Ikeda, K.(池田謙一) & Yasuda, Y. (2015).
Social Networks and Social Ties.
M. Gianpietro, K. G. Barnhurst, K. Ikeda(池田謙一), R. C. Maia, H. Wessler (Eds). (2015).
The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication. Wiley-Blackwell.
Print + eReference ISBN: 978-1-4614-6171-5
Yanjie, B & Ikeda, K.(池田謙一) (2014).
East Asian Social Networks.
R. Alhajj, & J. Rokne (Eds.) (2014). Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining. Springer.
The Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining (ESNAM) is the first major reference work to integrate fundamental concepts and research directions in the areas of social networks and applications to data mining. While ESNAM reflects the state-of-the-art in social network research, the field had its start in the 1930s when fundamental issues in social network research were broadly defined. These communities were limited to relatively small numbers of nodes (actors) and links. More recently the advent of electronic communication, and in particular on-line communities, have created social networks of hitherto unimaginable sizes. People around the world are directly or indirectly connected by popular social networks established using web-based platforms rather than by physical proximity.
Reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of this unique field, the essential contributions of diverse disciplines, from computer science, mathematics, and statistics to sociology and behavioral science, are described among the 300 authoritative yet highly readable entries. Students will find a world of information and insight behind the familiar façade of the social networks in which they participate. Researchers and practitioners will benefit from a comprehensive perspective on the methodologies for analysis of constructed networks, and the data mining and machine learning techniques that have proved attractive for sophisticated knowledge discovery in complex applications. Also addressed is the application of social network methodologies to other domains, such as web networks and biological networks.
Ikeda, K.(池田謙一) & Takemoto, K.(竹本圭祐) (2016).
Examining Power in Hierarchical Social Networks in East Asia.
G. Steel (Ed). (in press). Power in Contemporary Japan. Palgrave Macmillan.
This book discusses Japanese conceptions of power and presents a complex, nuanced look at how power operates in society and in politics. It rejects stereotypes that describe Japanese citizens as passive and apolitical, cemented into a vertically structured, group-oriented society and shows how citizens learn about power in the contexts of the family, the workplace, and politics.
As Japan grapples with the consequences of having one of the oldest and most rapidly ageing populations in the world, it is important for social scientists and policy makers worldwide to understand the choices it makes. Particularly as policy-makers have once again turned their attention to workers, the roles of women, families, and to immigrants as potential ‘solutions’ to the perceived problem of maintaining or increasing the working population. These studies show the ebb and flow of power over time and also note that power is context-dependent ― actors can have power in one context, but not another.
Fujiwara, K.（藤原健）, Takemura, K.（竹村幸祐）, & Suzuki, S. (2016).
When a smile does not good: Creativity reduction among avoidance-versus approach-oriented individuals in dyadic interactions.
International Journal of Innovation Management, 1640007.
This study examined the influence of others’ smiles on individuals’ creativity. According to popular belief, individuals get motivated to be more creative when others smile at them. In contrast, we hypothesised that smiles would make avoidance-oriented (versus approach-oriented) individuals less creative, as they may lose the motivation to pursue further novelty once they gain social approval, as implied by a smile. Forty-two participants were paired with a same-sex stranger and randomly assigned to the role of either an “illustrator” or a “commentator.” The illustrators performed the Alien Drawing Task and the commentators gave feedbacks regarding the drawing, which were repeated six times and video-recorded. As expected, the results showed significant interaction effects between others’ smiles and avoidance orientation on creativity: participants high in avoidance orientation showed less creativity when others smiled at them. In addition, nodding had the same effect as a smile did, confirming that social approval decreases the creativity of avoidance-oriented individuals.
Nogami, T.（野上達也）, & Yoshida, F.（吉田富二雄） (2014).
Disaster myths after the Great East Japan Disaster and the effects of information sources on belief in such myths.
Disasters, 38(s2), s190-s205.
This study examines how well disaster myths were rooted in Japanese people after the Great East Japan Disaster, as well as the effects of information sources on these misconceptions. Five common disaster myths are covered (panic, psychological shock, looting, increases in the crime rate, and material convergence), and information sources were divided into two types: public and private. Three hundred participants were asked how much credit they would give the five myths and which information sources they would rely on in post-disaster situations. The results found that, as in Western societies, these disaster myths do exist among Japanese people. Also, only public sources of disaster information, such as television and Internet news websites, had some effect on the degree of belief in disaster myths, while private sources, such as one’s family, friends, and social networking sites, did not. Factors affecting the degree to which people believe in disaster myths are also discussed.
Mori, Y.(森康浩), Ohnuma, S.(大沼進), & Klöckner, C. A. (2016).
The Effects of Social Ties and Local Environment on Appropriate Waste Station Maintenance of Household Waste: A Case Study in Sapporo.
Journal of Environmental Information Science, 44(5), 87-98.
“Waste stations”, where residents dispose of household waste, are usually maintained by the residents themselves; however, not all stations are well maintained. It was hypothesized that the level of waste station maintenance would correlate with the degree of social ties in the community, and would be influenced by local environment in the area around the waste station. A combination of observational and survey research methods were employed to test these hypotheses. Self-reported inappropriate disposal behavior and social ties were measured using a questionnaire survey, while the level of maintenance of waste stations and local surrounding environment were recorded using observational methods. Data from 508 residents, assigned to 102 waste stations in 23 local areas of Sapporo, Japan, were analyzed. Sequential regression analysis indicated that social ties in the community was the stronger predictor of the management level of waste station than the self-report disposal behavior. Furthermore, multi-level model tests revealed that the level of management of waste stations was predicted by the local surrounding environment, which provided spatial reminders of community interactions. This indicates that managing the local surrounding environment is an important intervention to encourage appropriate waste station management
Nonami, H.（野波寛）, Hirose, Y.（広瀬幸雄）, Ohnuma, S.（大沼進）, Midden, C., & Ohtomo, S.（大友章司） (2015).
