日本の社会心理学者たちは,活発な研究活動を展開・公表しており,その成果は日本語による論文であれば例えば日本社会心理学会の機関誌である「社会心理学研究」等の学会誌に掲載され,また学術書として公刊されています.一方,当然のことながら学問に国境はなく,特に近年では国際的な論文誌や書籍にその成果が掲載されることも増えてきました.しかし,こうした国際的成果をくまなく知ることは,あまりにそのフィールドが広いためにあまり容易ではありませんでした.

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Tsujikawa et al.(2016)

Tsujikawa, N.(辻川典文), Tsuchida, S.(土田昭司), & Shiotani, T.(塩谷尚正) (2015). 
Changes in the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power generation in Japan since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. 
2011年福島第一原発事故以来の日本における原子力発電のパブリック・アクセプタンスに影響する要因の変化
Risk analysis, 36(1), 98-113.
Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study’s target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

Puspitasari, & Ishii (2016)

Puspitasari, L., & Ishii, K. (石井健一) (2016).
Digital divides and mobile Internet in Indonesia: Impact of smartphones.
インドネシアにおけるデジタルデバイドとモバイル・インターネット―スマートフォンの影響を中心に
Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 472-483.
doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2015.11.001

Mobile leapfrogging refers to the process by which new Internet users access the Internet using mobile phones and not PCs. This study examines how and whether mobile phones narrow the digital divide among Indonesian people at four levels (device ownership, Internet adoption, use, and information acquisition). A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in three large cities in Indonesia (N = 605). The results indicated that, at different levels, younger and more educated people utilize mobile Internet, especially via smartphones. In contrast, feature phones are owned by less educated and older people regardless of income level, but Internet usage on such phones is more prevalent among younger and more educated people. Moreover, the adoption of the PC-based Internet promotes the ownership of smartphones. These results indicate that mobile leapfrogging is the case only with the ownership of feature phones. Furthermore, in comparison with feature phones, smartphones and personal computers are more associated with information handling capacity in daily life. These findings suggest that ICT literacy education is important, and one should not be optimistic about the mobile Internet’s prospects for narrowing the digital divide in developing countries.

Sasaki et al.(2015)

Sasaki, Y.(佐々木裕一), Kawai, D.(河井大介), & Kitamura, S.(北村智) (2015).
The anatomy of tweet overload: How number of tweets received, number of friends, and egocentric network density affect perceived information overload.
ツイート・オーバロードを解剖する:どの程度のツイート数,フレンド数,ネットワーク密度が情報過多とみなされるか
Telematics and Informatics, 32(4), 853-861.
doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2015.04.008
More than 21 million monthly active users (MAUs) in Japan read, communicate, and share information with others via Twitter (in May 2013). In this study, we focused on perceived information overload by analyzing the number of tweets received, number of friends, and density of a user’s egocentric network. These three variables were examined using objective data collected through Twitter’s open Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). We collected data concerning tweet overload through a web-based survey, and we used an ordered logistic regression analysis to examine the combined data (n = 1277). Results demonstrated that only the number of friends had a significantly positive effect on perceived tweet overload, while the number of tweets received did not produce a significant effect. Although the density of a user’s egocentric network did not demonstrate any significant effect on perceived tweet overload, a significant interaction effect appeared between the number of friends and the density of this network. In other words, findings indicated that a large number of friends strengthened the network density’s effect; by contrast, a smaller number of friends strengthened network density but reduced perceived tweet overload. The findings are discussed in detail in this article.

Yamada, & Kim(2016)

Yamada, A. (山田歩), & Kim, J-Y. (2016).
Option-Splitting Effects in Poll Regarding Japan’s Right to Exercise Collective Self-Defense.
集団的自衛権行使をめぐる世論調査における選択肢分割の効果
Social Science Japan Journal.
doi: 10.1093/ssjj/jyv034
Against the backdrop of heated debates within and outside Japan regarding Japan’s push for the right to exercise collective self-defense (CSD), the Japanese mass media have reported a series of polls on Japan’s exercise of its right to CSD, with significantly disparate results. In this article, we present one natural experiment and one controlled experiment that show that the disparate outcomes are due to the different ways the options are segmented. We conducted a comparative analysis of two questionnaires, one presenting two options of ‘approve’ and ‘disapprove’ and the other with three options, splitting the option of ‘approve’ into two answers presenting different means of approving the use of the right to CSD. As a result, more respondents chose ‘approve’ when the option was split into two. The result shows that option-splitting expands the respondents’ range of perception and psychological availability, which in turn raises the selection rate. This research implies that inducing the poll results through option-splitting is possible, which might eventually affect the policy-making process in democratic societies where public opinion polls affect policy.

Fermin et al.(2016)

Fermin, A. S. R., Sakagami, M., Kiyonari, T. (清成透子), Li, Y.(李楊), Matsumoto, Y. (松本良恵), Yamagishi, T. (山岸俊男) (2016).
Representation of economic preferences in the structure and function of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.
扁桃体と前頭前野の構造と機能における経済的選好の表現
Scientific Reports, 6, 20982.
doi: 10.1038/srep20982
Social value orientations (SVOs) are economic preferences for the distribution of resources – prosocial individuals are more cooperative and egalitarian than are proselfs. Despite the social and economic implications of SVOs, no systematic studies have examined their neural correlates. We investigated the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) structures and functions in prosocials and proselfs by functional magnetic resonance imaging and evaluated cooperative behavior in the Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We found for the first time that amygdala volume was larger in prosocials and positively correlated with cooperation, while DLPFC volume was larger in proselfs and negatively correlated with cooperation. Proselfs’ decisions were marked by strong DLPFC and weak amygdala activity, and prosocials’ decisions were marked by strong amygdala activity, with the DLPFC signal increasing only in defection. Our findings suggest that proselfs’ decisions are controlled by DLPFC-mediated deliberative processes, while prosocials’ decisions are initially guided by automatic amygdala processes.

Shimizu et al.(2016)

Shimizu, M., Niiya, Y.(新谷優), & Shigemasu, E.(繁桝江里) (2016).
Achievement goals and improvement following failure: moderating roles of self-compassion and contingency of self-worth.
失敗後の達成目標と向上:自己への慈しみと自己価値の随伴性の仲介効果
Self and Identity, 15(1), 107-115.
doi: 10.1080/15298868.2015.1084371
We examined whether mastery goals promote greater score improvement on a cognitive test than performance goals and whether self-compassion and contingency of self-worth moderated the effect. Participants received either mastery or performance goals manipulation, failed on a difficult test, and took the test again after receiving the correct answers. Those with mastery goals showed a greater score improvement than those with performance goals, although post-failure state self-esteem did not differ between the two conditions. Moreover, the goals had a greater effect among (a) those with low rather than high self-compassion and (b) those with high rather than low competition contingency of self-worth. The findings suggest that by framing the task as a challenge rather than a threat, mastery goals encourage people to learn from failure more so than performance goals, especially when under high ego-threat.

