日本の社会心理学者たちは,活発な研究活動を展開・公表しており,その成果は日本語による論文であれば例えば日本社会心理学会の機関誌である「社会心理学研究」等の学会誌に掲載され,また学術書として公刊されています.一方,当然のことながら学問に国境はなく,特に近年では国際的な論文誌や書籍にその成果が掲載されることも増えてきました.しかし,こうした国際的成果をくまなく知ることは,あまりにそのフィールドが広いためにあまり容易ではありませんでした.

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Kato et al.(2015)

Kato, T. A(加藤隆弘)., Hashimoto, R., Hayakawa, K., Kubo, H., Shimokawa, N.,Watabe, M.(渡部 幹), Teo, A, R.,Kanba, S. (2015).
The multidimensional anatomy of “modern type depression” in Japan: A proposal for a different diagnostic approach to depression beyond the DSM-5.
日本の「新型うつ」の多次元的検討
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.
doi: 10.1111/pcn.12360
Japan’s prototype of depression had traditionally been a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality “shūchaku-kishitsu” proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among youth. Called ‘modern type depression (MTD)’ by mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives (Kato TA et al. J Affect Dis 2011) that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that MTD may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different socio-cultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in ICD or DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems.

Kawamoto et al. (2015)

Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), Nittono, H., & Ura, M.(浦光博) (2015).
Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues.
拒絶感受性は拒絶手がかりの検出力ではなく拒絶手がかりに対する過覚醒と防衛的反応と関連している 
Frontiers in Psychology.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01516

Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait rejection sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and rejection detection capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective.

Yamagishi & Mifune (2016)

Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男), & Mifune, N.(三船恒裕) (2016).
Parochial altruism: does it explain modern human group psychology?
偏狭な利他主義:現代人の心理を説明可能か?
Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 39-43.
doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.015
Parochial altruism — the human inclination toward costly intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression without expectations of future returns — requires group selection logic to explain its evolution. We examined experimental evidence for three implications of the group selection account: the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation; the non-instrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression; and the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Laboratory experiments revealed no support for the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation, mostly negative evidence for the non-instrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression, and mixed evidence for the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Caution against premature conclusions about the role of group selection in the evolution of parochial altruism is advised.

Nagaya & Nakayachi (2015)

Nagaya, K. (長谷和久) & Nakayachi, K. (中谷内一也) (2015).
Hazard Perception and Anchoring: A Comparison of the Three Models Explaining the Anchoring Effect.
ハザード認知とアンカリング:アンカリング効果を説明する3モデルの比較
Journal of Disaster Research, 10(4), 678-686.
When individuals estimate something numerically, their estimation tends to be close to a value perceived beforehand, called an anchor. This tendency is called “the anchoring effect.” We introduce three hypotheses – the numeric priming hypothesis, the semantic priming hypothesis, and the magnitude priming hypothesis – that explain the anchoring effect. We apply them to participants\’ estimation of the number of sufferers in order to examine which model explains the anchoring effect best. Experimental results support the numeric priming hypothesis, indicating that the anchoring effect occurs even when no semantic relatedness exists between the number presented as the prime and the successive numerical estimation. Implications for disaster risk communication are discussed based on the results we obtained.
アンカリング効果とは,人がある対象に対して数的な評価を下すとき,それに先行して認知した値 (アンカー) に牽引され,後続する数的な推定がそのアンカーに近くなる傾向をさす.本論文はアンカリング効果を説明する3つのモデル−−数字プライミング説,意味プライミング説,規模概念プライミング説−−を紹介し,災害による被害推定に適用して,どのモデルが最もアンカリング効果を説明するのか検討した.実験の結果は数字プライミング説を支持するものであり,先行刺激として提示される数字と,後続の被害推定に意味的関連がないときでさえアンカリング効果が生じることが示された.得られた結果から,災害リスクコミュニケーションへのインプリケーションを議論した.

Betsch et al. (2015)

Betsch, C., Böhm, R., (remaining authors in alphabetical order) Airhihenbuwa, C., Butler, R., Chapman, G., Haase, N., Herrmann, B., Igarashi, T.(五十嵐祐), Kitayama, S.(北山忍), Korn, L., Nurm, Ü-K., Rohrmann, B., Rothman, A., Shavitt, S., Updegraff, J. A., & Uskul, A. (2015).
Improving medical decision making and health promotion through culture-sensitive health communication: An agenda for science and practice.
医療における意思決定と健康促進:文化に配慮したヘルスコミュニケーションを通して
Medical Decision Making.
doi: 10.1177/0272989X15600434
 
This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient’s cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication’s effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients’ cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research.

Takagi et al. (2015)

Takagi, D.(高木大資), Ikeda, K.(池田謙一), Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Harihara, M., & Kawachi, I. (2015). 
The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. 
犯罪が社会的紐帯と市民参加に与える影響
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.
 
The present study examined associations of neighbourhood crime with residents’ social ties and civic participation using multilevel models. We hypothesized that crime is indirectly associated with residents’ low civic participation by negatively relating to their acquaintanceship ties because of fear of neighbours. By contrast, we predicted that crime is indirectly related to frequent civic participation by positively associating with more intimate friendship ties as a response to combat external threats. Additionally, we hypothesized that high crime rates in the neighbourhood increases the importance of generalized trust towards others. Therefore, we examined the interaction effects of neighbourhood crime and trust on social ties and participation. The study is based on a postal questionnaire mailed to residents aged between 20 and 69 years, residing in Musashino City and Kiyose City, in Tokyo. Rates of larceny reported by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department were used as indices of neighbourhood crime. As hypothesized, our results showed that crime is positively associated with friendship ties and is negatively related to acquaintanceship ties. Through these opposing relationships, crime showed both positive and negative associations with civic participation. Moreover, we found that generalized trust buffered the adverse relationships between crime, broader social ties and participation. 

Majima (2015)

Majima, Y. (眞嶋良全) (2015).
Belief in Pseudoscience, Cognitive Style and Science Literacy.
疑似科学に対する信念:認知スタイルと科学リテラシー
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(4), 552-559.
doi: 10.1002/acp.3136
Most studies of superstitious belief have focused on paranormal phenomena, but this study extended existing findings to non-paranormal pseudoscience by exploring links between belief and dual-process thought (cognitive ability and intuitive analytical thinking styles). In the present study, Japanese participants (N =264; 188 women, 76 men; mean age= 25.0; range=18–81) completed questionnaires on cognitive style and ability and level of beliefs and science literacy. Results showed that belief in paranormal and non-paranormal pseudoscience correlated positively; after controlling for demographic variables, level of science literacy and cognitive ability, both analytic and intuitive cognitive styles positively predicted paranormal belief. Belief in non-paranormal pseudoscience associated positively with analytic, but not intuitive style. These results follow the dual-process view of belief perseverance; however, analytic style affected beliefs oppositely from previous studies. This discrepancy might emerge from Western and Eastern cultural differences in reasoning.