Effects of voice and similarity on procedural fairness and trust: A dual process model of public acceptance based on representatives’ participation.
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 18(3), 216-224.
In citizen participation, a few representatives of the total citizen population participate in discussions with authorities regarding public decisions and policies. The present study examines a dual process model in which the representatives’ voice and similarity of values facilitate public acceptance through procedural fairness and trust in representatives, respectively. The results of an experiment employing a scenario method, which included participants from Japan (n = 211) and the Netherlands (n = 200), indicate that the representatives’ voice increased procedural fairness and public acceptance when the similarity of representatives was high. The effects of representatives’ voice on public acceptance via procedural fairness was supported in both nations, while other effects of representatives’ similarity on acceptance via trust were indicated only in Japan. These results suggest that the indirect voice of citizens, as conveyed by representatives, plays an important role in increasing perceptions of procedural fairness and public acceptance among citizens.
Teraguchi, T.（寺口司）, & Kugihara, N.（釘原直樹） (2015).
Effects of labeling and group category of evaluators on evaluations of aggression.
PLoS ONE, 10(12): e0144384.
This study investigated whether the effect of labeling on people’s evaluation of aggression varies according to the group category of the evaluators (i.e., whether they are ingroup members or third parties). Two labeling strategies—the negative labeling of victims (NL strategy) and the positive labeling of aggressors (PL strategy)–were adopted. We conducted an experiment using the hot sauce paradigm, as a way to assess aggressive intent that includes behavioral measures of evaluations. The results suggested that the NL strategy causes ingroup members to evaluate aggression in a more positive light, while the PL strategy has the same effect but on third parties instead. Thus, labeling strategies may increase the severity of aggressors’ reaction and could also be a factor that can escalate a war or conflict.
Nakade, M.*, Takagi, D. (高木大資)*, Suzuki, K., Aida, J., Ojima, T., Kondo, K., Hirai, H., & Kondo, N. (*Equal contribution) (2015).
Influence of socioeconomic status on the association between body mass index and cause-specific mortality among older Japanese adults: The AGES Cohort Study.
Preventive Medicine, 77, 112-118.
Objective: Many studies have suggested a U-shaped curve for the association between body size and mortality risks, i.e., mortality risks increased in those who were both overweight and underweight. The strength of the associations may vary according to socioeconomic statuses (SES), as they determine levels of access to healthcare and chronic psychosocial stresses. We investigated the modifying effects of SES on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality.
Method: We used data of participants in the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study in 2003 (n=14,931), who were 65 years or older and physically and cognitively independent at baseline, and residing in eight municipalities in Japan. Data on all-causes mortality and mortality from the three leading causes (cancer, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) was obtained from municipal government registries.
Results: Proportional hazard regression analyses showed that, among men, the associations between overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) and higher mortality risks by any cause were stronger among lower income groups. Even adjusting for multiple confounding factors, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for mortality by all causes among low income group (household income <1.5 million yen) were 1.96 (1.02-3.73) for overweight compared to BMIs between 23.0 and 24.9, whereas they were 0.94 (0.57-1.38) among men in high income group (income >3.1 million yen). The modifying effects of income were not marked among women.
Conclusion: Household income, which may directly reflect accessibility to healthcare and psychosocial stress among older Japanese men, may be an important modifying factor in the health risks attributable to overweight.
Takagi, D. (高木大資), Kondo, N., Takada, M., & Hashimoto, H. (2016).
Educational attainment, time preference, and health-related behaviors: A mediation analysis from the J-SHINE survey.
Social Science & Medicine, 153, 116-122.
Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences – the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward – explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25–50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3,457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers/networks, may be more important as modifiable mediators in the link between education and smoking.
Komiya, A. （小宮あすか）, Oishi, S., & Lee, M. (2016).
The rural–urban difference in interpersonal regret.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(4), 513-525.
The present research examined rural–urban differences in interpersonal regret. In Study 1, participants who grew up in rural areas reported stronger interpersonal regret than those who grew up in large cities. In Study 2, we conducted an experiment and found that participants who were assigned to imagine a rural life reported greater interpersonal regret than those who were assigned to imagine an urban life. Moreover, this rural–urban difference was mediated by the degree to which participants wrote about informal social control such as gossip and reputation concerns. Finally, in Study 3, we used the pictorial eye manipulation, which evokes a concern for informal social control, and found that participants from large cities who were exposed to the eyes reported more intense interpersonal regret than those who were not exposed to the eyes. Together, these studies demonstrate that informal social control is a key to understanding rural–urban differences in interpersonal regret.
Yanagisawa, K.（柳澤邦昭）, Abe, N., Kashima. E. S., & Nomura, M.（野村理朗） (2016).
Self-esteem modulates amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex connectivity in response to mortality threats.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
Reminders of death often elicit defensive responses in individuals, especially among those with low self-esteem. Although empirical evidence indicates that self-esteem serves as a buffer against mortality threats, the precise neural mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that self-esteem modulates neural responses to death-related stimuli, especially functional connectivity within the limbic-frontal circuitry, thereby affecting subsequent defensive reactions. As predicted, individuals with high self-esteem subjected to a mortality threat exhibited increased amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) connectivity during the processing of death-related stimuli compared with individuals who have low self-esteem. Further analysis revealed that stronger functional connectivity between the amygdala and the VLPFC predicted a subsequent decline in responding defensively to those who threaten one’s beliefs. These results suggest that the amygdala-VLPFC interaction, which is modulated by self-esteem, can reduce the defensiveness caused by death-related stimuli, thereby providing a neural explanation for why individuals with high self-esteem exhibit less defensive reactions to mortality threats.