Kitamura (2016)

Kitamura, S.(北村智) (2016). 
Implications of urbanism for the use of local news media: effects of population concentration on types of news acquisition in Japan. 
日本のローカルニュースメディア利用におけるアーバニズム:人口集中がニュース入手タイプに及ぼす影響
Information, Communication& Society.
doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2016.1140803
The Internet, a global computer network enabling people to send and receive information anywhere in the world, also functions as a local medium of communication. This study focuses on the role of the Internet in transmitting local news and examines the effects of community population concentrations as socio-ecological environments on the use of local news media consumed online and offline. Data from 1367 respondents across 156 Japanese communities were used to analyze the relationships between type of community and type of news source. The findings suggest that people who live in highly populated communities tend more often to use the Internet to access local news, whereas those in less populated communities tend to use more traditional mass media. However, the results of this study did not show a relationship between population concentrations within communities and the acquisition of international news, nor did the social features of residents adequately explain the effects of population concentration on the acquisition of local news. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions based on network externalities, urbanism, and collective action. The findings indicate that local news consumption is embedded in local social contexts in a way that international news is not, reinforcing the importance of urbanism in the information age.

Horita et al. (2016)

Horita, Y.(堀田結孝), Takezawa, M.(竹澤正哲), Kinjo, T.(金城卓司), Nakawake, Y.(中分遥), & Masuda, N. (2016).
Transient nature of cooperation by pay-it-forward reciprocity.
「恩送り」互酬性による協力のはかなさ
Scientific Reports, 6, Article Number: 19471.
doi: 10.1038/srep19471
Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chained gift-giving game) on a large scale in terms of group size and time. We found that cooperation consistent with pay-it-forward reciprocity occurred only in a first few decisions per participant and that cooperation originated from inherent pro-sociality of individuals. In contrast, the same groups of participants showed persisting chains of cooperation in a different indirect reciprocity game in which participants earned reputation by cooperating. Our experimental results suggest that pay-it-forward reciprocity is transient and disappears when a person makes decisions repeatedly, whereas the reputation-based reciprocity is stable in the same situation.

Nozaki, & Koyasu (2016)

Nozaki, Y. (野崎優樹), & Koyasu, M. (2016).
Can we apply an emotional competence measure to an eastern population?: Psychometric properties of the Profile of Emotional Competence in a Japanese population.
情動コンピテンス尺度は東洋の人にも適用可能か?日本における情動コンピテンスプロフィールの心理測定学的特性の検証
Assessment, 23(1), 112-123.
doi: 10.1177/1073191115571124
Researchers have repeatedly argued that it is important to determine whether the psychometric properties of an emotional competence measure hold in Eastern populations because there may be cultural variability in abilities linked with emotional competence. However, few studies have examined potential differences in an emotional competence measure in Eastern cultures. To fill this gap, we investigated the applicability of the Profile of Emotional Competence to a Japanese population. Results demonstrated measurement and structural invariance across our Japanese and the original Belgian data sets. As was found in the Belgian sample, this measure showed adequate convergent and criterion validity in the Japanese sample. Furthermore, the scores on this measure were stronger predictors of subjective health and happiness in the Japanese than Belgian population. This measure also showed incremental validity. Our results suggest that the Profile of Emotional Competence is applicable to the Japanese population, an Eastern society.

Furukawa et al.(2016)

Furukawa, Y. (古川善也), Nakashima, K.(中島健一郎), & Morinaga, Y.(森永康子) (2016). 
Influence of social context on the relationship between guilt and prosocial behaviour.
罪悪感と向社会的行動の関連に社会的文脈が及ぼす影響
Asian Journal of Social Psychology.
doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12128
 
While some previous researchers have found that guilt encourages prosocial behaviour towards a victim at the expense of other people, others have found the opposite, that is, people allocate resources at the expense of themselves. The present research used a hypothetical scenario method to determine which of these patterns would be replicated in the collectivistic context of Japanese society. In addition, we separated the cause of feelings of guilt into having caused harm and being at fault, and examined in more detail the effect of guilt on prosocial behaviour. Our results show that, in line with the second set of previous researchers, participants who were induced to feel guilt for having caused harm were more likely to allocate their resources to their victim at the expense of themselves than were individuals in the no-harm condition. This suggests that differences in social context influence the effect of guilt on prosocial behaviour in different ways.

Tabuchi et al. (2016)

Tabuchi, M.(田渕恵), Kamiariya, M. & Miura, A.(三浦麻子)  (2016).
Does Interpersonal Regulatory Fit Affect Intergenerational Communication? Elder Advice and Younger Gratitude. 
制御焦点傾向が世代間コミュニケーションに及ぼす影響:高齢者のアドバイスと若者の感謝
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science. 
doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.40
Old people have considerable experience and wisdom to share with young people; however, young people do not always listen to old people with gratitude. We conducted two studies to examine the effect of regulatory fit on young people’s gratitude toward old advisers. As predicted, young people felt more grateful to old advisers whose advice did not “fit” the advisees’ self-regulatory orientation, whereas young people felt more grateful to young advisers whose advice fit the advisees’ self-regulatory orientation (Web survey in Study 1, lab experiment in Study 2). Using these results, we propose an idea that may promote smoother intergenerational interaction in transmitting experience and wisdom from older to younger generations.
 
高齢者の経験や知恵を次世代に継承していくことは重要であるが,知恵の受け手である若者が常に送り手である高齢者に対して感謝できるわけではない。どのような高齢者の知恵に若者が感謝を抱くのかを明らかにすることを目指し,本研究では,送り手と受け手の制御焦点傾向が若者の感謝生起に影響するかを調べた。Study1(Web調査)およびStudy2(実験室実験)の結果,若者同士では制御焦点傾向が合致する方が相手に対して感謝を抱くのに対し,知恵の送り手が高齢者である場合は制御焦点傾向が合致しない方が相手に対して感謝を抱くことが明らかとなった。本研究の結果は,知恵の伝授という世代間コミュニケーションを円滑に行うためのヒントとなり得る。

Loughnan et al. (2015)

Loughnan, S., Fernandez, S., Vaes, J., Anjum, G., Aziz, M., Harada, C.(原田知佳), Holland, E., Singh, I., Puvia, E., & Tsuchiya, K. (土屋耕治) (2015).
Exploring the Role of Culture in Sexual Objectification: A Seven Nations Study.
性的客体化における文化の役割の探索的検討: 7カ国を比較して
International Review of Social Psychology / Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 28(1), 125-152.
Sexual objectification – seeing or treating a person as a sexual object – has been the topic of considerable investigation. Building from a longstanding recognition of the potential importance of culture in sexual objectification, this paper focuses on the extent to which people in different parts of the world objectify themselves and others. We explored sexual objectification amongst 588 people in seven diverse nations (i.e., Australia, India, Italy, Japan, Pakistan, the UK, and the USA). Participants completed standard measures of self- and other-objectification. The results revealed that culture did affect self- and other-objectification, with objectification emerging more robustly in Australia, Italy, the UK, and the USA than it did in India, Japan, and Pakistan. These findings help support theoretical claims that culture matters for sexual objectification. Future research directions are discussed.
 