Yamaguchi et al. (2015)

Yamaguchi, M.(山口真奈), Smith, A.(スミス アダム), & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介) (2015).
Commitment signals in friendship and romantic relationships.
友人・恋人間でのコミットメントシグナル
Evolution and Human Behavior.
doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.05.002
Due to the ever-present allure of potentially more appealing or attractive partners, people in mutually committed relationships face a commitment problem (i.e., uncertainty about partner fidelity). This problem exists for both friendship and romantic relationships. In an exploratory pilot study, participants described real-life commitment-confirming incidents in either friendship or romantic relationships. The results revealed that the same types of pro-relationship acts (e.g., throwing a surprise party) were used to communicate commitment to one’s partner in both types of relationship. Using signaling theory, we predicted that costly commitment signals would be more effective than non-costly commitment signals (Hypothesis 1). Also, we predicted that failure to engage in such behaviors would communicate non-commitment, and that such failures would have a more detrimental effect on romantic relationships than friendship (Hypothesis 2). Two scenario experiments (study 1 in Japan and study 2 in the U.S.)were conducted to test these hypotheses. The results showed that costly commitment signals were more effective than non-costly commitment signals in both Japan and the U.S. In addition, the absence of situationally appropriate commitment signals (e.g., forgetting a special occasion) was substantially more damaging to romantic relationships than to friendship.

Konishi & Ohtsubo (2015)

Konishi, N.(小西直喜) & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介) (2015).
Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test.
不正直は本当に第三者罰を招くのか?:より厳密な検討の結果
Biology Letters, 11(5).
doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2015.0172
Many experiments have demonstrated that people are willing to incur cost to punish norm violators even when they are not directly harmed by the violation. Such altruistic third-party punishment is often considered an evolutionary underpinning of large-scale human cooperation. However, some scholars argue that previously demonstrated altruistic third-party punishment against fairness-norm violations may be an experimental artefact. For example, envy-driven retaliatory behaviour (i.e. spite) towards better-off unfair game players may be misidentified as altruistic punishment. Indeed, a recent experiment demonstrated that participants ceased to inflict third-party punishment against an unfair player once a series of key methodological problems were systematically controlled for. Noticing that a previous finding regarding apparently altruistic third-party punishment against honesty-norm violations may have been subject to methodological issues, we used a different and what we consider to be a more sound design to evaluate these findings. Third-party punishment against dishonest players withstood this more stringent test.

Ishii, & Watanabe (2015)

Ishii, K. (石井健一) & Watanabe, S. (渡邉聡) (2015).
Nation brand personality and product evaluation among Japanese people: Implications for nation branding.
日本人の国家ブランドパーソナリティと製品評価
Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 11, 51-64.
doi: 10.1057/pb.2014.25
This study explores the association between nation brand personality and product evaluation. Conducting an online questionnaire survey in Japan that used the quota sampling method (N=880), the product evaluation of various products (leather shoes, smartphones, movies, automobiles, shirts, mineral water and tour preference) was measured for seven countries (China, Germany, India, Italy, the United States, South Korea and Vietnam). A factor analysis yielded three nation brand personality dimensions (sincerity, competence and warmth), two of which are predicted by the stereotype content model. China was evaluated the lowest on all three dimensions, and China’s brand personality was most negatively correlated with consumer ethnocentrism among seven countries. The contact hypothesis was only partially supported for nation brand personalities. Nation brand personalities were associated with product evaluations in different ways depending on product category. Competence was positively correlated with the evaluation of all the products, while the warmth was positively correlated with the evaluation of fashion-related products and movies. Sincerity was positively correlated with the evaluation of high-tech products and mineral water. Tour preference was most strongly correlated with nation liking. The article discusses implications for nation branding strategies on the basis of these findings.

Jin et al. (2015)

Jin, Z., Shiomura, K.(潮村公弘), & Jiang, L. (2015).
Assessing implicit mate preferences among Chinese and Japanese women by providing love, sex, or money cues.
女性の潜在的な配偶者選好の日中比較
Psychological Reports, 116(1), 195-206.
doi: 10.2466/21.PR0.116k11w6
Love, sex, and money are the most direct cues involved in the fundamental forms of mate preferences. These fundamental forms are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated. As a result, humans base their mate choices on multiple cues. In this study, 62 undergraduate women (M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.4) from China and Japan served as the participants. They performed a variation of the semantic priming task, in which they were instructed to decide by means of a key-press whether the target was human or non-human. The primes were images that portrayed potent evolutionary factors for mate preference (i.e., love, sex, and money), and the manipulation was based on whether the prime and target matched regarding gender, independent of the target decision task (human vs non-human). Participants gave faster responses to male targets than to female targets under priming. The results generally supported the evolutionary premises that assume mate preference is determined by fundamental forms of providing emotional (love), material (money), and fertility support (sex). The money priming effect was stronger in the Chinese women than in the Japanese women, suggesting that social context may influence mate preferences.

Tabuchi, & Miura (2015)

Tabuchi, M.(田渕恵), & Miura, A.(三浦麻子) (2015).
Young people’s reactions change elderly people’s generativity and narratives: The effect of intergenerational interaction on the elderly. 
若者の反応が高齢者の世代性と語りを変える:世代間相互作用の効果
Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 13(2), 118-133.
doi: 10.1080/15350770.2015.1026298
 
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the young listener’s reaction on the development of generativity and narratives of elderly people. Thirty-four males between the ages of 60 and 82 participated in this experiment in which the listener generations (young/elderly) and listener reactions (empathic/neutral) were controlled. The participants shared and taught their wisdom gained from their past experiences through narratives. Results showed that many elderly people spoke about “lessons from experiences of failure” when there was an empathic reaction from young people, and such narratives were promoted by an increase of generativity. These results suggested the impact of the younger people’s reaction on the elderly people’s psychological development and behavior.

Yoshimura et al. (2015)

Yoshimura, A., Lebowitz, A., Bun, S., Aiba, M.(相羽美幸), Ikejima, C., & Asada, T. (2015).
A comparative analysis of dementia inpatient characteristics: Results from a nationwide survey of different care facilities in Japan.
介護施設による認知症患者の特徴の比較:全国の介護施設を対象とした調査から
Psychogeriatrics.
doi: 10.1111/psyg.12117
Background
In Japan, the number of dementia patients admitted to hospitals and other care facilities has been increasing and their hospital stays prolonged. Until now, there has been no study examining the differences between patients in psychiatric hospitals and other care facilities. Here we attempt a comparative analysis of characteristics of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals and other types of facilities based on a nationwide survey.
Method
A nationwide, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009–2011. Questionnaires were sent to randomly selected facilities and asked about each facility’s status as of September 2009 and about individuals with dementia residing in each facility during the 2008 fiscal year. The portion about individuals consisted of items to assess eligibility for the Long-Term Care Insurance programme. Based on data from 6121 patients residing in seven different types of facilities, features of dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals and differences among facilities were analyzed.
Results
There was a significant difference in average age, activities of daily living level, and dementia severity level among the seven types of facilities. The average age in all types of facilities, except for psychiatric hospitals, was higher than the national average life expectancy of 82.59 years. The results of the study revealed that in psychiatric hospitals the proportion of men, those aged <75 years, demented patients with severe behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, and those with frontotemporal dementia was significantly greater than in other types of facilities. In other Long-Term Care Insurance care facilities, dementia patients >80 years and women accounted for 80% of all patients.
Conclusion
Result showed that dementia patients in psychiatric hospitals had a higher proportion of men, younger age groups, and severe dementia than other types of facilities. These features contrast markedly with status of dementia patients in other Long-Term Care Insurance care facilities. In order to facilitate dementia patients’ early discharge from psychiatric hospitals to other care facilities or to home, further fulfilment care services corresponding to severe dementia and early-onset dementia may be needed.

Muto et al. (2015)

Muto, M. (武藤麻美), Kugihara, N. (釘原直樹), & Kohara, Y.  (2015).
Psychological distance and likeability of in- or out-group targets who hold different opinions.
内・外集団における異なる価値観の保持者に対する心理的距離:戦争の是非をテーマとして
Psychologia, 58, 36-48.
 