Tsujikawa, N.（辻川典文）, Tsuchida, S.（土田昭司）, & Shiotani, T.（塩谷尚正） (2015).
Changes in the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power generation in Japan since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.
Risk analysis, 36(1), 98-113.
Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study’s target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Puspitasari, L., & Ishii, K. (石井健一) (2016).
Digital divides and mobile Internet in Indonesia: Impact of smartphones.
Telematics and Informatics, 33(2), 472-483.
Mobile leapfrogging refers to the process by which new Internet users access the Internet using mobile phones and not PCs. This study examines how and whether mobile phones narrow the digital divide among Indonesian people at four levels (device ownership, Internet adoption, use, and information acquisition). A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in three large cities in Indonesia (N = 605). The results indicated that, at different levels, younger and more educated people utilize mobile Internet, especially via smartphones. In contrast, feature phones are owned by less educated and older people regardless of income level, but Internet usage on such phones is more prevalent among younger and more educated people. Moreover, the adoption of the PC-based Internet promotes the ownership of smartphones. These results indicate that mobile leapfrogging is the case only with the ownership of feature phones. Furthermore, in comparison with feature phones, smartphones and personal computers are more associated with information handling capacity in daily life. These findings suggest that ICT literacy education is important, and one should not be optimistic about the mobile Internet’s prospects for narrowing the digital divide in developing countries.
Sasaki, Y.（佐々木裕一）, Kawai, D.（河井大介）, & Kitamura, S.（北村智） (2015).
The anatomy of tweet overload: How number of tweets received, number of friends, and egocentric network density affect perceived information overload.
Telematics and Informatics, 32(4), 853-861.
More than 21 million monthly active users (MAUs) in Japan read, communicate, and share information with others via Twitter (in May 2013). In this study, we focused on perceived information overload by analyzing the number of tweets received, number of friends, and density of a user’s egocentric network. These three variables were examined using objective data collected through Twitter’s open Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). We collected data concerning tweet overload through a web-based survey, and we used an ordered logistic regression analysis to examine the combined data (n = 1277). Results demonstrated that only the number of friends had a significantly positive effect on perceived tweet overload, while the number of tweets received did not produce a significant effect. Although the density of a user’s egocentric network did not demonstrate any significant effect on perceived tweet overload, a significant interaction effect appeared between the number of friends and the density of this network. In other words, findings indicated that a large number of friends strengthened the network density’s effect; by contrast, a smaller number of friends strengthened network density but reduced perceived tweet overload. The findings are discussed in detail in this article.
Yamada, A. （山田歩）, & Kim, J-Y. (2016).
Option-Splitting Effects in Poll Regarding Japan’s Right to Exercise Collective Self-Defense.
Social Science Japan Journal.
Against the backdrop of heated debates within and outside Japan regarding Japan’s push for the right to exercise collective self-defense (CSD), the Japanese mass media have reported a series of polls on Japan’s exercise of its right to CSD, with significantly disparate results. In this article, we present one natural experiment and one controlled experiment that show that the disparate outcomes are due to the different ways the options are segmented. We conducted a comparative analysis of two questionnaires, one presenting two options of ‘approve’ and ‘disapprove’ and the other with three options, splitting the option of ‘approve’ into two answers presenting different means of approving the use of the right to CSD. As a result, more respondents chose ‘approve’ when the option was split into two. The result shows that option-splitting expands the respondents’ range of perception and psychological availability, which in turn raises the selection rate. This research implies that inducing the poll results through option-splitting is possible, which might eventually affect the policy-making process in democratic societies where public opinion polls affect policy.
Fermin, A. S. R., Sakagami, M., Kiyonari, T. （清成透子）, Li, Y.（李楊）, Matsumoto, Y. （松本良恵）, Yamagishi, T. （山岸俊男） (2016).
Representation of economic preferences in the structure and function of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.
Scientific Reports, 6, 20982.
Social value orientations (SVOs) are economic preferences for the distribution of resources – prosocial individuals are more cooperative and egalitarian than are proselfs. Despite the social and economic implications of SVOs, no systematic studies have examined their neural correlates. We investigated the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) structures and functions in prosocials and proselfs by functional magnetic resonance imaging and evaluated cooperative behavior in the Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We found for the first time that amygdala volume was larger in prosocials and positively correlated with cooperation, while DLPFC volume was larger in proselfs and negatively correlated with cooperation. Proselfs’ decisions were marked by strong DLPFC and weak amygdala activity, and prosocials’ decisions were marked by strong amygdala activity, with the DLPFC signal increasing only in defection. Our findings suggest that proselfs’ decisions are controlled by DLPFC-mediated deliberative processes, while prosocials’ decisions are initially guided by automatic amygdala processes.
Shimizu, M., Niiya, Y.（新谷優）, & Shigemasu, E.（繁桝江里） (2016).
Achievement goals and improvement following failure: moderating roles of self-compassion and contingency of self-worth.
Self and Identity, 15(1), 107-115.
We examined whether mastery goals promote greater score improvement on a cognitive test than performance goals and whether self-compassion and contingency of self-worth moderated the effect. Participants received either mastery or performance goals manipulation, failed on a difficult test, and took the test again after receiving the correct answers. Those with mastery goals showed a greater score improvement than those with performance goals, although post-failure state self-esteem did not differ between the two conditions. Moreover, the goals had a greater effect among (a) those with low rather than high self-compassion and (b) those with high rather than low competition contingency of self-worth. The findings suggest that by framing the task as a challenge rather than a threat, mastery goals encourage people to learn from failure more so than performance goals, especially when under high ego-threat.