性的客体化 (人を性の対象として「物」のように見たり扱ったりすること) において,文化が果たす役割を探索的に検討した。7カ国のデータを分析した結果,文化による違いが認められた。具体的には,オーストラリア,イタリア,イギリス,アメリカにおいて,インド,日本,パキスタンよりも,自己や他者を物として捉える傾向 (自己対象化・他者対象化) が見られた。

Tsutsumi et al. (2015)

Tsutsumi, H., Uekami, T., & Inamasu, K.(稲増一憲) (2015).
The effects of VAAs on voter's sophistication in Japan.
Political Behavior and Technology Voting Advice Applications in East Asia.
東アジアにおける政治行動と投票支援システム
Palgrave Macmillan.
ISBN 9781137518972
This book chapter shows a potential effect of the VAAs in Japan by asking the following research questions: To what degree do Japanese voters recognize parties’ policy positions correctly? Can Japanese voters identify and vote for the party closest to their policy preference? Whom should VAAs target? By analyzing the internet survey data of the 2010 House of Councillors election, we show that quite a few Japanese voters could not find or incorrectly identify a party close to their policy preference, and voters who have a small amount of correct information are more likely to vote incorrectly. We also found that VAAs is likely to be effective for young, female voters and those who are not usually exposed to political information and indifferent to politics.
選挙時に有権者が政策に対する賛否を入力すると自身の意見に近い政党を表示してくれる投票支援システムについて、東アジアにおける取組をまとめた書籍の1章である。本章は日本におけるボートマッチと呼ばれる実践について、ウェブ調査を用いて検証している。

Yamagishi et al. (2015)

Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男), Akutsu, S.(阿久津聡, Cho, K., Inoue, Y.(井上裕珠), & Li, Y.(李楊), & Matsumoto, Y.(松本良惠) (2015).
Two-Component Model of General Trust: Predicting Behavioral Trust from Attitudinal Trust.
一般的信頼の2要因モデル:信頼行動を信頼態度から予測する
Social Cognition, 33(5), 436-458.
doi: 10.1521/soco.2015.33.5.436
General trust constitutes a critical aspect of social capital that facilitates democratic governance and economic prosperity of a society. Despite its theoretical importance, attitudinal measures of general trust often fail to predict actual trusting behavior in laboratory testing. We suspected that the failure of currently available measures of trust in predicting behavioral trust stems from the overly consequentialist approach to defining trust. We proposed that measures of attitudinal trust succeed in predicting behavioral trust when they tap both the responder’s belief that his/her trust will be honored and his/her preference to be a trusting person. We constructed a new measure of general trust that includes both of these aspects. Using a nonstudent sample of trust game players (N = 470), we demonstrated that the newly constructed measure better predicts behavioral trust in a trust game and other related games, especially when the participant’s social-value orientation is controlled.

Yamagishi, & Mifune (2016)

Yamagishi, T. (山岸俊男) & Mifune, N. (三船恒裕) (2016).
Parochial altruism: does it explain modern human group psychology?
偏狭な利他主義:現代人の心理を説明可能か?
Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 39-43.
doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.015
Parochial altruism — the human inclination toward costly intragroup cooperation and inter-group aggression without expectations of future returns — requires group selection logic to explain its evolution. We examined experimental evidence for three implications of the group selection account: the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation; the noninstrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression; and the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Laboratory experiments revealed no support for the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation, mostly negative evidence for the noninstrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression, and mixed evidence for the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Caution against premature conclusions about the role of group selection in the evolution of parochial altruism is advised.

Yamagishi,& Hashimoto (2016)

Yamagishi, T. (山岸俊男) & Hashimoto, H. (橋本博文) (2016).
Social niche construction.
社会的ニッチ構築
Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 119-124.
doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.10.003
Humans are niche constructors who create physical and social environments to which they adapt. The social niche construction approach to human behavior analyzes behavior as a strategy to further long-term self-interest given a specific institution — that is, a set of stable and predictable responses from others to one’s own behavior. We illustrate the logic of social niche construction analysis using examples of individualist and collectivist institutions, and explain how independent and interdependent self-construal can be viewed as strategies adapting to and collectively sustaining individualist or collectivist institutions. We discuss how the social niche construction approach is related to similar approaches used in cultural psychology, namely the socioecological approach, intersubjective approach, equilibrium approach, and gene–culture co-evolution approach.

Ishii, & Uchida (2016)

Ishii, K. (石井敬子) & Uchida, Y. (内田由紀子) (2016).
Japanese Youth Marginalization Decreases Interdependent Orientation.
日本の若者の周縁化による協調性の減少
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(3), 376-384.
doi: 10.1177/0022022115621969
Under the influences of globalization and a long recession, there is an increasing population of marginalized Japanese youth referred to as NEET (Not in Employment, Education, or Training). Past studies have suggested that the social withdrawal of these individuals is a manifestation of a denial of the dominant cultural value of interdependence and a lack of motivation to adhere to it. To present additional evidence, this study addressed the cognitive and emotional consequences of NEET tendencies by examining interdependent orientation measured by one’s desire to engage in social activities (Study 1) and spontaneous attention to vocal tone (Study 2). As expected, an increase of NEET tendencies was associated with a lower desire to engage in social activities and a reduced attention to vocal tone. These results suggest that NEET tendencies decrease interdependent orientation in the Japanese cultural context.

Tanaka et al.(2015)

Tanaka, Y. (田中豊), Kitayama, M. (北山雅也), Arai, S. (荒井祥), & Matsushima, M. (松島由貴) (2015).
Major psychological factors affecting consumer’s acceptance of food additives: Validity of a new psychological model.
食品添加物の消費者受容を規定する心理的要因-新しい心理モデルの妥当性-
British Food Journal, 117(11), 2788-2800. 
doi: 10.1108/BFJ-02-2015-0062

The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of a causal model that was made to predict the consumer’s acceptance of food additives. A new emotional model in which cognitive factors influence emotional factors from the bottom-up was made and the validity of the model was tested. A social survey was conducted in Tokyo, Japan, among 120 female undergraduate students. The results showed that the new emotional model had a higher validity than the conventional emotional model, in which emotional factors influence cognitive factors. This study showed that the influence of cognitive factors, such as perceived risk and perceived benefit, is also effective in an emotional model. This importantly suggests that consumer’s emotions like anxiety and anger can be changed by altering consumer’s cognitions or perceptions.

Nozaki (2015)

Nozaki, Y. (野崎優樹) (2015).
Emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person.
情動コンピテンスと被排斥者の悲しみを和らげる行動との関連
Emotion, 15, 763-774.
doi: 10.1037/emo0000081
Positive interpersonal relationships hinge on individuals’ competence in regulating others’ emotions as well as their own. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between emotional competence and specific interpersonal behaviors. In particular, it is unclear which situations require emotional competence for extrinsic emotion regulation and whether emotionally competent individuals actually attempt to regulate others’ emotions. To clarify these issues, the current investigation examined the relationship between emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person. The results of Study 1 (N  = 39) indicated that interpersonal emotional competence (competence related to others’ emotions) was positively associated with participants’ efforts to relieve the ostracized person’s sadness. In Study 2 (N  = 120), this relationship was moderated by the ostracized person’s emotional expression. In particular, participants with high interpersonal emotional competence were more likely to attempt to regulate the sadness of ostracized individuals who expressed neutral affect. In contrast, when the ostracized person expressed sadness, there were no significant relationships between high or low interpersonal emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation behavior. These results offer novel insight into how emotionally competent individuals use their competence to benefit others.