This study investigated whether the extension of psychological distance from in- or out-group targets that hold different opinions covaried with increased negative impressions about such targets. A between-participants 2 (matching opinion vs. non-matching opinion presentations) x 2 (Japanese in-group presenter vs. American out-group presenter) factorial design was used. The results indicated the following: (1) in the matching opinion condition, participants reduced the psychological distance from out-group targets and increased their likeability: whereas (2) in the non-matching opinion condition, participants maintained the psychological distance from in-group targets and disliked them. These results indicate that the difference between actual and expected opinions that people have about targets affected the increase, or decrease of psychological distance and the likability of targets.
本研究は,異なる価値観を有する内・外集団成員への心理的距離 (社会的距離) の延伸と好意度の低下が,認知者が保有するターゲットに対する期待値と,現実値との乖離が大きい場合に,顕著に出現することの検証を目的とした。また,心理的距離と好意度の関連も検討した。実験デザインは,2 (意見一致条件: 戦争反対意見・意見不一致条件: 戦争賛成意見) × 2 (内集団: 日本人・外集団: 米国人) の参加者間計画とした。結果は次の通りである。(1) 意見一致条件で,現実値と期待値の乖離が大きい,外集団成員に対する心理的距離の短縮化と好意度の上昇が見られた,(2) 意見不一致条件では,現実値と期待値の乖離が大きい,内集団成員に対する心理的距離の延伸と好意度の低下が見られた。現実値と期待値の乖離の大小が,内・外集団成員に対する心理的距離や好意度に影響することが示された。

Thomson, & Yuki (2015)

Thomson, R., & Yuki, M.(結城雅樹) (2015).
How to win (and lose) friendships across cultures: Why relational mobility matters.
文化を越えて友情を勝ち得るには:関係流動性の問題
In-Mind Magazine.

In this article, we have reviewed research which suggests that to understand which relational strategies work in what social context, it is important to understand the characteristics of external social environments which surround individuals, in particular relational mobility. This is called the socio-ecological approach to cultural and regional differences in mind and behavior, an approach which complements previous cross-cultural research. North American societies, as well as urban areas, are high in relational mobility, which means there are an abundance of options for interpersonal relationships. In such a social ecology, people tend to be more confident in their abilities, trust strangers, and be more open about sensitive personal matters. Behaving this way helps them in their goals of acquiring and keeping beneficial friendships. The social environments in East Asia and rural areas, however, tend to be low in relational mobility. Interpersonal relationships are generally pre-determined, and there are fewer options to meet new people. In a social ecology like this, it appears wise to avoid offending others. Doing so will help to maintain harmony in those long-lasting, hard to replace relationships. To put it in a nutshell: Sure, friendships can be tough, but they’re easier to manage if you’re aware of the rules of the game.

Takagishi et al. (2015)

Takagishi, H.(高岸治人), Fujii, T.(藤井貴之), Koizumi, M.,  Schug, J., Nakamura, F., & Kameshima, S. (2015).
The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls.
寛大さに対する相互監視の効果の発達:小学生における性差
Frontiers in Psychology.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00895
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6 – 12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.

Kobayashi, & Ichifuji (2015)

Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), & Ichifuji, Y. (2015).
Tweets that matter: Evidence from a randomized field experiment in Japan.
ツイッターを利用した選挙運動の効果:日本における現場実験
Political Communication.
doi: 10.1080/10584609.2014.986696
 
Although election campaigns are increasingly utilizing social media, only a few studies have investigated their effects experimentally. To fill this gap in the literature, we conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of a campaign that used Twitter during the 2013 House of Councillors election in Japan. The treatment was exposure to tweets from Tōru Hashimoto, the mayor of Osaka and co-leader of the Japan Restoration Party, who has the largest number of Twitter followers among Japanese politicians. Participants assigned to the treatment group followed Hashimoto and the two placebos, whereas those assigned to the control condition followed only the two placebos. They followed the politicians continuously for approximately one month. Pre- and posttreatment measures were collected using online surveys, and treatment compliance was continuously checked via Twitter application programming interface (API). Following Hashimoto on Twitter during the election campaign had a positive impact on feelings toward Hashimoto. This effect was not mediated by issue knowledge or the evaluation of Hashimoto’s personal traits, and no effects were observed on voting. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to a politician’s messages on Twitter may only result in a mere exposure effect, which nevertheless generates favorable overall attitudes about the politician.

Boase et al.(2015)

Boase, J., Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Schrock, A., Suzuki, T., & Suzuki, T.(鈴木貴久)(2015).
Reconnecting here and there: The reactivation of dormant ties in the US and Japan.
休眠していた絆の再接続:日米比較研究
American Behavioral Scientist.
This article examines the reactivation of dormant ties in Japan and the United States. Using the institutional approach to culture developed by Yamagishi et al., it is hypothesized that respondents living in Japan will be less likely to reconnect with dormant ties when prompted than respondents living in the United States. It is further hypothesized that interaction with kin and work ties will help to explain lower levels of reconnection in Japan than in the United States. To examine these hypotheses, we developed a field experiment in which 95 adults living in Japan and 68 adults living in the United States were prompted by a smartphone application to reconnect with dormant ties. The results of this study show strong support for the hypothesis that respondents living in Japan are less likely to reconnect with dormant ties than respondents living in the United States when prompted. There is also mixed support for the hypothesis that interaction with kin and work ties helps to explain lower levels of reconnection in Japan than in the United States.

Yamakawa & Sakamoto (2015)

Yamakawa, I.(山川樹), & Sakamoto, S.(坂本真士) (2015).
Insisting on Depression, but not Showing Symptoms: A Japanese Study of Excuse-Making. 
症状を呈さない鬱病の主張
International Journal of Psychological Studies, 7, 146-154.
doi: 10.5539/ijps.v7n2p146
Since the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists have reported the appearance of a Modern Type Depression (MTD), which has different features from melancholic depression. Using a case vignette method, we looked at one of the distinctive features of MTD; that is, “insisting on depression”. In particular, we examined whether the statement “I think I may have depressive disorder” can be accepted as an excuse for not fulfilling ones’ duty when one does not show any symptoms of depressive disorder. Participants comprised 344 Japanese undergraduates who were presented with a short scenario describing social predicaments and who subsequently assessed the excuse value in terms of impression and behavioral reaction on the transgressor. Results showed that even though the transgressor did not show any symptoms of depressive disorder, insisting that one may have depressive disorder seemed to be accepted. Additionally, consistent with Weiner’s cognitive (attribution)–emotion–action model, the more positive impressions observers have on the transgressor, the more they are motivated to react kindly to the transgressor. Some unexpected findings and limitations of the present study were discussed.
いわゆる「新型うつ」はその特徴の一つとして,自ら積極的に「うつ(病)である」と主張することが挙げられています。そしてこの特徴に対して,「うつ(病)である」ということを不都合に対する弁解にしている面があるのではないか,という指摘があります。本研究はこの点について,自己呈示理論(弁解研究)をベースとして検討しました。大学生を対象に,場面想定法を使った質問紙実験を実施した結果,たとえ事前にうつ病の症状を示していなくても,失敗した後に「自分はうつ病だと思う」と発言することは,印象の悪化,あるいは罰や叱責といった否定的な反応を抑える妥当な弁解として機能することが示唆されました。

Ito et al.(2015)

Ito, K.Masuda, T.(増田貴彦), Koyama, A.(小宮あすか), & Hioki, K.(日置孝一)(2015).
Seeking help from close, same-sex friends: Relational costs for Japanese and personal costs for European Canadians.
親密な同性友人に援助を求める際のコストの文化差
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32(4), 529-554.
doi: 10.1177/0265407514539780
Seeking help from close friends is beneficial for help seekers but also entails costs. Past research on social support suggested that East Asians were more likely than their North American counterparts to perceive relational costs (e.g., causing trouble for close friends), whereas North Americans tended to selectively perceive personal costs (e.g., admitting incompetence). We first collected European Canadian and Japanese people’s everyday experiences of help-seeking behaviors. We then examined whether norms would mediate the relationship between perceptions of costs and expected closeness in friendship. For European Canadians, we found such meditating relationships only for personal costs; whereas for the Japanese, the relationships were observed for both personal and relational costs. Implications for social cognitive research and clinical research are discussed.