Kitamura, S.（北村智） (2016).
Implications of urbanism for the use of local news media: effects of population concentration on types of news acquisition in Japan.
Information, Communication& Society.
The Internet, a global computer network enabling people to send and receive information anywhere in the world, also functions as a local medium of communication. This study focuses on the role of the Internet in transmitting local news and examines the effects of community population concentrations as socio-ecological environments on the use of local news media consumed online and offline. Data from 1367 respondents across 156 Japanese communities were used to analyze the relationships between type of community and type of news source. The findings suggest that people who live in highly populated communities tend more often to use the Internet to access local news, whereas those in less populated communities tend to use more traditional mass media. However, the results of this study did not show a relationship between population concentrations within communities and the acquisition of international news, nor did the social features of residents adequately explain the effects of population concentration on the acquisition of local news. These results are consistent with theoretical predictions based on network externalities, urbanism, and collective action. The findings indicate that local news consumption is embedded in local social contexts in a way that international news is not, reinforcing the importance of urbanism in the information age.
Horita, Y.（堀田結孝）, Takezawa, M.（竹澤正哲）, Kinjo, T.（金城卓司）, Nakawake, Y.（中分遥）, & Masuda, N. (2016).
Transient nature of cooperation by pay-it-forward reciprocity.
Scientific Reports, 6, Article Number: 19471.
Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chained gift-giving game) on a large scale in terms of group size and time. We found that cooperation consistent with pay-it-forward reciprocity occurred only in a first few decisions per participant and that cooperation originated from inherent pro-sociality of individuals. In contrast, the same groups of participants showed persisting chains of cooperation in a different indirect reciprocity game in which participants earned reputation by cooperating. Our experimental results suggest that pay-it-forward reciprocity is transient and disappears when a person makes decisions repeatedly, whereas the reputation-based reciprocity is stable in the same situation.
Nozaki, Y. （野崎優樹）, & Koyasu, M. (2016).
Can we apply an emotional competence measure to an eastern population?: Psychometric properties of the Profile of Emotional Competence in a Japanese population.
Assessment, 23(1), 112-123.
Researchers have repeatedly argued that it is important to determine whether the psychometric properties of an emotional competence measure hold in Eastern populations because there may be cultural variability in abilities linked with emotional competence. However, few studies have examined potential differences in an emotional competence measure in Eastern cultures. To fill this gap, we investigated the applicability of the Profile of Emotional Competence to a Japanese population. Results demonstrated measurement and structural invariance across our Japanese and the original Belgian data sets. As was found in the Belgian sample, this measure showed adequate convergent and criterion validity in the Japanese sample. Furthermore, the scores on this measure were stronger predictors of subjective health and happiness in the Japanese than Belgian population. This measure also showed incremental validity. Our results suggest that the Profile of Emotional Competence is applicable to the Japanese population, an Eastern society.
Furukawa, Y. (古川善也), Nakashima, K.(中島健一郎), & Morinaga, Y.(森永康子) (2016).
Influence of social context on the relationship between guilt and prosocial behaviour.
Asian Journal of Social Psychology.
While some previous researchers have found that guilt encourages prosocial behaviour towards a victim at the expense of other people, others have found the opposite, that is, people allocate resources at the expense of themselves. The present research used a hypothetical scenario method to determine which of these patterns would be replicated in the collectivistic context of Japanese society. In addition, we separated the cause of feelings of guilt into having caused harm and being at fault, and examined in more detail the effect of guilt on prosocial behaviour. Our results show that, in line with the second set of previous researchers, participants who were induced to feel guilt for having caused harm were more likely to allocate their resources to their victim at the expense of themselves than were individuals in the no-harm condition. This suggests that differences in social context influence the effect of guilt on prosocial behaviour in different ways.
Tabuchi, M.(田渕恵), Kamiariya, M. & Miura, A.(三浦麻子) (2016).
Does Interpersonal Regulatory Fit Affect Intergenerational Communication? Elder Advice and Younger Gratitude.
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science.
Old people have considerable experience and wisdom to share with young people; however, young people do not always listen to old people with gratitude. We conducted two studies to examine the effect of regulatory fit on young people’s gratitude toward old advisers. As predicted, young people felt more grateful to old advisers whose advice did not “fit” the advisees’ self-regulatory orientation, whereas young people felt more grateful to young advisers whose advice fit the advisees’ self-regulatory orientation (Web survey in Study 1, lab experiment in Study 2). Using these results, we propose an idea that may promote smoother intergenerational interaction in transmitting experience and wisdom from older to younger generations.
Loughnan, S., Fernandez, S., Vaes, J., Anjum, G., Aziz, M., Harada, C.(原田知佳), Holland, E., Singh, I., Puvia, E., & Tsuchiya, K. (土屋耕治) (2015).
Exploring the Role of Culture in Sexual Objectification: A Seven Nations Study.
International Review of Social Psychology / Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 28(1), 125-152.
Sexual objectification – seeing or treating a person as a sexual object – has been the topic of considerable investigation. Building from a longstanding recognition of the potential importance of culture in sexual objectification, this paper focuses on the extent to which people in different parts of the world objectify themselves and others. We explored sexual objectification amongst 588 people in seven diverse nations (i.e., Australia, India, Italy, Japan, Pakistan, the UK, and the USA). Participants completed standard measures of self- and other-objectification. The results revealed that culture did affect self- and other-objectification, with objectification emerging more robustly in Australia, Italy, the UK, and the USA than it did in India, Japan, and Pakistan. These findings help support theoretical claims that culture matters for sexual objectification. Future research directions are discussed.