Yamaguchi et al. (2015)

Yamaguchi, M.(山口真奈), Masuchi, A.(増地あゆみ), Nakanishi, D.(中西大輔), Suga, S. (菅さやか), Konishi, K.(小西直喜),  Yu, Y-Y., & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介)
Experiential purchases and prosocial spending promote happiness by enhancing social relationships.
The Journal of Positive Psychology: Dedicated to furthering research and promoting good practice.
doi: 10.1080/17439760.2015.1117128
Recent research on consumption and subjective well-being has revealed that experiential purchases and prosocial spending promote happiness by enhancing the purchasers’ social relationships. This study (N = 1523) explored whether undergraduate students’ consumption behaviors during summer break would be associated with their post-break happiness, and whether the consumption–happiness relationship would be mediated by a positive influence on their social relationships. The results showed that both experiential purchases and prosocial spending during summer break were associated with greater post-break happiness, but only when these purchases had a positive influence on the purchasers’ social relationships. These effects remained significant after controlling for respondents’ personality traits, financial standing, and sex. Moreover, both experiential purchases and prosocial spending were more likely to have a positive influence on social relationships than luxury purchases. These results are congruent with the recent exposition that experiential purchases and prosocial spending promote happiness by enhancing the purchasers’ social relationships.

Nakazato et al.(2015)

Nakazato, N.(中里直樹), Nakashima, K.(中島健一郎), & Morinaga, Y.(森永康子) (2015).
The importance of freedom in the East and the West over time: A meta-analytic study of predictors of well-being.
「自由」の重要性:ウェルビーイングの予測因に関するメタ分析
Social Indications Research, 1-18.
doi: 10.1007/s11205-015-1180-6
 
We examined whether sense of freedom is an important predictor of well-being, as compared to other typical predictors, across different periods in modern times (1981–2011), and in the East and the West. We applied a meta-analytical approach to the results of a series of multiple regression analyses conducted on six individual waves of Japanese data sets and five individual waves of American data sets from the World Values Survey. The final sample comprised 6389 Japanese and 6176 American respondents during all study periods. The main findings were that sense of freedom was one of the strongest predictors of life satisfaction (a) among several predictors (i.e., health condition, household income, marital status), (b) consistently across waves, and (c) in both Japan and the United States, as typical collectivistic Eastern and individualistic Western countries. We conclude that the greater importance of sense of freedom in ensuring well-being than other typical predictors is applicable to individuals across time and cultures.

Ishiguro (2016)

Ishiguro, I. (石黒格)
Extroversion and neuroticism affect the right side of the distribution of network size.
ネットワークサイズ分布の「右側」に影響する外向性と神経症傾向
Social Networks, 44, 219-225.
doi: 10.1016/j.socnet.2015.10.004
Previous studies explored various predictors of network size by examining their effects on mean network size. However, such predictors may not affect the entire distribution of network size uniformly. In the present study, I theoretically predict that extroversion and neuroticism affect the right side of the network size distribution to a greater extent than the left side and test these predictions using quantile regression analysis. The results showed that the effects of extroversion on the size of the inner and outer layers of personal network were significantly greater when the prediction target was the third quartile than when it was the first quartile. The results also showed that although the effects of neuroticism on the inner layer size were significant, that on the outer layer size were not. When the target variable was inner layer size, the relationship between neuroticism and inner layer size was stronger when the prediction target was the third quartile than when it was the first quartile.

Ogihara et al.(2015)

Ogihara, Y.(荻原祐二), Fujita, H., Tominaga, H., Ishigaki, S., Kashimoto, T., Takahashi, A., Toyohara, K., & Uchida, Y.(内田由紀子) (2015). 
Are common names becoming less common? The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan. 
「ふつうの名前」がふつうでなくなる? 日本におけるユニークネスと個人主義の増大
Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1490.
We examined whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating how the practice of naming babies has changed over time. Cultural psychology has revealed substantial cultural variation in human psychology and behavior, emphasizing the mutual construction of socio-cultural environment and mind. However, much of the past research did not account for the fact that culture is changing. Indeed, archival data on behavior (e.g., divorce rates) suggest a rise in individualism in the U.S. and Japan. In addition to archival data, cultural products (which express an individual’s psyche and behavior outside the head; e.g., advertising) can also reveal cultural change. However, little research has investigated the changes in individualism in East Asia using cultural products. To reveal the dynamic aspects of culture, it is important to present temporal data across cultures. In this study, we examined baby names as a cultural product. If Japanese culture has become more individualistic, parents would be expected to give their children unique names. Using two databases, we calculated the rate of popular baby names between 2004 and 2013. Both databases released the rankings of popular names and their rates within the sample. As Japanese names are generally comprised of both written Chinese characters and their pronunciations, we analyzed these two separately. We found that the rate of popular Chinese characters increased, whereas the rate of popular pronunciations decreased. However, only the rate of popular pronunciations was associated with a previously validated collectivism index. Moreover, we examined the pronunciation variation of common combinations of Chinese characters and the written form variation of common pronunciations. We found that the variation of written forms decreased, whereas the variation of pronunciations increased over time. Taken together, these results showed that parents are giving their children unique names by pairing common Chinese characters with uncommon pronunciations, which indicates an increase in individualism in Japan.

Yu,& Ohtsubo (2015)

Yu, Y.-Y.(兪 叶韵) & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介) (2015).
The implicit association between pride and social status in Japan.
日本におけるプライド感情と社会的地位の間の潜在的連合について
Letters on Behavioral Social Science
doi: 10.5178/lebs.2015.38
Pride is considered to be an emotion related to the attainment of status. People (at least in Canada and Fiji) implicitly associate the pride expression with high status. In a series of four implicit association test (IAT) studies, we explored the implicit association between the pride expression and high status in Japan. Study 1 showed that Japanese participants readily associate the pride expression with high status, and the shame/embarrassment expression with low status. Study 2a, furthermore, confirmed that the pride-high status association is not driven by the shame-low status association, while Study 2b revealed that the pride-high status association cannot be explained by a simple association of pride with general positivity. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that Japanese participants readily associate the pride expression with high status jobs, and thus conceptually replicated Study 1. Collectively, these studies provide evidence that East Asian people associate the expression of pride with high status.

Ishii (2015)

Ishii, K.(石井敬子) (2015).
Subjective socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking interact to delay discounting.
主観的な社会経済地位と喫煙の交互作用が遅延割引に及ぼす効果
SpringerPlus, 4, 560.
doi: 10.1186/s40064-015-1361-4 
 
People generally discount future outcomes, and accordingly accept immediate but smaller gain. This research examined whether this tendency (i.e., delay discounting) is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking status, and hypothesized that the influence of SES on delay discounting would be moderated by smoking status. Using an Internet survey, 206 participants made choices between receiving hypothetical monetary rewards immediately or with a delay of 1 year. As predicted, the rates of delay discounting were higher as subjective socioeconomic status indicating one’s relative position and standing in a society was lower. Moreover, the tendency was clearer in smokers than in non-smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoking has a moderating effect. In contrast, there was no effect of objective socioeconomic status representing how individuals are able to access valued goods and services. 

