Kato, T. A（加藤隆弘）., Hashimoto, R., Hayakawa, K., Kubo, H., Shimokawa, N.,Watabe, M.（渡部 幹）, Teo, A, R.,Kanba, S. (2015). The multidimensional anatomy of “modern type depression” in Japan: A proposal for a different diagnostic approach to depression beyond the DSM-5. 日本の「新型うつ」の多次元的検討 Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12360
Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), Nittono, H., & Ura, M.（浦光博） (2015). Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues. 拒絶感受性は拒絶手がかりの検出力ではなく拒絶手がかりに対する過覚醒と防衛的反応と関連している Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01516
Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait rejection sensitivity (RS)—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and rejection detection capability (RDC) on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1) and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2). We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1) and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP), but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170) toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective.
Yamagishi, T.（山岸俊男）, & Mifune, N.（三船恒裕） (2016). Parochial altruism: does it explain modern human group psychology? 偏狭な利他主義：現代人の心理を説明可能か？ Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 39-43. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.015
Parochial altruism — the human inclination toward costly intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression without expectations of future returns — requires group selection logic to explain its evolution. We examined experimental evidence for three implications of the group selection account: the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation; the non-instrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression; and the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Laboratory experiments revealed no support for the unconditional nature of intra-group cooperation, mostly negative evidence for the non-instrumental, non-retaliatory, and costly nature of inter-group aggression, and mixed evidence for the positive relationship between intra-group cooperation and inter-group aggression. Caution against premature conclusions about the role of group selection in the evolution of parochial altruism is advised.
Nagaya, K. (長谷和久) & Nakayachi, K. (中谷内一也) (2015). Hazard Perception and Anchoring: A Comparison of the Three Models Explaining the Anchoring Effect. ハザード認知とアンカリング：アンカリング効果を説明する３モデルの比較 Journal of Disaster Research, 10(4), 678-686.
Betsch, C., Böhm, R., (remaining authors in alphabetical order) Airhihenbuwa, C., Butler, R., Chapman, G., Haase, N., Herrmann, B., Igarashi, T.（五十嵐祐）, Kitayama, S.（北山忍）, Korn, L., Nurm, Ü-K., Rohrmann, B., Rothman, A., Shavitt, S., Updegraff, J. A., & Uskul, A. (2015). Improving medical decision making and health promotion through culture-sensitive health communication: An agenda for science and practice. 医療における意思決定と健康促進：文化に配慮したヘルスコミュニケーションを通して Medical Decision Making. doi: 10.1177/0272989X15600434
Takagi, D.（高木大資）, Ikeda, K.（池田謙一）, Kobayashi, T.（小林哲郎）, Harihara, M., & Kawachi, I. (2015). The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. 犯罪が社会的紐帯と市民参加に与える影響 Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.
Majima, Y. (眞嶋良全) (2015). Belief in Pseudoscience, Cognitive Style and Science Literacy. 疑似科学に対する信念：認知スタイルと科学リテラシー Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(4), 552-559. doi: 10.1002/acp.3136
Yamaguchi, M.（山口真奈）, Smith, A.（スミス アダム）, & Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介） (2015). Commitment signals in friendship and romantic relationships. 友人・恋人間でのコミットメントシグナル Evolution and Human Behavior. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.05.002
Konishi, N.（小西直喜） & Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介） (2015). Does dishonesty really invite third-party punishment? Results of a more stringent test. 不正直は本当に第三者罰を招くのか？：より厳密な検討の結果 Biology Letters, 11(5). doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2015.0172
Ishii, K. (石井健一) & Watanabe, S. (渡邉聡) (2015). Nation brand personality and product evaluation among Japanese people: Implications for nation branding. 日本人の国家ブランドパーソナリティと製品評価 Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 11, 51-64. doi: 10.1057/pb.2014.25
Jin, Z., Shiomura, K.（潮村公弘）, & Jiang, L. (2015). Assessing implicit mate preferences among Chinese and Japanese women by providing love, sex, or money cues. 女性の潜在的な配偶者選好の日中比較 Psychological Reports, 116(1), 195-206. doi: 10.2466/21.PR0.116k11w6
Tabuchi, M.（田渕恵）, & Miura, A.（三浦麻子） (2015). Young people’s reactions change elderly people’s generativity and narratives: The effect of intergenerational interaction on the elderly. 若者の反応が高齢者の世代性と語りを変える：世代間相互作用の効果 Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 13(2), 118-133. doi: 10.1080/15350770.2015.1026298
Yoshimura, A., Lebowitz, A., Bun, S., Aiba, M.(相羽美幸), Ikejima, C., & Asada, T. (2015). A comparative analysis of dementia inpatient characteristics: Results from a nationwide survey of different care facilities in Japan. 介護施設による認知症患者の特徴の比較：全国の介護施設を対象とした調査から Psychogeriatrics. doi: 10.1111/psyg.12117
Muto, M. (武藤麻美), Kugihara, N. (釘原直樹), & Kohara, Y. (2015). Psychological distance and likeability of in- or out-group targets who hold different opinions. 内・外集団における異なる価値観の保持者に対する心理的距離：戦争の是非をテーマとして Psychologia, 58, 36-48.