Uchida et al.(2015)

Uchida, Y.(内田由紀子), Kanagawa, C.(金川智恵), Takenishi, A.(竹西亜古), Harada, A., Okawa, K., Yabuno, H. (2015).
How Did the Media Report on the Great East Japan Earthquake? Objectivity and Emotionality Seeking in Japanese Media Coverage. 
東日本大震災をメディアはどう伝えたか
PLoS ONE, 10(5): e0125966.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125966
The Great East Japan Earthquake was a tragic event requiring critical media involvement. Since the media played an important role in conveying factual information, journalists expressed feeling that it was difficult to guarantee the objectivity of their coverage. As media coverage constructs a socio-culturally shared reality among its audience, an examination of the objectivity and emotionality of the contents of the news coverage is needed. In Study 1, we conducted an exploratory content analysis of TV and newspaper coverage from the six month period following the March 11, 2011 disaster, finding that the news media generally reported neutral and objective factual information about the event, with emotionality shown only in the commentary. In order to examine how media coverage was constructed and evaluated by journalists, in Study 2 we conducted an online survey of 115 journalists working for mass media organizations. We found that that the journalists’ orientations tended to be more objective than emotional, which is consistent with the findings of Study 1. However, their evaluations of the objectivity of the published articles were low, especially for the coverage of the nuclear power plant accident, which was an accident of an unprecedented nature. The negative emotions that journalists experienced during their investigations negatively affected subsequent evaluations of the objectivity of their reporting.

Ukezono et al. (2015)

Ukezono, M.(請園正敏), Nakashima, S. F.(中嶋智史), Sudo, R.(須藤竜之介), Yamazaki, A. & Takano, Y. (2015).
The combination of perception of other individuals and exogenous manipulation of arousal enhances social facilitation as an aftereffect: re-examination of Zajonc’s drive theory.
他者の知覚と喚起の外的操作の組み合わせによる社会的促進の増進:ザイエンスの動因理論の再検証
Frontiers in Psychology. 
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00601
Zajonc’s drive theory postulates that arousal enhanced through the perception of the presence of other individuals plays a crucial role in social facilitation (Zajonc, 1965). Here, we conducted two experiments to examine whether the elevation of arousal through a stepping exercise performed in front of others as an exogenous factor causes social facilitation of a cognitive task in a condition where the presence of others does not elevate the arousal level. In the main experiment, as an “aftereffect of social stimulus,” we manipulated the presence or absence of others and arousal enhancement before participants conducted the primary cognitive task. The results showed that the strongest social facilitation was induced by the combination of the perception of others and arousal enhancement. In a supplementary experiment, we manipulated these factors by adding the presence of another person during the task. The results showed that the effect of the presence of the other during the primary task is enough on its own to produce facilitation of task performance regardless of the arousal enhancement as an aftereffect of social stimulus. Our study therefore extends the framework of Zajonc’s drive theory in that the combination of the perception of others and enhanced arousal as an “aftereffect” was found to induce social facilitation especially when participants did not experience the presence of others while conducting the primary task.

Kondo et al. (2014)

Kondo, N., Saito, M., Hikichi, H.(引地博之), Aida, J., Ojima, T., Kondo, K., & Kawachi, I. (2014).
Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes AMONG older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study.
収入と道徳性の相対的剥奪:日本人高齢者におけるコホート研究
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
doi: 10.1136/jech-2014-205103
Background Relative deprivation of income is hypothesised to generate frustration and stress through upward social comparison with one’s peers. If psychosocial stress is the mechanism, relative deprivation should be more strongly associated with specific health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (compared with other health outcomes, eg, non-tobacco-related cancer).
Methods We evaluated the association between relative income deprivation and mortality by leading causes, using a cohort of 21 031 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. A baseline mail-in survey was conducted in 2003. Information on cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Our relative deprivation measure was the Yitzhaki Index, derived from the aggregate income shortfall for each person, relative to individuals with higher incomes in that person’s reference group. Reference groups were defined according to gender, age group and same municipality of residence.
Results We identified 1682 deaths during the 4.5 years of follow-up. A Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic, health and socioeconomic factors including income, the HR for death from cardiovascular diseases per SD increase in relative deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.08) in men, whereas HRs for mortality by cancer and other diseases were close to the null value. Additional adjustment for depressive symptoms and health behaviours (eg, smoking and preventive care utilisation) attenuated the excess risks for mortality from cardiovascular disease by 9%. Relative deprivation was not associated with mortality for women.
Conclusions The results partially support our hypothesised mechanism: relative deprivation increases health risks via psychosocial stress among men.

Hikichi et al. (2015)

Hikichi, H.(引地博之), Kondo, N., Kondo, K., Aida, J., Takeda, T., & Kawachi, I. (2015).
Effect of a community intervention programme promoting social interactions on functional disability prevention for older adults: propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses, JAGES Taketoyo study.
高齢者の機能障害予防に向けた社会的相互作用促進のためのコミュニティ介入プログラムの効果
Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
doi: 10.1136/jech-2014-205345.
Background The efficacy of promoting social interactions to improve the health of older adults is not fully established due to residual confounding and selection bias.
Methods The government of Taketoyo town, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, developed a resident-centred community intervention programme called ‘community salons’, providing opportunities for social interactions among local older residents. To evaluate the impact of the programme, we conducted questionnaire surveys for all older residents of Taketoyo. We carried out a baseline survey in July 2006 (prior to the introduction of the programme) and assessed the onset of functional disability during March 2012. We analysed the data of 2421 older people. In addition to the standard Cox proportional hazard regression, we conducted Cox regression with propensity score matching (PSM) and an instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using the number of community salons within a radius of 350 m from the participant’s home as an instrument.
Results In the 5 years after the first salon was launched, the salon participants showed a 6.3% lower incidence of functional disability compared with non-participants. Even adjusting for sex, age, equivalent income, educational attainment, higher level activities of daily living and depression, the Cox adjusted HR for becoming disabled was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.72). Similar results were observed using PSM (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.83) and IV-Cox analysis (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.74).
Conclusions A community health promotion programme focused on increasing social interactions among older adults may be effective in preventing the onset of disability.