Oishi et al. (2015)

Oishi, S., Kimura, R.(木村玲欧), Hayashi, H.(林春男), Tatsuki, S., Tamura, K., Ishii, K.(石井敬子) & Tucker, J.  (2015).
Psychological adaptation to the Great Hanshin-Awazi Earthquake of 1995: 16 years later victims still report lower levels of subjective well-being.
阪神淡路大震災への心理的適応:16年後もなお被災者の主観的幸福感は低かった
Journal of Research in Personality, 55, 84-90.
doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2015.02.001
 
We investigated psychological adaptation to the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995, using surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2011. Respondents whose houses were damaged reported lower life satisfaction, more negative affect, and more health problems than those who did not suffer any damage in all surveys, including in 2011, or 16 years after the earthquake. Likewise, residents with at least one immediate family member who died in the earthquake reported lower life satisfaction, more negative affect, and more health problems than those who did not have any immediate family members killed in all surveys, including in 2011. Surprisingly, the effect of housing damage on subjective well-being remained significant, above and beyond human loss. Equally important, the 2011 survey data showed that pre-existing differences in socioeconomic status between the victims of housing damage and human loss did not change our main findings.

Inoue et al. (2015)

Inoue, Y.(井上裕珠), Hoogland, C. E., Takehashi, H.(竹橋洋毅) & Murata, K.(村田光二) (2015). 
Effects of resource divisibility and expectations of sharing on envy. 
資源の分割容易性と分配への期待が妬みに及ぼす影響
Motivation and Emotion, 1-12.
doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9498-6
In three experiments, we provide evidence that resource divisibility and expectations of sharing influence the degree to which envy arises in response to another’s superior resources. We manipulated the resource divisibility (e.g., 2 coins worth approximately $5.50 each vs. a single note worth approximately $11) and expectations of sharing were measured (Experiments 1 and 2) and manipulated (Experiment 3). Findings in these three experiments supported our hypothesis that envy would be most strongly experienced in response to others who had highly divisible resources that participants did not believe would be shared. These findings offer novel insights into the adaptive function of envy, which may promote sharing of divisible resources.

Nishina et al. (2015)

Nishina, K.(仁科国之), Takagishi, H.(高岸治人), Inoue-Murayama, M., Takahashi, H., & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2015).
Polymorphism of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene Modulates Behavioral and Attitudinal Trust among Men but Not Women.
オキシトシン受容体の遺伝子多型は行動/態度信頼を調節する.ただし,男性に限る.
PLOS ONE.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137089
A relationship between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and behavioral and attitudinal trust has been suggested, but the nature of this relationship has not yet been established. We obtained behavioral trust data from 470 Japanese participants (242 women) aged 20–59 years, together with their levels of general trust and personality traits (NEO-FFI). Saliva buccal swabs were collected from 411 of these 470 participants and used for genotyping of OXTR rs53576. Our participants were found to have more AA alleles (40%) than GG alleles (12%). The GG men were more trusting and also rated higher on attitudinal trust than AA men, and this difference did not diminish when personality traits were controlled for. However, this pattern was not observed among women. In addition, controlling for attitudinal trust reduced the difference in behavioral trust among men to a non-significant level, but the difference in attitudinal trust remained significant when behavioral trust was controlled. These results indicate that the OXTR genotype affects attitudinal trust as part of an individual’s relatively stable disposition, and further affects behavioral trust through changes in attitudinal trust.

Takemura & Suzuki (2015)

Takemura, K.(竹村幸祐), & Suzuki, S (2015).
Self-expression and relationship formation in high relational mobility environments: A study of dual users of American and Japanese social networking sites.
関係流動性の高い環境での自己表現と関係形成:日米SNS利用者の研究
International Journal of Psychology.
doi: 10.1002/ijop.12208
This study proposes that self-expression motivation, an aspect of independent/individualistic psychological tendencies, aids in the formation of social relationships when social relationships are open and mobile. In societies characterised by high relational mobility (e.g., North America), which creates market-like competition in social relationships, individuals must express their uniqueness and worthiness to form new social relationships. Self-expression motivation has a relatively weak effect on relationship formation in low relational mobility societies (e.g., Japan), where social relationships are generally predetermined. This hypothesis was examined and supported through a study on dual users of two social networking sites—Facebook and Mixi (the “Facebook of Japan”). As expected, relational mobility was higher on Facebook than on Mixi. Moreover, the association between self-expression motivation and the number of new friends met on Facebook/Mixi was more positive for Facebook than it was for Mixi. The social functionality of independent tendencies is then discussed.

Falk et al. (2015)

Falk, C. F., Heine, S. J., Takemura, K.(竹村幸祐), Zhang, C. X. J., & Hsu, C.-W. (2015).
Are implicit self-esteem measures valid for assessing individual and cultural differences?
潜在的自尊心尺度は個人差・文化差を測定できるか?
Journal of Personality, 83, 56-68.
doi: 10.1111/jopy.12082
Objective
Our research utilized two popular theoretical conceptualizations of implicit self-esteem: 1) implicit self-esteem as a global automatic reaction to the self; and 2) implicit self-esteem as a context/domain specific construct. Under this framework, we present an extensive search for implicit self-esteem measure validity among different cultural groups (Study 1) and under several experimental manipulations (Study 2).
Method
In Study 1, Euro-Canadians (N = 107), Asian-Canadians (N = 187), and Japanese (N = 112) completed a battery of implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem, and criterion measures. Included implicit self-esteem measures were either popular or provided methodological improvements upon older methods. Criterion measures were sampled from previous research on implicit self-esteem and included self-report and independent ratings. In Study 2, Americans (N = 582) completed a shorter battery of these same types of measures under either a control condition, an explicit prime meant to activate the self-concept in a particular context, or prime meant to activate self-competence related implicit attitudes.
Results
Across both studies, explicit self-esteem measures far outperformed implicit self-esteem measures in all cultural groups and under all experimental manipulations.
Conclusion
Implicit self-esteem measures are not valid for individual or cross-cultural comparisons. We speculate that individuals may not form implicit associations with the self as an attitudinal object.

Ida et al. (2015)

Ida, T., Takemura, K.(竹村幸祐), & Sato, M. (2015).
Inner conflict between nuclear power generation and electricity rates: A Japanese case study.
原子力発電と電気料金の内的葛藤:日本の事例研究
Energy Economics, 48, 61-69.
doi: 10.1016/j.eneco.2014.11.019 
Since the March 11 earthquake, Japanese households have been facing a trade-off problem between decreasing dependency on nuclear power generation and avoiding an increase in electricity rates. We analyze this inner conflict quantitatively, adopting two economic–psychological approaches: First, we note that the trade-off causes cognitive dissonance after making a choice that results in a wider desirability gap between the chosen and rejected alternatives. Second, the consumer surplus improves by 11.2% with a no-choice option for suspending judgment in the presence of cognitive dissonance. Third, individual characteristics such as gender and annual household income are significantly correlated with both cognitive dissonance and a preference for the no-choice option.

Takemura et al. (2014)

Takemura, K.(竹村幸祐), Uchida, Y.(内田由紀子), & Fujino, M.(藤野正寛) (2014).
Extension officers as social coordinators: Comparisons between agricultural and fishing communities in Japan.
社会的コーディネーターとしての農業普及指導員:日本の農業と漁業コミュニティの比較
Psychologia, 57(4), 245-258.
Literature suggests that social capital, which often promotes human welfare, requires sensitive handling to build and maintain. The current study investigated the role of extension officers (fukyu-shidoin) in Japanese agricultural and fishing communities, who help farmers/fishers in both technical and social matters. Past research found that in Japanese agricultural communities, extension officers’ activities, social skills, and relationships with their colleagues had effects on social capital and problem solving in communities. We conducted a nation-wide survey of fishery extension officers and found that the findings in agricultural communities were largely replicated in fishing communities with only one difference: Officers’ activities to provide a future vision had a positive effect for problem solving in agricultural communities. For fisheries, however, such activities were more effective when the officer had worked for the community for a longer period of time. This could be explained by the higher level of uncertainty in fishing than farming.