性的客体化 (人を性の対象として「物」のように見たり扱ったりすること) において，文化が果たす役割を探索的に検討した。7カ国のデータを分析した結果，文化による違いが認められた。具体的には，オーストラリア，イタリア，イギリス，アメリカにおいて，インド，日本，パキスタンよりも，自己や他者を物として捉える傾向 (自己対象化・他者対象化) が見られた。
Tsutsumi, H., Uekami, T., & Inamasu, K.（稲増一憲） (2015).
The effects of VAAs on voter's sophistication in Japan.
Political Behavior and Technology Voting Advice Applications in East Asia.
This book chapter shows a potential effect of the VAAs in Japan by asking the following research questions: To what degree do Japanese voters recognize parties’ policy positions correctly? Can Japanese voters identify and vote for the party closest to their policy preference? Whom should VAAs target? By analyzing the internet survey data of the 2010 House of Councillors election, we show that quite a few Japanese voters could not find or incorrectly identify a party close to their policy preference, and voters who have a small amount of correct information are more likely to vote incorrectly. We also found that VAAs is likely to be effective for young, female voters and those who are not usually exposed to political information and indifferent to politics.
Yamagishi, T.（山岸俊男）, Akutsu, S.（阿久津聡）, Cho, K., Inoue, Y.（井上裕珠）, & Li, Y.（李楊）, & Matsumoto, Y.（松本良惠） (2015).
Two-Component Model of General Trust: Predicting Behavioral Trust from Attitudinal Trust.
Social Cognition, 33(5), 436-458.
General trust constitutes a critical aspect of social capital that facilitates democratic governance and economic prosperity of a society. Despite its theoretical importance, attitudinal measures of general trust often fail to predict actual trusting behavior in laboratory testing. We suspected that the failure of currently available measures of trust in predicting behavioral trust stems from the overly consequentialist approach to defining trust. We proposed that measures of attitudinal trust succeed in predicting behavioral trust when they tap both the responder’s belief that his/her trust will be honored and his/her preference to be a trusting person. We constructed a new measure of general trust that includes both of these aspects. Using a nonstudent sample of trust game players (N = 470), we demonstrated that the newly constructed measure better predicts behavioral trust in a trust game and other related games, especially when the participant’s social-value orientation is controlled.
Yamagishi, T. （山岸俊男) & Mifune, N. （三船恒裕） (2016).
Parochial altruism: does it explain modern human group psychology?
Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 39-43.
Parochial altruism — the human inclination toward costly intragroup cooperation and inter-group aggression without expectations of future returns — requires group selection logic to explain its evolution. We examined experimental evidence for three implications of the group selection account: the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation; the noninstrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression; and the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Laboratory experiments revealed no support for the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation, mostly negative evidence for the noninstrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression, and mixed evidence for the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Caution against premature conclusions about the role of group selection in the evolution of parochial altruism is advised.
Yamagishi, T. (山岸俊男) & Hashimoto, H. (橋本博文) (2016).
Social niche construction.
Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 119-124.
Humans are niche constructors who create physical and social environments to which they adapt. The social niche construction approach to human behavior analyzes behavior as a strategy to further long-term self-interest given a specific institution — that is, a set of stable and predictable responses from others to one’s own behavior. We illustrate the logic of social niche construction analysis using examples of individualist and collectivist institutions, and explain how independent and interdependent self-construal can be viewed as strategies adapting to and collectively sustaining individualist or collectivist institutions. We discuss how the social niche construction approach is related to similar approaches used in cultural psychology, namely the socioecological approach, intersubjective approach, equilibrium approach, and gene–culture co-evolution approach.
Ishii, K. （石井敬子） & Uchida, Y. （内田由紀子） (2016).
Japanese Youth Marginalization Decreases Interdependent Orientation.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(3), 376-384.
Under the influences of globalization and a long recession, there is an increasing population of marginalized Japanese youth referred to as NEET (Not in Employment, Education, or Training). Past studies have suggested that the social withdrawal of these individuals is a manifestation of a denial of the dominant cultural value of interdependence and a lack of motivation to adhere to it. To present additional evidence, this study addressed the cognitive and emotional consequences of NEET tendencies by examining interdependent orientation measured by one’s desire to engage in social activities (Study 1) and spontaneous attention to vocal tone (Study 2). As expected, an increase of NEET tendencies was associated with a lower desire to engage in social activities and a reduced attention to vocal tone. These results suggest that NEET tendencies decrease interdependent orientation in the Japanese cultural context.
Tanaka, Y. (田中豊), Kitayama, M. (北山雅也), Arai, S. (荒井祥), & Matsushima, M. (松島由貴) (2015).
Major psychological factors affecting consumer’s acceptance of food additives: Validity of a new psychological model.
British Food Journal, 117(11), 2788-2800.
The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of a causal model that was made to predict the consumer’s acceptance of food additives. A new emotional model in which cognitive factors influence emotional factors from the bottom-up was made and the validity of the model was tested. A social survey was conducted in Tokyo, Japan, among 120 female undergraduate students. The results showed that the new emotional model had a higher validity than the conventional emotional model, in which emotional factors influence cognitive factors. This study showed that the influence of cognitive factors, such as perceived risk and perceived benefit, is also effective in an emotional model. This importantly suggests that consumer’s emotions like anxiety and anger can be changed by altering consumer’s cognitions or perceptions.
Nozaki, Y. (野崎優樹) (2015).
Emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person.
Emotion, 15, 763-774.