Hiraishi et al.(2015)

Hiraishi, K. (平石界) , Shikishima, C. (敷島千鶴) , Yamagata, S. (山形伸二), & Ando, J. (2015).
Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games.
公共財ゲームでの決定と帰結に対する遺伝の影響
Frontiers in Psychology.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00373
Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games using a strategy method. In two experiments (Study 1 and Study 2), twin participants were asked to indicate (1) how much they would contribute to a group when they did not know how much the other group members were contributing, and (2) how much they would contribute if they knew the contributions of others. Overall, the heritability estimates were relatively small for each type of decision, but heritability was greater when participants knew that the others had made larger contributions. Using registered decisions in Study 2, we conducted seven Monte Carlo simulations to examine genetic and environmental influences on the expected game payoffs. For the simulated one-shot game, the heritability estimates were small, comparable to those of game decisions. For the simulated iterated games, we found that the genetic influences first decreased, then increased as the numbers of iterations grew. The implication for the evolution of individual differences in prosociality is discussed.
公共財ゲームを双生児協力者の方にやっていただいて遺伝と環境の影響を見ました。遺伝の影響は基本的に小さいのですが、他メンバーの協力率が高いと知った時の行動だと、ちょっと大きくなるというのが面白いところだと考えています。細かいところでは、戦略と帰結の相関をグラフで示したのが気に入っています。

Komiya, & Mifune (2015)

Komiya, A.(小宮あすか), & Mifune, N.(三船恒裕) (2015).
An individual difference in betrayal aversion: Prosociality predicts more risky choices in social but not natural domains.
裏切り回避傾向の個人差:向社会性は社会的なリスク選択をしやすくさせる
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 6(1), 5-8.
doi: 10.5178/lebs.2015.33
The present study investigated the relationship between betrayal aversion, i.e., the tendency to avoid specifically social risks (and not non-social, or “natural” risks), and social value orientation using economic games. Participants engaged in the Faith Game, which requires social trust, and a standard gambling game. Individuals denoted as “proself” were less likely to choose the risky option during the Faith Game as compared to individuals noted as “prosocial”; there was no difference between the groups during the gambling game. We discuss these results in terms of individual differences in betrayal aversion.

Miyata et al. (2015)

Miyata, K.(宮田加久子), Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), & Ogawa, Y.(小川祐樹) (2015)
What Affects the Spiral of Silence and the Hard Core on Twitter? An Analysis of the Nuclear Power Issue in Japan.
ツイッターにおける「沈黙の螺旋」と「ハードコア」:日本の原発問題の分析
American Behavioral Scientist, 1-13.
doi: 10.1177/0002764215580618
We test the Spiral of Silence theory about Internet use in Japanese Internet society. We looked at Twitter and analyzed whether the Spiral of Silence theory would hold for it. Twitter’s speed and scope of information dissemination is fast and extremely wide ranging. For these reasons, Twitter is an appropriate field for analyzing the influences of the Internet on the formation of public opinion. By integrating social investigation and behavioral log analysis, we test a model that incorporates an individual’s attitudes (measured via a questionnaire) and an individual’s communication network structure and actual communication behavior (measured via behavior log analysis). The results from our analysis show a positive correlation between individuals’ perception that their opinion represents the majority view and the number of times they have spoken out. Moreover, while homogeneity of opinions of a personal network on Twitter influenced speaking out by a majority group, homogeneity of opinions does not influence speaking out by a minority group.

Watabe et al.(2015)

Motoki Watabe (渡部 幹) , Takahiro A. Kato (加藤隆弘), Alan R. Teo, Hideki Horikawa, Masaru Tateno, Kohei Hayakawa, Norihiro Shimokawa, Shigenobu Kanba (2015).
Relationship between Trusting Behaviors and Psychometrics Associated with Social Network and Depression among Young Generation: A Pilot Study.
若年世代における、社会ネットワークおよび鬱傾向と信頼行動との関係:パイロット研究
PLoS ONE.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120183
Maladaptive social interaction and its related psychopathology have been highlighted in psychiatry especially among younger generations. In Japan, novel expressive forms of psychiatric phenomena such as “modern-type depression” and “hikikomori” (a syndrome of severe social withdrawal lasting for at least six months) have been reported especially among young people. Economic games such as the trust game have been utilized to evaluate real-world interpersonal relationships as a novel candidate for psychiatric evaluations. To investigate the relationship between trusting behaviors and various psychometric scales, we conducted a trust game experiment with eighty-one Japanese university students as a pilot study. Participants made a risky financial decision about whether to trust each of 40 photographed partners. Participants then answered a set of questionnaires with seven scales including the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS)-6 and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Consistent with previous research, male participants trusted partners more than female participants. Regression analysis revealed that LSNS-family (perceived support from family) for male participants, and item 8 of PHQ-9 (subjective agitation and/or retardation) for female participants were associated with participants’ trusting behaviors. Consistent with claims by social scientists, our data suggest that, for males, support from family was negatively associated with cooperative behavior toward non-family members. Females with higher subjective agitation (and/or retardation) gave less money toward males and high attractive females, but not toward low attractive females in interpersonal relationships. We believe that our data indicate the possible impact of economic games in psychiatric research and clinical practice, and validation in clinical samples including modern-type depression and hikikomori should be investigated.

Nakashima et al. (2015)

Nakashima, S. F.(中嶋智史), Ukezono, M(請園正敏), Nishida, H., Sudo, R.(須藤竜之介) , Takano, Y. (2015).
Receiving of emotional signal of pain from conspecifics in laboratory rats.
実験室ラットにおける同種個体の痛みの情動的シグナル知覚
Royal Society Open Science.
doi: 10.1098/rsos.140381
Though recent studies have shown that rodents express emotions with their face, whether emotional expression in rodents has a communicative function between conspecifics is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate the ability of visual recognition of emotional expressions in laboratory rats. We found that Long-Evans rats avoid images of pain expressions of conspecifics but not those of neutral expressions. The results indicate that rats use visual emotional signals from conspecifics to adjust their behaviour in an environment to avoid a potentially dangerous place. Therefore, emotional expression in rodents, rather than just a mere ‘expression’ of emotional states, might have a communicative function.
本研究では,ラットが表出された他個体の表情を視覚的に識別することができるかを検討した。実験では,刺激として,同一個体の中性表情写真と,フットショックを与えられた時の痛み表情写真を用い,実験動物がどちらの写真により長く接近するかを計測した。実験の結果,痛み表情に比べて,中性表情により長く接近していた。ラットが他個体の表情を視覚的に区別し,自己の将来の危機回避に利用している可能性が示唆された。

Kawakami & Yoshida (2015)

Kawakami, N.(川上直秋), & Yoshida, F.(吉田富二雄) (2015).
Perceiving a story outside of conscious awareness: When we infer narrative attributes from subliminal sequential stimuli. 
閾下呈示されたストーリーの知覚
Consciousness and cognition, 33, 53-66.
Perceiving a story behind successive movements plays an important role in our lives. From a general perspective, such higher mental activity would seem to depend on conscious processes. Using a subliminal priming paradigm, we demonstrated that such story perception occurs without conscious awareness. In the experiments, participants were subliminally presented with sequential pictures that represented a story in which one geometrical figure was chased by the other figure, and in which one fictitious character defeated the other character in a tug-of-war. Although the participants could not report having seen the pictures, their automatic mental associations (i.e., associations that are activated unintentionally, difficult to control, and not necessarily endorsed at a conscious level) were shifted to line up with the story. The results suggest that story perception operates outside of conscious awareness. Implications for research on the unconscious were also briefly discussed.

Fujii et al. (2015)

Fujii, T.(藤井貴之), Takagishi, H.(高岸治人), Koizumi, M. & Okada, H. (2015).
The Effect of Direct and Indirect Monitoring on Generosity Among Preschoolers.
未就学児の寛容さに対する直接/間接モニタリングの効果
Scientific Reports.
doi: 10.1038/srep09025
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of direct and indirect monitoring on generosity among five-year-old preschoolers and to reveal the primary motivation for their generosity. Forty-two preschoolers completed one-shot dictator games in Condition 1 while being monitored by the experimenter (the direct monitoring condition). In Condition 2, an image of staring eyes was displayed on the computer monitor (the indirect monitoring condition). In Condition 3, the computer monitor showed a picture of flowers (the non-monitoring condition). The results showed that while there was no difference between the mean levels of allocation in the indirect and non-monitoring conditions, the mean level of allocation in the direct monitoring condition was significantly higher than in the non-monitoring condition. These results showed that five-year-old preschoolers concerned with being monitored by, and receiving direct responses from, others tend to be more generous.