Omi, Y. (2015)

Omi, Y.(尾見康博 (2015).
The potential of the globalization of education in Japan: The Japanese style of school sports activities (Bukatsu).
日本における教育のグローバル化の可能性:日本式学校スポーツ活動(部活)
Educational contexts and borders through a cultural lens.
ISBN: 978-3-319-18764-8
 
A series of culturally shocking events have happened around me since I returned to Japan after a two-and-a-half year experience in the United States with my family. I have readjusted to the size of dishes and drinks, the driving lane, the punctuality, and the working styles. The school environment surrounding my children, however is still frustrating me,although it appears that their education is proceeding well. 
 
This chapter will introduce bukatsu, which is a unique school sport activity in Japan and one of the most frustrating things for me, along with a junior high school environment, to show an aspect of Japanese culture. It does not adopt a style of cross-cultural studies on physicaI education  (e.g.,Pühse and Gerber 2005) to avoid a superficial comparison of different societies.  On the basis of an autoethnographic study (Ellis et al. 2012) on bukatsu, some tasks of the globalization of education in Japan wiII be discussed. Another study of educational  settings in the United States from a parent ‘s perspective (Omi 2012) will be reflected in the discussion.
世界的にも希有なシステムである部活。その独自性を国際的な観点から描写し,昨今の教育のグローバル化論に照らしながら論ずる。

Matsugasaki et al.(2015)

Matsugasaki, K.(松ヶ崎渓介), Tsukamoto, W., & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介) (2015).
 Two failed replications of the watching eyes effect.
 ”見つめる目の効果”に関する2つの追試研究の失敗
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science.
 doi: 10.5178/lebs.2015.36

The watching eyes effect refers to the phenomenon that people behave more altruistically than usual when an eye-image is present in their environment. In this paper, we report two failed replications of the watching eyes effect. In both Studies 1 and 2, participants decided how many coins out of a seven coin endowment (each coin worth 100 Japanese yen) to allocate to a subsequent participant, under the assumption that the prior participant may have left them some coins. In Study 1, participants anonymously made their allocation decision while seated in front of a poster depicting either an eye-image or a geometric pattern. In Study 2, to increase the saliency of the watching eyes, participants were instructed to place the coins in envelopes (one for self and one for the subsequent participant) printed with either an eye-image or a geometric pattern. In both Studies 1 and 2, the number of coins that participants allocated to subsequent participants did not significantly differ between the eye-image and control conditions. Moreover, the proportion of participants who allocated at least one coin to subsequent participants was not significantly different across the two conditions. In our studies, altruism was not increased by watching eyes.

Sakakibara & Endo (2015)

Sakakibara, R. (榊原良太) & Endo, T. (2015).
 Cognitive appraisal as a predictor of cognitive emotion regulation choice.
 認知的感情制御選択の規定因としての認知的評価
 Japanese Psychological Research.

More attention has recently been focused on how a person may choose their emotion regulation strategies depending on the situation. The present research exploratorily examined that how people cognitively appraised a situation, which they actually encountered in their life, affects following use tendency of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Three hundred and twenty-four participants were instructed to recall the most stressful situation in the last month, and to rate how they cognitively appraised the situation (threat, centrality, controllability, commitment, injustice/unfairness, expectedness, expectancy) and how they cognitively regulated their emotion (self-blame, blaming others, acceptance, refocus on planning, positive refocusing, rumination, positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, catastrophizing). Multiple regression analysis revealed that even after control for other variables, such as age, sex, personality, the time when the situation occurred and the intensity of negative emotion, all criteria of cognitive appraisal except for expectedness predicted cognitive emotion regulation choice. Implications and limitations of this research were discussed.

Ozeki (2015)

Ozeki, M.(尾関美喜) (2015).
Group-level group identity as a basis of a group.
集団の基盤としての集団レベルの集団アイデンティティ
Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 19(3), 166-180.
doi: 10.1037/gdn0000030

The aim of this study was to examine group-level group identity (GGI), which is defined as group identity within a whole group and which may be an essential element for a collection of people to be a group. Multilevel structural equation modeling (ML-SEM) was used to test the prediction that GGI would have a positive effect on interaction, emotional bond, and interdependence among group members in the group-level model. If so, GGI could be considered as an essential element for a collection of people to be a group. University students (137 men, 104 women) completed a questionnaire (Study 1) and took part in an experiment in which 32 experimental groups (37 men, 55 women) were formed (Study 2). The results supported the prediction in both studies: GGI had positive influences on interactions, emotional bonds, and interdependence among group members.

Hayase, & Ura (2015)

Hayase K.(早瀬 光司) Ura M.(浦 光博) (2015).
Ownership or Taking Action: Which Is More Important for Happiness?
所有と行動:人間の真の幸福にとって、どちらがより重要であろうか?
Psychology, 6(6).
doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.66072
In two studies (2010 and 2011), more than 2000 respondents living in Japan were asked whether they gained more happiness from ownership or from taking action. In the 2010 study, many more individuals preferred taking action to ownership; this preference was greater in women than in men and in older people than in younger people. Reasons for this preference were plainly expressed in respondents’ free writing, and a categorical distinction between ownership and taking action was readily recognized and widely shared. Social desirability concerns probably did not play a role in responses. In the 2011 study, many individuals valued action more than ownership as like as the 2010 study. The preference for taking action over ownership was greater in women than in men, in older people than in younger people, and in people with higher levels of education than in people with lower levels of education. There was no relationship with annual income. The correlations with gender and level of education were similar to results of comparable studies conducted in the USA, although in the US studies, experiential purchases were evaluated, rather than taking action; however, the correlation with age was uncertain in the US studies. Further studies with US respondents will be necessary to examine this correlation. Possible reasons why many more people preferred happiness gained from taking action to happiness experienced from ownership were discussed.
 2010-2011年に行われた日本人に対するインターネットアンケート調査で、60~70%の人が、所有に比べて行動の方が、人間の幸福にとってより重要であると回答している。また、老いも若きも、男性も女性も、それぞれは行動の方をやはり重要視しているが、相対的な比較をすると、男性よりも女性の方が、若い人よりも年配の人の方が、行動が重要だと回答している。老若男女間でこのような相違が現れる理由を探究することは大変に興味深い。
 また、多くの人が所有よりも行動を重視している理由として、次の主たる4項目が挙げられた。(1)物を所有していても、物はいずれ壊れ消滅するので、所有の喜びは一時的で儚(はかな)い。(2)他者のために、あるいは、他者と共に行動することは、心から楽しい。(3)所有に比べて、行動は能動的で発展性があり限界も無い。(4)我々は物を所有しているのではなく、地球から預かり使用させてもらっているだけである。
 今から40年前に、ジョン・レノンが “考えてごらん、所有なんて実在しないんだ、架空のものなんだよ。君にもそれが理解できるかな?” と唄っているように、人間の真の幸福は、“所有”に囚われずに「どう考えて何を行うか」を基軸とした、主体的な“行動”の世界を地球上に普く(あまねく)築き上げることによって到達できるであろう。

Kato et al.(2015)

Kato, T. A(加藤隆弘)., Hashimoto, R., Hayakawa, K., Kubo, H., Shimokawa, N.,Watabe, M.(渡部 幹), Teo, A, R.,Kanba, S. (2015).
The multidimensional anatomy of “modern type depression” in Japan: A proposal for a different diagnostic approach to depression beyond the DSM-5.
日本の「新型うつ」の多次元的検討
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.
doi: 10.1111/pcn.12360
Japan’s prototype of depression had traditionally been a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality “shūchaku-kishitsu” proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among youth. Called ‘modern type depression (MTD)’ by mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives (Kato TA et al. J Affect Dis 2011) that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that MTD may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different socio-cultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in ICD or DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems.