Positive interpersonal relationships hinge on individuals’ competence in regulating others’ emotions as well as their own. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between emotional competence and specific interpersonal behaviors. In particular, it is unclear which situations require emotional competence for extrinsic emotion regulation and whether emotionally competent individuals actually attempt to regulate others’ emotions. To clarify these issues, the current investigation examined the relationship between emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person. The results of Study 1 (N = 39) indicated that interpersonal emotional competence (competence related to others’ emotions) was positively associated with participants’ efforts to relieve the ostracized person’s sadness. In Study 2 (N = 120), this relationship was moderated by the ostracized person’s emotional expression. In particular, participants with high interpersonal emotional competence were more likely to attempt to regulate the sadness of ostracized individuals who expressed neutral affect. In contrast, when the ostracized person expressed sadness, there were no significant relationships between high or low interpersonal emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation behavior. These results offer novel insight into how emotionally competent individuals use their competence to benefit others.
Yamaguchi, M.（山口真奈）, Masuchi, A.（増地あゆみ）, Nakanishi, D.（中西大輔）, Suga, S. （菅さやか）, Konishi, K.（小西直喜）, Yu, Y-Y., & Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介）
Experiential purchases and prosocial spending promote happiness by enhancing social relationships.
The Journal of Positive Psychology: Dedicated to furthering research and promoting good practice.
Recent research on consumption and subjective well-being has revealed that experiential purchases and prosocial spending promote happiness by enhancing the purchasers’ social relationships. This study (N = 1523) explored whether undergraduate students’ consumption behaviors during summer break would be associated with their post-break happiness, and whether the consumption–happiness relationship would be mediated by a positive influence on their social relationships. The results showed that both experiential purchases and prosocial spending during summer break were associated with greater post-break happiness, but only when these purchases had a positive influence on the purchasers’ social relationships. These effects remained significant after controlling for respondents’ personality traits, financial standing, and sex. Moreover, both experiential purchases and prosocial spending were more likely to have a positive influence on social relationships than luxury purchases. These results are congruent with the recent exposition that experiential purchases and prosocial spending promote happiness by enhancing the purchasers’ social relationships.
Nakazato, N.（中里直樹）, Nakashima, K.（中島健一郎）, & Morinaga, Y.（森永康子） (2015).
The importance of freedom in the East and the West over time: A meta-analytic study of predictors of well-being.
Social Indications Research, 1-18.
We examined whether sense of freedom is an important predictor of well-being, as compared to other typical predictors, across different periods in modern times (1981–2011), and in the East and the West. We applied a meta-analytical approach to the results of a series of multiple regression analyses conducted on six individual waves of Japanese data sets and five individual waves of American data sets from the World Values Survey. The final sample comprised 6389 Japanese and 6176 American respondents during all study periods. The main findings were that sense of freedom was one of the strongest predictors of life satisfaction (a) among several predictors (i.e., health condition, household income, marital status), (b) consistently across waves, and (c) in both Japan and the United States, as typical collectivistic Eastern and individualistic Western countries. We conclude that the greater importance of sense of freedom in ensuring well-being than other typical predictors is applicable to individuals across time and cultures.
Ishiguro, I. （石黒格）
Extroversion and neuroticism affect the right side of the distribution of network size.
Social Networks, 44, 219-225.
Previous studies explored various predictors of network size by examining their effects on mean network size. However, such predictors may not affect the entire distribution of network size uniformly. In the present study, I theoretically predict that extroversion and neuroticism affect the right side of the network size distribution to a greater extent than the left side and test these predictions using quantile regression analysis. The results showed that the effects of extroversion on the size of the inner and outer layers of personal network were significantly greater when the prediction target was the third quartile than when it was the first quartile. The results also showed that although the effects of neuroticism on the inner layer size were significant, that on the outer layer size were not. When the target variable was inner layer size, the relationship between neuroticism and inner layer size was stronger when the prediction target was the third quartile than when it was the first quartile.
Yu, Y.-Y.（兪 叶韵） & Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介） (2015).
The implicit association between pride and social status in Japan.
Letters on Behavioral Social Science
Pride is considered to be an emotion related to the attainment of status. People (at least in Canada and Fiji) implicitly associate the pride expression with high status. In a series of four implicit association test (IAT) studies, we explored the implicit association between the pride expression and high status in Japan. Study 1 showed that Japanese participants readily associate the pride expression with high status, and the shame/embarrassment expression with low status. Study 2a, furthermore, confirmed that the pride-high status association is not driven by the shame-low status association, while Study 2b revealed that the pride-high status association cannot be explained by a simple association of pride with general positivity. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that Japanese participants readily associate the pride expression with high status jobs, and thus conceptually replicated Study 1. Collectively, these studies provide evidence that East Asian people associate the expression of pride with high status.
Oishi, S., Kimura, R.（木村玲欧）, Hayashi, H.（林春男）, Tatsuki, S., Tamura, K., Ishii, K.（石井敬子） & Tucker, J. (2015).
Psychological adaptation to the Great Hanshin-Awazi Earthquake of 1995: 16 years later victims still report lower levels of subjective well-being.
Journal of Research in Personality, 55, 84-90.
We investigated psychological adaptation to the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995, using surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2011. Respondents whose houses were damaged reported lower life satisfaction, more negative affect, and more health problems than those who did not suffer any damage in all surveys, including in 2011, or 16 years after the earthquake. Likewise, residents with at least one immediate family member who died in the earthquake reported lower life satisfaction, more negative affect, and more health problems than those who did not have any immediate family members killed in all surveys, including in 2011. Surprisingly, the effect of housing damage on subjective well-being remained significant, above and beyond human loss. Equally important, the 2011 survey data showed that pre-existing differences in socioeconomic status between the victims of housing damage and human loss did not change our main findings.
Inoue, Y.（井上裕珠）, Hoogland, C. E., Takehashi, H.（竹橋洋毅） & Murata, K.（村田光二） (2015).