Kobayashi et al. (2015)

Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Collet, C., Iyengar, S., & Hahn, K. S. (2015). 
Who Deserves Citizenship? An Experimental Study of Japanese Attitudes Toward Immigrant Workers. 
市民権付与にふさわしいのは誰?-移民労働者に対する日本人の態度に関する実験的研究
Social Science Japan Journal, 18(1), 3-22.
doi: 10.1093/ssjj/jyu035
 
Citizenship eligibility has emerged as a salient issue in Japan as population diversity has increased and the political system has aligned around debates over regional security and tabunka kyōsei (‘multicultural co-existence’). A predominantly Western literature suggests that sentiments toward immigrants are driven by economic self-interest and/or cultural identity. Such approaches, we argue, privilege groups as units of analysis when it is the personal attributes of immigrants that have a bearing on critical outcomes, like naturalization. This is particularly the case in Japan, where officials maintain considerable discretionary powers in assessing the worthiness of candidates for naturalization. Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of Japanese adults, we use an experimental design to assess the average citizen’s willingness to grant citizenship to hypothetical applicants. The results indicate that individual applicants are viewed more favorably than their groups or nations of origin, indicating a person-positivity bias. Korean workers are, ceteris paribus, viewed more favorably than workers from China. We also find that socioeconomic status and willingness to assimilate contribute equally to the decision to award citizenship. Yet as there is general support for high-status applicants, affluent Japanese evaluate lower status applicants more negatively, undermining the expectation of labor market competition.

Kobayashi et al.(2015)

Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Boase, J., Suzuki, T., & Suzuki, T.(鈴木貴久) (2015).
Emerging from the cocoon? Revisiting the tele-cocooning hypothesis in the smartphone era.
スマホ時代の"Tele-Cocooning"仮説再考
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 
doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12116

The tele-cocooning hypothesis posits that mobile communication increases interaction with communication rich ties, while simultaneously weakening interaction with communication weak ties. In this study, we demonstrate how smartphones can be used to mitigate tele-cocooning behavior by stimulating interaction with communication weak ties. Using a smartphone application to collect non-identifying mobile communication log data, we conducted a field experiment with 193 Japanese participants. The treatment consisted of onscreen reminders designed to stimulate interaction with communication weak ties. The results indicate that the treatment promoted the activation of communication weak ties and the acquisition of information through those ties, suggesting that smartphones can be utilized to promote access to social capital.

Thomson, & Ito (2014)

Thomson, R., & Ito, N. (2014). 
Facebook advertisements for survey participant recruitment: Considerations from a multi-country study. 
調査参加者募集のためのフェイスブック広告:20カ国調査による考察
International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies, 5(2), 199-218.
doi: 10.7903/ijecs.1175

Facebook’s global reach suggests good potential for recruiting research participants and collecting objective behavioral data for cross-cultural research. Previous literature suggests the usefulness of Facebook advertisements to recruit participants in single-country studies. However, Facebook advert use in multi-country studies has not yet been reported. Nor are there any reports about soliciting Facebook user data (via Facebook applications) using Facebook advertisements. This paper contributes to this gap in Internet research, reporting on the effectiveness of Facebook advertisements to recruit participants, and for soliciting anonymized Facebook user data, in a 20-country study about privacy concerns on Facebook. Over seven days, 399 Facebook users from 18 countries responded to country-targeted advertisements in 13 languages. Response rates (ratio of advert clicks to valid responses) per country varied from 0% up to 14%. Overall, two-thirds of the country response rates were below 5%, and many country samples were gender-biased due to confounding societal factors. We conclude that for multi-national studies, Facebook advertisements may have potential for simple participant recruitment for surveys, but has limitations for soliciting Facebook user data. For user data collection, methods such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and snowball sampling may be more effective, but can be limited in their international reach.

Kawamoto et al. (2015)

Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), Ura, M.(浦光博), & Nittono, H. (2015). 
Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. 
社会的排除の個人内/対人過程
Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 9:62. 
doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00062
 
People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012, Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 4, 11). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion and (4) sources of social exclusion.

Hashimoto & Yamagishi (2014)

Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2014).
Preference-expectation reversal in the ratings of independent and interdependent individuals: A USA–Japan comparison.独立的/相互依存的個人の評定における選好-期待の逆転:日米比較
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014
doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12094

We predicted and supported the prediction that a ‘preference-expectation reversal’ would occur among Japanese but not among Americans. American and Japanese participants evaluated ideal-typical independent and interdependent persons on the negative–positive dimension, and estimated how others would evaluate these persons. They also indicated their preference for acting like each of the target persons; that is, which of the two target persons they would prefer to act like. Both the American and Japanese participants wanted to act like the typical independent person rather than the typical interdependent person. However, the Japanese participants expected that others would evaluate the interdependent person more positively than the independent person. This preference-expectation reversal was not observed among the American participants. Further analysis demonstrated that the American participants’ personal evaluations of the two targets were consistent with their preferences. The Japanese participants’ personal evaluation represented a compromise between their preferences and the expected responses of others. These results suggest that the culturally shared belief in Japan that interdependent persons would receive more positive evaluations than independent persons created an incentive for them to behave interdependently despite their preferences.

Tanaka et al. (2015)

Tanaka, H.(田中大貴), Yagi, A.(八木彩乃), Komiya, A.(小宮あすか), Mifune, N.(三船恒裕), & Ohtsubo, Y.(大坪庸介) (2015). 
Shame-Prone People Are More Likely to Punish Themselves: A Test of the Reputation-Maintenance Explanation for Self-Punishment.
恥を感じやすい人は自分を罰しがち
Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 9(1), 1-7.
doi: 10.1037/ebs0000016

Recent experimental studies have accumulated evidence about self-punishment. In accordance with the evolutionary perspective that shame has a reputation-maintenance function, we speculated that shame would promote self-punishment. Accordingly, we tested whether proneness to shame would predict self-punishment. In the first phase of the experiment, 98 undergraduates completed the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), a standard measure of proneness to shame and guilt. About 2 months later, 50 of the original participants took part in a self-punishment experiment, in which they all unintentionally made an unfair resource allocation, and then had the opportunity to inflict self-punishment by abandoning some of the money they had allocated to themselves. The amount of money the participants relinquished was significantly correlated with their shame-proneness. The intensity of posttransgression shame mediated the effect of shame-proneness on self-punishment. These results provide support for the evolutionary theorization of shame as a reputation-maintenance emotion.

Sawaumi et al. (2015)

Sawaumi, T. (澤海崇文), Yamaguchi, S. (山口勧), Park, J., & Robinson, A. R. (2015).
Japanese control strategies regulated by urgency and interpersonal harmony: Evidence based on extended conceptual framework.
日本人のコントロール方略選択への状況切迫性と対人的調和の影響
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46(2), 252-268.
doi: 10.1177/0022022114563749
 
People use control strategies to improve their physical as well as interpersonal situations. Previous research has maintained that Japanese, compared to North Americans, are more oriented toward secondary control (changing oneself) than primary control (changing one’s circumstances) (e.g., Weisz, Rothbaum, & Blackburn, 1984). On the other hand, Heckhausen and Schulz’s (1995) work suggests dominance of primary control over secondary control across cultures. The conflicting views regarding Japanese control orientations are reconciled by considering situational variation. Based on an extended framework of primary control (Yamaguchi, 2001), two empirical studies examined the alternative hypothesis that control orientation would be affected by perceived urgency and concern about harmony maintenance. Study 1 employed open-ended questions (N = 171) to validate the extended primary control taxonomy, and revealed that participants’ control orientations were influenced by their subjective urgency of control and perceived difficulty in maintaining interpersonal harmony. Study 2 (N = 246) replicated the latter results with Likert scale ratings. These results support the extended framework of primary control and identify two situational predictors of control orientation.