Kawamoto et al. (2015)

Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), Nittono, H., & Ura, M.(浦光博) (2015).
Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues.
拒絶感受性は拒絶手がかりの検出力ではなく拒絶手がかりに対する過覚醒と防衛的反応と関連している 
Frontiers in Psychology.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01516

Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait rejection sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and rejection detection capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective.

Yamagishi & Mifune (2016)

Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男), & Mifune, N.(三船恒裕) (2016).
Parochial altruism: does it explain modern human group psychology?
偏狭な利他主義:現代人の心理を説明可能か?
Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 39-43.
doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.015
Parochial altruism — the human inclination toward costly intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression without expectations of future returns — requires group selection logic to explain its evolution. We examined experimental evidence for three implications of the group selection account: the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation; the non-instrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression; and the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Laboratory experiments revealed no support for the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation, mostly negative evidence for the non-instrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression, and mixed evidence for the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Caution against premature conclusions about the role of group selection in the evolution of parochial altruism is advised.

Nagaya & Nakayachi (2015)

Nagaya, K. (長谷和久) & Nakayachi, K. (中谷内一也) (2015).
Hazard Perception and Anchoring: A Comparison of the Three Models Explaining the Anchoring Effect.
ハザード認知とアンカリング:アンカリング効果を説明する3モデルの比較
Journal of Disaster Research, 10(4), 678-686.
When individuals estimate something numerically, their estimation tends to be close to a value perceived beforehand, called an anchor. This tendency is called “the anchoring effect.” We introduce three hypotheses – the numeric priming hypothesis, the semantic priming hypothesis, and the magnitude priming hypothesis – that explain the anchoring effect. We apply them to participants\’ estimation of the number of sufferers in order to examine which model explains the anchoring effect best. Experimental results support the numeric priming hypothesis, indicating that the anchoring effect occurs even when no semantic relatedness exists between the number presented as the prime and the successive numerical estimation. Implications for disaster risk communication are discussed based on the results we obtained.
アンカリング効果とは,人がある対象に対して数的な評価を下すとき,それに先行して認知した値 (アンカー) に牽引され,後続する数的な推定がそのアンカーに近くなる傾向をさす.本論文はアンカリング効果を説明する3つのモデル−−数字プライミング説,意味プライミング説,規模概念プライミング説−−を紹介し,災害による被害推定に適用して,どのモデルが最もアンカリング効果を説明するのか検討した.実験の結果は数字プライミング説を支持するものであり,先行刺激として提示される数字と,後続の被害推定に意味的関連がないときでさえアンカリング効果が生じることが示された.得られた結果から,災害リスクコミュニケーションへのインプリケーションを議論した.

Betsch et al. (2015)

Betsch, C., Böhm, R., (remaining authors in alphabetical order) Airhihenbuwa, C., Butler, R., Chapman, G., Haase, N., Herrmann, B., Igarashi, T.(五十嵐祐), Kitayama, S.(北山忍), Korn, L., Nurm, Ü-K., Rohrmann, B., Rothman, A., Shavitt, S., Updegraff, J. A., & Uskul, A. (2015).
Improving medical decision making and health promotion through culture-sensitive health communication: An agenda for science and practice.
医療における意思決定と健康促進:文化に配慮したヘルスコミュニケーションを通して
Medical Decision Making.
doi: 10.1177/0272989X15600434
 
This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient’s cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication’s effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients’ cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research.

Takagi et al. (2015)

Takagi, D.(高木大資), Ikeda, K.(池田謙一), Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Harihara, M., & Kawachi, I. (2015). 
The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. 
犯罪が社会的紐帯と市民参加に与える影響
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.
 
The present study examined associations of neighbourhood crime with residents’ social ties and civic participation using multilevel models. We hypothesized that crime is indirectly associated with residents’ low civic participation by negatively relating to their acquaintanceship ties because of fear of neighbours. By contrast, we predicted that crime is indirectly related to frequent civic participation by positively associating with more intimate friendship ties as a response to combat external threats. Additionally, we hypothesized that high crime rates in the neighbourhood increases the importance of generalized trust towards others. Therefore, we examined the interaction effects of neighbourhood crime and trust on social ties and participation. The study is based on a postal questionnaire mailed to residents aged between 20 and 69 years, residing in Musashino City and Kiyose City, in Tokyo. Rates of larceny reported by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department were used as indices of neighbourhood crime. As hypothesized, our results showed that crime is positively associated with friendship ties and is negatively related to acquaintanceship ties. Through these opposing relationships, crime showed both positive and negative associations with civic participation. Moreover, we found that generalized trust buffered the adverse relationships between crime, broader social ties and participation. 

Majima (2015)

Majima, Y. (眞嶋良全) (2015).
Belief in Pseudoscience, Cognitive Style and Science Literacy.
疑似科学に対する信念:認知スタイルと科学リテラシー
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(4), 552-559.
doi: 10.1002/acp.3136
Most studies of superstitious belief have focused on paranormal phenomena, but this study extended existing findings to non-paranormal pseudoscience by exploring links between belief and dual-process thought (cognitive ability and intuitive analytical thinking styles). In the present study, Japanese participants (N =264; 188 women, 76 men; mean age= 25.0; range=18–81) completed questionnaires on cognitive style and ability and level of beliefs and science literacy. Results showed that belief in paranormal and non-paranormal pseudoscience correlated positively; after controlling for demographic variables, level of science literacy and cognitive ability, both analytic and intuitive cognitive styles positively predicted paranormal belief. Belief in non-paranormal pseudoscience associated positively with analytic, but not intuitive style. These results follow the dual-process view of belief perseverance; however, analytic style affected beliefs oppositely from previous studies. This discrepancy might emerge from Western and Eastern cultural differences in reasoning.

