) Gender differences in intergroup conflict: The effect of outgroup threat priming on social dominance orientation. （集団間葛藤における性差：外集団脅威プライミングが社会的支配志向に及ぼす効果） Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 262–265. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.013
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of outgroup threat priming on social dominance orientation (SDO). Evolutionary psychologists have proposed the adaptive psychological mechanism to intergroup conflict is specific to males. We predicted that the mechanism would function as enhancement of an orientation concerning hierarchical group relations by cueing outgroup threat. We hypothesized that male participants would demonstrate a higher level of SDO than females by outgroup threat priming in a laboratory experiment. One hundred sixty-seven undergraduate students participated in the experiment that measured SDO after an outgroup priming task. Consistent with our hypothesis, results showed that males had a higher level of SDO than females by cue of outgroup threat, while females did not reveal any significant effects of the outgroup threat cue on SDO.
Murayama, A. (村山綾), & Miura, A. (三浦麻子) (2016). Two Types of Justice Reasoning About Good Fortune and Misfortune: A Replication and Beyond. 幸運・不運に対する2種類の公正推論 Social Justice Research, First Online: 04 August 2016. doi:10.1007/s11211-016-0269-7
While research into justice reasoning has progressed extensively, the findings and implications have been mainly limited to Western cultures. This study investigated the relationship between immanent and ultimate justice reasoning about others’ misfortune and good fortune in Japanese participants. The effects of goal focus and religiosity, which previously have been found to foster justice reasoning, were also tested. Participants were randomly assigned to one condition of a 2 (goal focus: long term or short term) × 2 (target person’s moral value: respected or thief) × 2 (type of luck: misfortune or good fortune) design. For immanent justice reasoning, the results revealed that a “bad” person’s misfortune was attributed to their past misdeeds, while a “good” person’s good fortune was attributed to their past good deeds. Regarding ultimate justice reasoning, it was found that a good person’s misfortune was connected more to future compensation than their good fortune, whereas a bad person’s misfortune was not reasoned about using ultimate justice. There was no significant effect of religiosity or goal focus on justice reasoning, which is inconsistent with the findings of previous studies. The necessity of directly examining cultural differences is discussed in relation to extending and strengthening the theory of justice reasoning.
Asano, R. (浅野良輔), Ito, K., & Yoshida, T. (吉田俊和) (2016). Shared relationship efficacy of dyad can increase life satisfaction in close relationships: Multilevel study. 親密な関係における共有された関係効力性は人生満足度を高める PLoS ONE, 11 (7), e0159822. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159822
Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed.
Tanaka, H.（田中大貴）, Ohtsuki, H., & Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介） (2016). The price of being seen to be just: An intention signalling strategy for indirect reciprocity. 正当と見なされるためのコスト：間接互恵性状況での意図シグナル戦略 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 20160694. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0694
Cooperation among strangers is a marked characteristic of human sociality. One prominent evolutionary explanation for this form of human cooperation is indirect reciprocity, whereby each individual selectively helps people with a ‘good’, but not ‘bad’ reputation. Some evolutionary analyses have underscored the importance of second-order reputation information (the reputation of a current partner’s previous partner) for indirect reciprocity as it allows players to discriminate justified ‘good’ defectors, who selectively deny giving help to ‘bad’ partners, from unjustified ‘bad’ defectors. Nevertheless, it is not clearwhether people in fact make use of second-order information in indirect reciprocity settings. As an alternative, we propose the intention signalling strategy, whereby defectors are given the option to abandon a resource as a means of expunging their ‘bad’ reputation. Our model deviates from traditional modelling approaches in the indirect reciprocity literature in a crucial way—we show that first-order information is sufficient to maintain cooperation if players are given an option to signal their intention. Importantly, our model is robust against invasion by both unconditionally cooperative and uncooperative strategies, a first step towards demonstrating its viability as an evolutionarily stable strategy. Furthermore, in two behavioural experiments, when participants were given the option to abandon a resource so as to mend a tarnished reputation, participants not only spontaneously began to use this option, they also interpreted others’ use of this option as a signal of cooperative intent.
Ezaki, T., Horita, Y. (堀田結孝), Takezawa, M. (竹澤正哲), & Masuda, N. (2016). Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin. 強化学習によって条件付き協力とその気まぐれないとこを説明する Plos Computational Biology, 12(7), e1005034.
LeClair, J., Sasaki, J. Y., Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Shinada, M. (品田瑞穂), Kim, H. S. (2016). Gene–culture interaction: influence of culture and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism on loneliness. 遺伝子と文化の相互作用：文化とオキシトシン受容体遺伝子の多相性が孤独感に及ぼす影響 Culture and Brain, 1-17.