Ishii et al. (2014)

Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Kitayama, S. (北山忍), & Uchida, Y. (内田由紀子) (2014).
Voluntary settlement and its consequences on predictors of happiness: The influence of initial cultural context.
自発的移住と幸福感
Frontiers in Psychology5:1311.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01311
 
Hokkaido—a northern island of Japan that was settled by ethnic Japanese during the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century—may remain to be a hybrid of interdependent culture of the mainland Japan and independent culture associated with frontier settlement. We thus anticipated that contemporary Hokkaido residents would exhibit either independent or interdependent psychological profiles depending on the types of behaviors that were required in a given situation. As expected, happiness was associated with positive disengaging emotions (e.g., pride in the self)—an independent profile—in situations that required personal goal pursuit and interpersonal influence; however, happiness was associated with positive engaging emotions (e.g., feelings of closeness)—an interdependent profile—in situations that required interpersonal harmony and adjustment. In contrast, such situational dependency was not observed for either mainland Japanese or Americans. For mainland Japanese happiness was associated with positive engaging emotions whereas for Americans happiness was associated with positive disengaging emotions.

Ishii (2014)

Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2014).
Consequences of voluntary settlement: Normative beliefs related to independence in Hokkaido.
自発的移住の帰結:北海道における独立性に関する規範的信念
Journal of Cognition and Culture, 14(3-4), 159–169.
doi: 10.1163/15685373-12342118
 
Voluntary settlement is linked to the ethos of independence. However, it is unclear whether initial cultural contexts in frontier areas influence this ethos. The present study focused on Hokkaido, a Japanese island with a history of voluntary settlement, and predicted that while the predominant mainland-Japanese ethos of interdependence is prevalent in Hokkaido, the idea of independence fostered by settlement emerges mainly in the normative beliefs of people living there. The study examined the degree of interdependence measured by attention to vocal affect. Participants listened to emotional utterances and judged the verbal meaning while ignoring the vocal affect. During the process, about half of the participants were presented with schematic faces that activate normative beliefs. Overall, Japanese were more sensitive to vocal affect than were North Americans. Nevertheless, consistent with the prediction, the interference effect in the face condition was less in both North Americans and Hokkaido-born Hokkaido Japanese than in mainland Japanese.

Nand et al. (2014)

Nand, K., Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Senzaki, S., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2014).
Examining cultural drifts in artworks through development and history: Cultural comparisons between Japanese and Western landscape paintings and drawings.
絵画の文化的「流れ」:発達から歴史まで
Frontiers in Psychology5:1041.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01041
 
Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members’ landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008c), and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014b). However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1) 17–20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2) cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial “cultural drifts” (Herskovits, 1948) where at certain time periods in history and in development, people’s expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed.

Ando et al. (2014)

Ando, K.(安藤香織), Yorifuji, K.(依藤佳世), Ohnuma, S.(大沼進), Matthies, E., & Kanbara, A.(神原歩) (2014)
Transmitting pro-environmental behaviours to the next generation: A comparison between Germany and Japan.
向環境行動の次世代への伝達:日独比較
Asian Journal of Social Psychology.
doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12078
 
The present study examined the processes by which children acquire pro-environmental behaviours in different cultures. Our focus was on parental influence. Several studies have been conducted on adults’ environmental behaviours; however, we know little about how children’s environmental attitudes and behaviours are formed. We conducted a questionnaire survey with elementary school children and one of their parents in Germany and Japan. Two hundred and twenty-one pairs participated in Germany and 365 in Japan. The results of structural equation modelling showed that parents’ behaviours affected children’s environmental behaviours directly and also via the subjective norm (the children’s experienced expectations of their parents). A comparison of the two countries revealed that hypothesized cultural differences between the impact of personal norms and subjective norms were clearer for adults. The results also showed that the effects of subjective norms were stronger for children, indicating that children are more likely to be influenced by expectations of others. The results of the study suggest that for promoting children’s environmental behaviours, showing the behaviours in daily life would be most effective.

Murakami (2014)

Murakami, K.(村上幸史) (2014).
Absolute and relative judgments in relation to strength of belief in good luck.
「運の強さ」の信念に関する絶対的・相対的判断
Social Behavior and Personality, 42(7), 1105-1115.
doi: 10.2224/sbp.2014.42.7.1105
 
Belief in Good Luck (BIGL) is a scale for belief in “strength of luck” and is perceived as a personal ability. However, this scale ignored those who recognized individual differences but perceived their own strength of luck as weak (“weak group”). In this study, I defined the weak group in terms of social comparison. Respondents answered questionnaires regarding “possibility” in two types of scenario, one in which the objective probability was the same, but the probability assigned to others differed, and for the occurrence of an uncertain event. The results indicated that, compared with those in the strong group, the weak group tended to elevate the likelihood of success by the assigned probability of others. Differences were also found in assessments for the occurrence of an uncertain event. The results point to the difficulty in measuring the idea of strength of luck as only one factor linked to strength or weakness.
「運の強さ」の信念の測定には”Belief in Good Luck”という尺度が広く用いられているが、この尺度には「個人差を認識する」ことと「自分の運が強いと認識する」こと」が一次元に仮定されており、「自分の運が弱いと認識する」者は無視されているという欠点がある。この両者を区別する意義として、本研究では「運が弱い」と認識する者は「運が強い」と認識する者と異なり、相対的な判断をしやすいという仮定を置いて、自己の確率は変わらないが、他者の確率が変化するようなシナリオを作成し、その予測を回答してもらった。その結果、ポジティブな結果を得ることの予測に関しては仮説を支持する結果が得られた。

Yamagishi (2014)

Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2014).
From a measurement model to a dynamic causal model: Commentary on Schwartz. 
測定モデルから因果モデルへ:Schwartzへのコメント
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(1), 30-36.
doi: 10.1177/0022022113513105
 
Schwartz (2013) uses the measurement model of latent aptitudes to explain why the large variance in individuals’ values does not pose a problem for the use of the country mean as a proxy of the societal culture as a macro property. I propose that the multi-level causal model provides a more appropriate view of societal culture as a macro property, according to which individuals in each country are like students in a class who are taught by an instructor. The instructor’s teaching effectiveness is a macro property, affecting all students’ learning levels and the average test score. Within-class variance in students’ test scores generated by factors independent of the instructor’s teaching qualities is irrelevant to the assessment of the instructor’s teaching effectiveness. Social institutions such as democratic legal systems affect all individuals under the institutions and would generate between-institution differences in people’s behavior indendeptly of factors ideosyncratic to individuals.

Shinada & Yamagishi (2014)

Shinada, M.(品田瑞穂), & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2014).
Attractiveness and cooperation in a prisoner’s dilemma game.
囚人のジレンマゲームにおける魅力度と協力行動
Evolution and Human Behavior, 35(6), 451-455.
doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.06.003
 
The modulating role of age on the relationship between physical attractiveness and cooperativeness in a prisoner’s dilemma game (PDG) was investigated. Previous studies have shown that physical attractiveness is negatively related to cooperative choices among young men but not young women. Following the argument that the negative relationship between physical attractiveness and cooperation is a product of short-term mating strategies among attractive men, we predicted that this relationship is unique to young men and absent among women and older men. We tested this hypothesis with 175 participants (aged 22–69 years). The results showed that physical attractiveness was negatively related to cooperative behavior among young men but not among women or older men. We further observed that the negative relationship between physical attractiveness and cooperation among young men was particularly strong when attractiveness was judged by women.