Yamaguchi et al. (2015)

Yamaguchi, M.(山口真奈), Smith, A.(スミス アダム), & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介) (2015).
Commitment signals in friendship and romantic relationships.
友人・恋人間でのコミットメントシグナル
Evolution and Human Behavior.
doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.05.002
Due to the ever-present allure of potentially more appealing or attractive partners, people in mutually committed relationships face a commitment problem (i.e., uncertainty about partner fidelity). This problem exists for both friendship and romantic relationships. In an exploratory pilot study, participants described real-life commitment-confirming incidents in either friendship or romantic relationships. The results revealed that the same types of pro-relationship acts (e.g., throwing a surprise party) were used to communicate commitment to one’s partner in both types of relationship. Using signaling theory, we predicted that costly commitment signals would be more effective than non-costly commitment signals (Hypothesis 1). Also, we predicted that failure to engage in such behaviors would communicate non-commitment, and that such failures would have a more detrimental effect on romantic relationships than friendship (Hypothesis 2). Two scenario experiments (study 1 in Japan and study 2 in the U.S.)were conducted to test these hypotheses. The results showed that costly commitment signals were more effective than non-costly commitment signals in both Japan and the U.S. In addition, the absence of situationally appropriate commitment signals (e.g., forgetting a special occasion) was substantially more damaging to romantic relationships than to friendship.

Konishi & Ohtsubo (2015)

Konishi, N.(小西直喜) & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介) (2015).
Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test.
不正直は本当に第三者罰を招くのか?:より厳密な検討の結果
Biology Letters, 11(5).
doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2015.0172
Many experiments have demonstrated that people are willing to incur cost to punish norm violators even when they are not directly harmed by the violation. Such altruistic third-party punishment is often considered an evolutionary underpinning of large-scale human cooperation. However, some scholars argue that previously demonstrated altruistic third-party punishment against fairness-norm violations may be an experimental artefact. For example, envy-driven retaliatory behaviour (i.e. spite) towards better-off unfair game players may be misidentified as altruistic punishment. Indeed, a recent experiment demonstrated that participants ceased to inflict third-party punishment against an unfair player once a series of key methodological problems were systematically controlled for. Noticing that a previous finding regarding apparently altruistic third-party punishment against honesty-norm violations may have been subject to methodological issues, we used a different and what we consider to be a more sound design to evaluate these findings. Third-party punishment against dishonest players withstood this more stringent test.

Ishii, & Watanabe (2015)

Ishii, K. (石井健一) & Watanabe, S. (渡邉聡) (2015).
Nation brand personality and product evaluation among Japanese people: Implications for nation branding.
日本人の国家ブランドパーソナリティと製品評価
Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 11, 51-64.
doi: 10.1057/pb.2014.25
This study explores the association between nation brand personality and product evaluation. Conducting an online questionnaire survey in Japan that used the quota sampling method (N=880), the product evaluation of various products (leather shoes, smartphones, movies, automobiles, shirts, mineral water and tour preference) was measured for seven countries (China, Germany, India, Italy, the United States, South Korea and Vietnam). A factor analysis yielded three nation brand personality dimensions (sincerity, competence and warmth), two of which are predicted by the stereotype content model. China was evaluated the lowest on all three dimensions, and China’s brand personality was most negatively correlated with consumer ethnocentrism among seven countries. The contact hypothesis was only partially supported for nation brand personalities. Nation brand personalities were associated with product evaluations in different ways depending on product category. Competence was positively correlated with the evaluation of all the products, while the warmth was positively correlated with the evaluation of fashion-related products and movies. Sincerity was positively correlated with the evaluation of high-tech products and mineral water. Tour preference was most strongly correlated with nation liking. The article discusses implications for nation branding strategies on the basis of these findings.

Jin et al. (2015)

Jin, Z., Shiomura, K.(潮村公弘), & Jiang, L. (2015).
Assessing implicit mate preferences among Chinese and Japanese women by providing love, sex, or money cues.
女性の潜在的な配偶者選好の日中比較
Psychological Reports, 116(1), 195-206.
doi: 10.2466/21.PR0.116k11w6
Love, sex, and money are the most direct cues involved in the fundamental forms of mate preferences. These fundamental forms are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated. As a result, humans base their mate choices on multiple cues. In this study, 62 undergraduate women (M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.4) from China and Japan served as the participants. They performed a variation of the semantic priming task, in which they were instructed to decide by means of a key-press whether the target was human or non-human. The primes were images that portrayed potent evolutionary factors for mate preference (i.e., love, sex, and money), and the manipulation was based on whether the prime and target matched regarding gender, independent of the target decision task (human vs non-human). Participants gave faster responses to male targets than to female targets under priming. The results generally supported the evolutionary premises that assume mate preference is determined by fundamental forms of providing emotional (love), material (money), and fertility support (sex). The money priming effect was stronger in the Chinese women than in the Japanese women, suggesting that social context may influence mate preferences.

Tabuchi, & Miura (2015)

Tabuchi, M.(田渕恵), & Miura, A.(三浦麻子) (2015).
Young people’s reactions change elderly people’s generativity and narratives: The effect of intergenerational interaction on the elderly. 
若者の反応が高齢者の世代性と語りを変える:世代間相互作用の効果
Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 13(2), 118-133.
doi: 10.1080/15350770.2015.1026298
 
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the young listener’s reaction on the development of generativity and narratives of elderly people. Thirty-four males between the ages of 60 and 82 participated in this experiment in which the listener generations (young/elderly) and listener reactions (empathic/neutral) were controlled. The participants shared and taught their wisdom gained from their past experiences through narratives. Results showed that many elderly people spoke about “lessons from experiences of failure” when there was an empathic reaction from young people, and such narratives were promoted by an increase of generativity. These results suggested the impact of the younger people’s reaction on the elderly people’s psychological development and behavior.

Yoshimura et al. (2015)

Yoshimura, A., Lebowitz, A., Bun, S., Aiba, M.(相羽美幸), Ikejima, C., & Asada, T. (2015).
A comparative analysis of dementia inpatient characteristics: Results from a nationwide survey of different care facilities in Japan.
介護施設による認知症患者の特徴の比較:全国の介護施設を対象とした調査から
Psychogeriatrics.
doi: 10.1111/psyg.12117
Background
In Japan, the number of dementia patients admitted to hospitals and other care facilities has been increasing and their hospital stays prolonged. Until now, there has been no study examining the differences between patients in psychiatric hospitals and other care facilities. Here we attempt a comparative analysis of characteristics of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals and other types of facilities based on a nationwide survey.
Method
A nationwide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009–2011. Questionnaires were sent to randomly selected facilities and asked about each facility’s status as of September 2009 and about individuals with dementia residing in each facility during the 2008 fiscal year. The portion about individuals consisted of items to assess eligibility for the Long-Term Care Insurance programme. Based on data from 6121 patients residing in seven different types of facilities, features of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals and differences among facilities were analyzed.
Results
There was a significant difference in average age, activities of daily living level, and dementia severity level among the seven types of facilities. The average age in all types of facilities, except for psychiatric hospitals, was higher than the national average life expectancy of 82.59 years. The results of the study revealed that in psychiatric hospitals the proportion of men, those aged <75 years, demented patients with severe behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, and those with frontotemporal dementia was significantly greater than in other types of facilities. In other Long-Term Care Insurance care facilities, dementia patients >80 years and women accounted for 80% of all patients.
Conclusion
Result showed that dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals had a higher proportion of men, younger age groups, and severe dementia than other types of facilities. These features contrast markedly with status of dementia patients in other Long-Term Care Insurance care facilities. In order to facilitate dementia patients’ early discharge from psychiatric hospitals to other care facilities or to home, further fulfilment care services corresponding to severe dementia and early-onset dementia may be needed.