Effects of resource divisibility and expectations of sharing on envy.
Motivation and Emotion, 1-12.
In three experiments, we provide evidence that resource divisibility and expectations of sharing influence the degree to which envy arises in response to another’s superior resources. We manipulated the resource divisibility (e.g., 2 coins worth approximately $5.50 each vs. a single note worth approximately $11) and expectations of sharing were measured (Experiments 1 and 2) and manipulated (Experiment 3). Findings in these three experiments supported our hypothesis that envy would be most strongly experienced in response to others who had highly divisible resources that participants did not believe would be shared. These findings offer novel insights into the adaptive function of envy, which may promote sharing of divisible resources.
Nishina, K.（仁科国之）, Takagishi, H.（高岸治人）, Inoue-Murayama, M., Takahashi, H., & Yamagishi, T.（山岸俊男） (2015).
Polymorphism of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene Modulates Behavioral and Attitudinal Trust among Men but Not Women.
A relationship between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and behavioral and attitudinal trust has been suggested, but the nature of this relationship has not yet been established. We obtained behavioral trust data from 470 Japanese participants (242 women) aged 20–59 years, together with their levels of general trust and personality traits (NEO-FFI). Saliva buccal swabs were collected from 411 of these 470 participants and used for genotyping of OXTR rs53576. Our participants were found to have more AA alleles (40%) than GG alleles (12%). The GG men were more trusting and also rated higher on attitudinal trust than AA men, and this difference did not diminish when personality traits were controlled for. However, this pattern was not observed among women. In addition, controlling for attitudinal trust reduced the difference in behavioral trust among men to a non-significant level, but the difference in attitudinal trust remained significant when behavioral trust was controlled. These results indicate that the OXTR genotype affects attitudinal trust as part of an individual’s relatively stable disposition, and further affects behavioral trust through changes in attitudinal trust.
Takemura, K.（竹村幸祐）, & Suzuki, S (2015).
Self-expression and relationship formation in high relational mobility environments: A study of dual users of American and Japanese social networking sites.
International Journal of Psychology.
This study proposes that self-expression motivation, an aspect of independent/individualistic psychological tendencies, aids in the formation of social relationships when social relationships are open and mobile. In societies characterised by high relational mobility (e.g., North America), which creates market-like competition in social relationships, individuals must express their uniqueness and worthiness to form new social relationships. Self-expression motivation has a relatively weak effect on relationship formation in low relational mobility societies (e.g., Japan), where social relationships are generally predetermined. This hypothesis was examined and supported through a study on dual users of two social networking sites—Facebook and Mixi (the “Facebook of Japan”). As expected, relational mobility was higher on Facebook than on Mixi. Moreover, the association between self-expression motivation and the number of new friends met on Facebook/Mixi was more positive for Facebook than it was for Mixi. The social functionality of independent tendencies is then discussed.
Falk, C. F., Heine, S. J., Takemura, K.（竹村幸祐）, Zhang, C. X. J., & Hsu, C.-W. (2015).
Are implicit self-esteem measures valid for assessing individual and cultural differences?
Journal of Personality, 83, 56-68.
Our research utilized two popular theoretical conceptualizations of implicit self-esteem: 1) implicit self-esteem as a global automatic reaction to the self; and 2) implicit self-esteem as a context/domain specific construct. Under this framework, we present an extensive search for implicit self-esteem measure validity among different cultural groups (Study 1) and under several experimental manipulations (Study 2).
In Study 1, Euro-Canadians (N = 107), Asian-Canadians (N = 187), and Japanese (N = 112) completed a battery of implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem, and criterion measures. Included implicit self-esteem measures were either popular or provided methodological improvements upon older methods. Criterion measures were sampled from previous research on implicit self-esteem and included self-report and independent ratings. In Study 2, Americans (N = 582) completed a shorter battery of these same types of measures under either a control condition, an explicit prime meant to activate the self-concept in a particular context, or prime meant to activate self-competence related implicit attitudes.
Across both studies, explicit self-esteem measures far outperformed implicit self-esteem measures in all cultural groups and under all experimental manipulations.
Implicit self-esteem measures are not valid for individual or cross-cultural comparisons. We speculate that individuals may not form implicit associations with the self as an attitudinal object.
Ida, T., Takemura, K.（竹村幸祐）, & Sato, M. (2015).
Inner conflict between nuclear power generation and electricity rates: A Japanese case study.
Energy Economics, 48, 61-69.
Since the March 11 earthquake, Japanese households have been facing a trade-off problem between decreasing dependency on nuclear power generation and avoiding an increase in electricity rates. We analyze this inner conflict quantitatively, adopting two economic–psychological approaches: First, we note that the trade-off causes cognitive dissonance after making a choice that results in a wider desirability gap between the chosen and rejected alternatives. Second, the consumer surplus improves by 11.2% with a no-choice option for suspending judgment in the presence of cognitive dissonance. Third, individual characteristics such as gender and annual household income are significantly correlated with both cognitive dissonance and a preference for the no-choice option.
Takemura, K.（竹村幸祐）, Uchida, Y.（内田由紀子）, & Fujino, M.（藤野正寛） (2014).
Extension officers as social coordinators: Comparisons between agricultural and fishing communities in Japan.
Psychologia, 57(4), 245-258.
Literature suggests that social capital, which often promotes human welfare, requires sensitive handling to build and maintain. The current study investigated the role of extension officers (fukyu-shidoin) in Japanese agricultural and fishing communities, who help farmers/fishers in both technical and social matters. Past research found that in Japanese agricultural communities, extension officers’ activities, social skills, and relationships with their colleagues had effects on social capital and problem solving in communities. We conducted a nation-wide survey of fishery extension officers and found that the findings in agricultural communities were largely replicated in fishing communities with only one difference: Officers’ activities to provide a future vision had a positive effect for problem solving in agricultural communities. For fisheries, however, such activities were more effective when the officer had worked for the community for a longer period of time. This could be explained by the higher level of uncertainty in fishing than farming.