Thomson, R., & Yuki, M.（結城雅樹） (2015). How to win (and lose) friendships across cultures: Why relational mobility matters. 文化を越えて友情を勝ち得るには：関係流動性の問題 In-Mind Magazine.
In this article, we have reviewed research which suggests that to understand which relational strategies work in what social context, it is important to understand the characteristics of external social environments which surround individuals, in particular relational mobility. This is called the socio-ecological approach to cultural and regional differences in mind and behavior, an approach which complements previous cross-cultural research. North American societies, as well as urban areas, are high in relational mobility, which means there are an abundance of options for interpersonal relationships. In such a social ecology, people tend to be more confident in their abilities, trust strangers, and be more open about sensitive personal matters. Behaving this way helps them in their goals of acquiring and keeping beneficial friendships. The social environments in East Asia and rural areas, however, tend to be low in relational mobility. Interpersonal relationships are generally pre-determined, and there are fewer options to meet new people. In a social ecology like this, it appears wise to avoid offending others. Doing so will help to maintain harmony in those long-lasting, hard to replace relationships. To put it in a nutshell: Sure, friendships can be tough, but they’re easier to manage if you’re aware of the rules of the game.
Takagishi, H.（高岸治人）, Fujii, T.（藤井貴之）, Koizumi, M., Schug, J., Nakamura, F., & Kameshima, S. (2015). The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls. 寛大さに対する相互監視の効果の発達：小学生における性差 Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00895
Kobayashi, T.（小林哲郎）, & Ichifuji, Y. (2015). Tweets that matter: Evidence from a randomized field experiment in Japan. ツイッターを利用した選挙運動の効果：日本における現場実験 Political Communication. doi: 10.1080/10584609.2014.986696
Although election campaigns are increasingly utilizing social media, only a few studies have investigated their effects experimentally. To fill this gap in the literature, we conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of a campaign that used Twitter during the 2013 House of Councillors election in Japan. The treatment was exposure to tweets from Tōru Hashimoto, the mayor of Osaka and co-leader of the Japan Restoration Party, who has the largest number of Twitter followers among Japanese politicians. Participants assigned to the treatment group followed Hashimoto and the two placebos, whereas those assigned to the control condition followed only the two placebos. They followed the politicians continuously for approximately one month. Pre- and posttreatment measures were collected using online surveys, and treatment compliance was continuously checked via Twitter application programming interface (API). Following Hashimoto on Twitter during the election campaign had a positive impact on feelings toward Hashimoto. This effect was not mediated by issue knowledge or the evaluation of Hashimoto’s personal traits, and no effects were observed on voting. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to a politician’s messages on Twitter may only result in a mere exposure effect, which nevertheless generates favorable overall attitudes about the politician.
Boase, J., Kobayashi, T.（小林哲郎）, Schrock, A., Suzuki, T., & Suzuki, T.（鈴木貴久）(2015). Reconnecting here and there: The reactivation of dormant ties in the US and Japan. 休眠していた絆の再接続：日米比較研究 American Behavioral Scientist.
Yamakawa, I.（山川樹）, & Sakamoto, S.（坂本真士） (2015). Insisting on Depression, but not Showing Symptoms: A Japanese Study of Excuse-Making. 症状を呈さない鬱病の主張 International Journal of Psychological Studies, 7, 146-154. doi: 10.5539/ijps.v7n2p146
Since the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists have reported the appearance of a Modern Type Depression (MTD), which has different features from melancholic depression. Using a case vignette method, we looked at one of the distinctive features of MTD; that is, “insisting on depression”. In particular, we examined whether the statement “I think I may have depressive disorder” can be accepted as an excuse for not fulfilling ones’ duty when one does not show any symptoms of depressive disorder. Participants comprised 344 Japanese undergraduates who were presented with a short scenario describing social predicaments and who subsequently assessed the excuse value in terms of impression and behavioral reaction on the transgressor. Results showed that even though the transgressor did not show any symptoms of depressive disorder, insisting that one may have depressive disorder seemed to be accepted. Additionally, consistent with Weiner’s cognitive (attribution)–emotion–action model, the more positive impressions observers have on the transgressor, the more they are motivated to react kindly to the transgressor. Some unexpected findings and limitations of the present study were discussed.