Hashimoto et al. (2014)

Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), Mifune, N.(三船恒裕), & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2014).
To be perceived as altruistic: Strategic considerations that support fair behavior in the dictator game.
利他敵と認知されること:独裁者ゲームでの公正行動を支える戦略的基盤
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 5(2), 17-20.
 
We successfully replicated Dana, Cain, and Dawes’ study (2006) using a dictator game with an exit option with a Japanese sample. The exit option allowed the dictator to leave the recipient with nothing by paying a small fee, while also ensuring that the recipient never noticed that the dictator game was being played. If the dictator was motivated by fairness, or even self-interest, there would be no reason to choose the exit option. However, our study, as well as the original study, demonstrated that approximately 40% of participants chose the exit option. Based on these results, we argue that the altruistic behavior exhibited during the standard dictator game represents a default strategy for reputation management.

Van Lange et al. (2014)

Van Lange, P., Rockenbach, B. & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2014).
Reward and punishment in social dilemmas.
社会的ジレンマにおける報酬と罰(書籍)
Oxford University Press.
ISBN: 9780199300747

Book Description
    One of the key scientific challenges is the puzzle of human cooperation. Why do people cooperate? Why do people help strangers, even sometimes at a major cost to themselves? Why do people want to punish others who violate norms and undermine collective interests?
    Reward and punishment is a classic theme in research on social dilemmas. More recently, it has received considerable attention from scientists working in various disciplines such as economics, neuroscience, and psychology. We know now that reward and punishment can promote cooperation in so-called public good dilemmas, where people need to decide how much from their personal resources to contribute to the public good. Clearly, enjoying the contributions of others while not contributing is tempting. Punishment (and reward) are effective in reducing free-riding. Yet the recent explosion of research has also triggered many questions. For example, who can reward and punish most effectively? Is punishment effective in any culture? What are the emotions that accompany reward and punishment? Even if reward and punishment are effective, are they also efficient — knowing that rewards and punishment are costly to administer? How can sanctioning systems best organized to be reduce free-riding? The chapters in this book, the first in a series on human cooperation, explore the workings of reward and punishment, how they should be organized, and their functions in society, thereby providing a synthesis of the psychology, economics, and neuroscience of human cooperation.

Ohtsubo & Yagi (2015)

Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), & Yagi, A.(八木彩乃) (2015).
Relationship Value Promotes Costly Apology-Making: Testing the Valuable Relationships Hypothesis from the Perpetrator’s Perspective.
関係価値はコストのかかる謝罪を促進する
Evolution and Human Behavior.
doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.11.008

The valuable relationships hypothesis posits that people are inclined to reconcile with their valuable-relationship partners. Focusing on a particular type of credible conciliatory signal (i.e., costly apology), the present study tested this hypothesis from the perpetrator’s perspective. In Studies 1 and 2, after imagining that they had committed an interpersonal transgression against one of their real friends, participants (N = 529 and 311 in Studies 1 and 2, respectively) rated their willingness to incur a cost in order to apologize to the victim. Apology cost was operationalized as “canceling plans to make an apology as soon as possible” in Study 1, and as “offering compensation” in Study 2. The results showed that the instrumentality of the partner to achieving the participants’ goals would increase their willingness to make a costly apology, after controlling for the participants’ sex, version of the transgression scenario, closeness to the victim, and expected forgiveness of the victim. To ensure the external validity of this finding, Studies 3 and 4 asked participants to recall one of their interpersonal transgression experiences, and to report whether they had offered compensation for it (N = 190 and 224 in Studies 3 and 4, respectively). Study 3 confirmed the hypothesis, while Study 4 did not directly support it. However, Study 4 did show that participants were more willing to reconcile with their valuable partners. Taken together, these results indicate that the valuable relationships hypothesis applies not only to victims, but also their perpetrators as well.

この研究では、関係価値の高い相手を傷つけた場合に、人々がコストのかかるやりかたで(より赦してもらいやすいやりかたで)謝罪することを示した。研究1・2は場面想定法の質問紙実験であり、研究3・4は実際の謝罪経験を想起して回答してもらう回想法調査であった。いずれの研究も、人々が関係価値の高い相手との和解に高く動機づけられていることを示していた。

Takagi et al. (2014)

Takagi, D. (高木大資), Kondo, N., Takada, M., & Hashimoto, H. (2014).
Differences in spousal influence on smoking cessation by gender and education among Japanese couples.
日本人夫婦における、性別と学歴による禁煙への配偶者効果の違い
BMC Public Health, 14:1184
doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1184
Background: 
Previous studies have reported that spousal non-smoking has a spillover effect on the partner’s cessation. However, discussion is lacking on the factors modifying that association. We examined whether the spillover effect of spousal non-smoking was associated with the couple’s educational attainment.
Methods: 
We used paired marital data from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE), which targeted residents aged 25–50 years in four Japanese municipalities. We selected a spouse smoker at the time of marriage (target respondent), and set his/her smoking status change (continued or quit smoking after marriage) as an outcome, regressed on the counterpart’s smoking status (continued smoking or non-smoking) and combinations of each couple’s educational attainment as explanatory variables using log-binomial regression models (n =1001 targets; 708 men and 293 women).
Results:
Regression results showed that a counterpart who previously quit smoking or was a never-smoker was associated with the target male spouse’s subsequent cessation. However, for women, the association between husband’s non-smoking and their own cessation was significant only for couples in which both spouses were highly educated.
Conclusions: 
Our findings suggest that a spouse’s smoking status is important for smoking cessation interventions in men. For women, however, a couple’s combined educational attainment may matter in the interventions.
 
本研究では日本に在住する1,001組の夫婦のペアデータを用いて、配偶者の非喫煙が、もう一方の配偶者の禁煙行動を促進するかどうかが検討された。分析結果から、妻が非喫煙者である男性はその後自分自身も禁煙する確率が高まるのに対して、女性においては、高学歴夫婦のみが夫の非喫煙から影響を受けることが示唆された。

Takahashi et al. (2014)

Takahashi, T., Takagishi, H.(高岸治人), Nishinaka, H., Makino, T., & Fukui, H. (2014).
Neuroeconomics of psychopathy: risk taking in probability discounting of gain and loss predicts psychopathy.
サイコパシーの神経経済学
Neuro Endocrinology Letters, 36(6), 510-517
 
BACKGROUND:
This study investigated the relationships between psychopathy and impulsive and risky decision making, by utilizing intertemporal and probabilistic choices for both gain and loss, in addition to the Iowa gambling task.
METHODS:
The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised – a 154-item measure that assesses psychopathic traits by self-report – was used with a 4-point response scale to assess 113 undergraduate students from three Japanese universities. Participants’ performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and four behavioral neuroeconomic tasks of discounting – delayed gain, delayed loss, uncertain gain, and uncertain loss – were estimated.
RESULTS:
Risky decisions in probability discounting of gain and loss were associated with psychopathy. Psychopathic traits had no relationship with performance on the Iowa Gambling and were not significantly related to delay discounting.
CONCLUSIONS:
Psychopathy is predicted by risky decision in probability discounting of gain and loss, but not strongly associated with future myopia. Implications of the present findings for neuroeconomics and neurolaw are discussed.