Tabuchi, M.（田渕恵）, & Miura, A. （三浦麻子） (2016). Intergenerational Interactions when Transmitting Wisdom from Older to Younger Generations. 高齢者から若者への知恵の伝達における世代間相互作用 Educational Gerontology. doi: 10.1080/03601277.2016.1205392
Otsubo, Y. （大坪庸介）, & Tamada, S. (2016). Social attention promotes partner intimacy. 社会的注意はパートナーとの親密性を促進する Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 21-24. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.45
Fujii, T.(藤井貴之）, Goto, A.（後藤晶）, & Takagishi, H.（高岸治人） (2016). Does facial width-to-height ratio predict Japanese professional football players’ athletic performance? 顔の幅と高さの比率は日本人プロサッカー選手の競技成績を予測するか？ Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 37-40. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.49
Ogihara, Y.（荻原祐二） (2016). Age Differences in Self-Liking in Japan: The Developmental Trajectory of Self-Esteem from Elementary School to Old Age. 日本における自己好意の年齢差：小学生から高齢者における自尊感情の発達的軌跡の検討 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 33-36. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.48
Hiraishi, K.（平石界）, Murasaki, K., Okuda, H., & Yamate, M. (2016). Sexual and Romantic Overperception among a Japanese young sample: A Replication of Haselton (2003) 男は好意を過剰評価する（Haselton, 2003）の直接的追試 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 29-32. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.47
Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Miyamoto, Y. (宮本百合), Ma, X., & Hitokoto, H. (一言英文) (2016). To accept one’s fate or be its master: Culture, control, and workplace choice. 運命を受け入れる、それともその支配者になる：文化、コントロール、職場選択 Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00936
Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン) (2016). Measuring and Understanding Emotions in East Asia. 東アジアにおける感情の測定と理解 In H. Meiselman (Ed.), Emotion Measurement (Pp. 629-644). Woodhead Publishing. ISBN: 9780081005088
Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Kimura, J. (2016). When does the culturally dominant mode of attention appear or disappear? Comparing patterns of eye movement during the visual flicker task between European Canadians and Japanese. 文化的に優勢な注意様式はどんな時に生じ、または生じないか？ カナダ人と日本人における視覚的フリッカー課題間の眼球運動パターンの比較 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. doi: 10.1177/0022022116653830
Jung, K. H. (鄭珪煕) (2016). Happiness as an Additional Antecedent of Schadenfreude. シャーデンフロイデの付加的先行要因としての幸福感 Journal of Positive Psychology. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1173224
Iwai, N.（岩井紀子）, & Shishido, K. (2015). The Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident on People’s Perception of Disaster Risks and Attitudes Toward Nuclear Energy Policy. 東日本大震災・福島第一原子力発電所の事故が災害リスクの認知および原子力政策への態度に与えた影響 Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research, 2(3), 172-195. doi: 10.15206/ajpor.2015.2.3.172
Shikishima, C.（敷島千鶴）, Hiraishi, K.（平石界）, Yamagata, S., Ando, J., & Okada, M. (2015). Genetic factors of individual differences in decision making in economic behavior: A Japanese twin study using the Allais problem. 経済行動の意思決定における個人差に寄与する遺伝要因：アレのパラドクスを用いた日本の双生児研究 Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01712
Hayase, K. (早瀬光司) (2016). Concerns Involving the Self: What Is It That You Really Worry about, Regret, or Are Anxious about, When Things Do Not Go Right for You? 「自分の思い通りにしたい、という思い」：物事が自分の思い通りにならないとき、人が心配したり、後悔したり、不安になったりしている本当の的（まと）は何か？ Psychology, 7(4), 627-647. doi: 10.4236/psych.2016.74065
Shibuya, K. (渋谷和彦) (2017). Bridging between Cyber Politics and Collective Dynamics of Social Movement. Khosrow-Pour, M. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (4th Edition), IGI Global.
Ishiyama, R. (石山玲子) (2013). Japan: Why So Few Women Journalists? Byerly, C. M. (2013). (Ed.) The Palgrave International Handbook of Women and Journalism, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 404-418. ISBN 978-1-137-27324-6
Kase, T.（嘉瀬貴祥）, Endo, S., & Oishi, K. (2016). Process linking social support to mental health through a sense of coherence in Japanese university students. 日本人大学生におけるソーシャル・サポートが首尾一貫感覚を介して精神的健康と結びつく過程の検討 Mental Health & Prevention. doi: 10.1016/j.mhp.2016.05.00
Tsuboya, T., Aida, J., Hikichi, H.（引地博之）, Subramanian, SV., Kondo, K., Osaka, K., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Predictors of depressive symptoms following the Great East Japan earthquake: A prospective study. 東日本大震災後のうつ症状発症の予測要因：震災前のデータを活用した前向き研究の結果から Social Science & Medicine. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.05.026
Schug, J.（シューグ・ジョアンナ）, Takagishi, H.（高岸治人）, Benech, C., & Okada, H. (2016). The development of theory of mind and positive and negative reciprocity in preschool children. 未就学児における互恵性と心の理論の発達 Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00888
Ueda, R., Ashida, H., Yanagisawa, K.（柳澤邦昭）, & Abe, N. (2016). The neural basis of individual differences in mate poaching. 略奪愛の個人差に関わる神経基盤 Social Neuroscience. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2016.1182065
Hikichi, H.（引地博之）, Aida, J., Tsuboya, T., Kondo, K., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami. 地域の社会的な結びつきは外傷後ストレス障害(PTSD)の発症を予防するか？東日本大震災前後のパネルデータを用いた解析結果から American Journal of Epidemiology. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv335
In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter 7 months before the earthquake and tsunami. A follow-up survey was conducted approximately 2.5 years after the disaster. We used a spatial Durbin model to examine the association of community-level social cohesion with the individual risk of PTSD. Among our analytic sample (n = 3,567), 11.4% of respondents reported severe PTSD symptoms. In the spatial Durbin model, individual- and community-level social cohesion before the disaster were significantly associated with lower risks of PTSD symptoms (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.77, 0.98 and odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.90, respectively), even after adjustment for depression symptoms at baseline and experiences during the disaster (including loss of loved ones, housing damage, and interruption of access to health care). Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster.
Mifune, N.（三船恒裕）, Hizen, Y., Kamijo, Y., & Okano, Y. (2016). Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict. 集団対集団だと個人間よりも攻撃的になるかと思ったけど、そうじゃなかったぜ！ PLOS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154859
Ishii, K.（石井敬子）, Rule, N. O., & Toriyama, R.（鳥山理恵） (2016). Context Sensitivity in Canadian and Japanese Children’s Judgments of Emotion. Current Psychology, 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s12144-016-9446-y