Omi, Y.（尾見康博） (2015).
The potential of the globalization of education in Japan: The Japanese style of school sports activities (Bukatsu).
Educational contexts and borders through a cultural lens.
A series of culturally shocking events have happened around me since I returned to Japan after a two-and-a-half year experience in the United States with my family. I have readjusted to the size of dishes and drinks, the driving lane, the punctuality, and the working styles. The school environment surrounding my children, however is still frustrating me，although it appears that their education is proceeding well.
This chapter will introduce bukatsu, which is a unique school sport activity in Japan and one of the most frustrating things for me, along with a junior high school environment, to show an aspect of Japanese culture. It does not adopt a style of cross-cultural studies on physicaI education (e.g.，Pühse and Gerber 2005) to avoid a superficial comparison of different societies. On the basis of an autoethnographic study (Ellis et al. 2012) on bukatsu, some tasks of the globalization of education in Japan wiII be discussed. Another study of educational settings in the United States from a parent ‘s perspective (Omi 2012) will be reflected in the discussion.
Matsugasaki, K.（松ヶ崎渓介）, Tsukamoto, W., & Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介） (2015).
Two failed replications of the watching eyes effect.
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science.
The watching eyes effect refers to the phenomenon that people behave more altruistically than usual when an eye-image is present in their environment. In this paper, we report two failed replications of the watching eyes effect. In both Studies 1 and 2, participants decided how many coins out of a seven coin endowment (each coin worth 100 Japanese yen) to allocate to a subsequent participant, under the assumption that the prior participant may have left them some coins. In Study 1, participants anonymously made their allocation decision while seated in front of a poster depicting either an eye-image or a geometric pattern. In Study 2, to increase the saliency of the watching eyes, participants were instructed to place the coins in envelopes (one for self and one for the subsequent participant) printed with either an eye-image or a geometric pattern. In both Studies 1 and 2, the number of coins that participants allocated to subsequent participants did not significantly differ between the eye-image and control conditions. Moreover, the proportion of participants who allocated at least one coin to subsequent participants was not significantly different across the two conditions. In our studies, altruism was not increased by watching eyes.
Sakakibara, R. (榊原良太) & Endo, T. (2015).
Cognitive appraisal as a predictor of cognitive emotion regulation choice.
Japanese Psychological Research.
More attention has recently been focused on how a person may choose their emotion regulation strategies depending on the situation. The present research exploratorily examined that how people cognitively appraised a situation, which they actually encountered in their life, affects following use tendency of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Three hundred and twenty-four participants were instructed to recall the most stressful situation in the last month, and to rate how they cognitively appraised the situation (threat, centrality, controllability, commitment, injustice/unfairness, expectedness, expectancy) and how they cognitively regulated their emotion (self-blame, blaming others, acceptance, refocus on planning, positive refocusing, rumination, positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, catastrophizing). Multiple regression analysis revealed that even after control for other variables, such as age, sex, personality, the time when the situation occurred and the intensity of negative emotion, all criteria of cognitive appraisal except for expectedness predicted cognitive emotion regulation choice. Implications and limitations of this research were discussed.
Ozeki, M.(尾関美喜) (2015).
Group-level group identity as a basis of a group.
Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 19(3), 166-180.
The aim of this study was to examine group-level group identity (GGI), which is defined as group identity within a whole group and which may be an essential element for a collection of people to be a group. Multilevel structural equation modeling (ML-SEM) was used to test the prediction that GGI would have a positive effect on interaction, emotional bond, and interdependence among group members in the group-level model. If so, GGI could be considered as an essential element for a collection of people to be a group. University students (137 men, 104 women) completed a questionnaire (Study 1) and took part in an experiment in which 32 experimental groups (37 men, 55 women) were formed (Study 2). The results supported the prediction in both studies: GGI had positive influences on interactions, emotional bonds, and interdependence among group members.
Hayase K.（早瀬 光司） & Ura M.（浦 光博） (2015).
Ownership or Taking Action: Which Is More Important for Happiness?
In two studies (2010 and 2011), more than 2000 respondents living in Japan were asked whether they gained more happiness from ownership or from taking action. In the 2010 study, many more individuals preferred taking action to ownership; this preference was greater in women than in men and in older people than in younger people. Reasons for this preference were plainly expressed in respondents’ free writing, and a categorical distinction between ownership and taking action was readily recognized and widely shared. Social desirability concerns probably did not play a role in responses. In the 2011 study, many individuals valued action more than ownership as like as the 2010 study. The preference for taking action over ownership was greater in women than in men, in older people than in younger people, and in people with higher levels of education than in people with lower levels of education. There was no relationship with annual income. The correlations with gender and level of education were similar to results of comparable studies conducted in the USA, although in the US studies, experiential purchases were evaluated, rather than taking action; however, the correlation with age was uncertain in the US studies. Further studies with US respondents will be necessary to examine this correlation. Possible reasons why many more people preferred happiness gained from taking action to happiness experienced from ownership were discussed.
今から40年前に、ジョン・レノンが “考えてごらん、所有なんて実在しないんだ、架空のものなんだよ。君にもそれが理解できるかな？” と唄っているように、人間の真の幸福は、“所有”に囚われずに「どう考えて何を行うか」を基軸とした、主体的な“行動”の世界を地球上に普く（あまねく）築き上げることによって到達できるであろう。