Ito, K., Masuda, T.（増田貴彦）, Koyama, A.（小宮あすか）, & Hioki, K.（日置孝一）(2015). Seeking help from close, same-sex friends: Relational costs for Japanese and personal costs for European Canadians. 親密な同性友人に援助を求める際のコストの文化差 Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32(4), 529-554. doi: 10.1177/0265407514539780
Uchida, Y.（内田由紀子）, Kanagawa, C.（金川智恵）, Takenishi, A.（竹西亜古）, Harada, A., Okawa, K., Yabuno, H. (2015). How Did the Media Report on the Great East Japan Earthquake? Objectivity and Emotionality Seeking in Japanese Media Coverage. 東日本大震災をメディアはどう伝えたか PLoS ONE, 10(5): e0125966. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125966
Ukezono, M.（請園正敏）, Nakashima, S. F.（中嶋智史）, Sudo, R.（須藤竜之介）, Yamazaki, A. & Takano, Y. (2015). The combination of perception of other individuals and exogenous manipulation of arousal enhances social facilitation as an aftereffect: re-examination of Zajonc’s drive theory. 他者の知覚と喚起の外的操作の組み合わせによる社会的促進の増進：ザイエンスの動因理論の再検証 Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00601
Kondo, N., Saito, M., Hikichi, H.（引地博之）, Aida, J., Ojima, T., Kondo, K., & Kawachi, I. (2014). Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes AMONG older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study. 収入と道徳性の相対的剥奪：日本人高齢者におけるコホート研究 Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. doi: 10.1136/jech-2014-205103
Hikichi, H.（引地博之）, Kondo, N., Kondo, K., Aida, J., Takeda, T., & Kawachi, I. (2015). Effect of a community intervention programme promoting social interactions on functional disability prevention for older adults: propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses, JAGES Taketoyo study. 高齢者の機能障害予防に向けた社会的相互作用促進のためのコミュニティ介入プログラムの効果 Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. doi: 10.1136/jech-2014-205345.
Hiraishi, K. (平石界) , Shikishima, C. (敷島千鶴) , Yamagata, S. (山形伸二), & Ando, J. (2015). Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games. 公共財ゲームでの決定と帰結に対する遺伝の影響 Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00373
Komiya, A.（小宮あすか）, & Mifune, N.（三船恒裕） (2015). An individual difference in betrayal aversion: Prosociality predicts more risky choices in social but not natural domains. 裏切り回避傾向の個人差：向社会性は社会的なリスク選択をしやすくさせる Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 6(1), 5-8. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2015.33
Miyata, K.（宮田加久子）, Yamamoto, H.（山本仁志）, & Ogawa, Y.（小川祐樹） (2015) What Affects the Spiral of Silence and the Hard Core on Twitter? An Analysis of the Nuclear Power Issue in Japan. ツイッターにおける「沈黙の螺旋」と「ハードコア」：日本の原発問題の分析 American Behavioral Scientist, 1-13. doi: 10.1177/0002764215580618
Motoki Watabe (渡部 幹) , Takahiro A. Kato (加藤隆弘), Alan R. Teo, Hideki Horikawa, Masaru Tateno, Kohei Hayakawa, Norihiro Shimokawa, Shigenobu Kanba (2015). Relationship between Trusting Behaviors and Psychometrics Associated with Social Network and Depression among Young Generation: A Pilot Study. 若年世代における、社会ネットワークおよび鬱傾向と信頼行動との関係：パイロット研究 PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120183
Nakashima, S. F.（中嶋智史）, Ukezono, M（請園正敏）, Nishida, H., Sudo, R.（須藤竜之介） , Takano, Y. (2015). Receiving of emotional signal of pain from conspecifics in laboratory rats. 実験室ラットにおける同種個体の痛みの情動的シグナル知覚 Royal Society Open Science. doi: 10.1098/rsos.140381
Kawakami, N.（川上直秋）, & Yoshida, F.（吉田富二雄） (2015). Perceiving a story outside of conscious awareness: When we infer narrative attributes from subliminal sequential stimuli. 閾下呈示されたストーリーの知覚 Consciousness and cognition, 33, 53-66.
Fujii, T.（藤井貴之）, Takagishi, H.（高岸治人）, Koizumi, M. & Okada, H. (2015). The Effect of Direct and Indirect Monitoring on Generosity Among Preschoolers. 未就学児の寛容さに対する直接/間接モニタリングの効果 Scientific Reports. doi: 10.1038/srep09025
Kobayashi, T.（小林哲郎）, Collet, C., Iyengar, S., & Hahn, K. S. (2015). Who Deserves Citizenship? An Experimental Study of Japanese Attitudes Toward Immigrant Workers. 市民権付与にふさわしいのは誰？－移民労働者に対する日本人の態度に関する実験的研究 Social Science Japan Journal, 18(1), 3-22. doi: 10.1093/ssjj/jyu035
Kobayashi, T.（小林哲郎）, Boase, J., Suzuki, T., & Suzuki, T.（鈴木貴久） (2015). Emerging from the cocoon? Revisiting the tele-cocooning hypothesis in the smartphone era. スマホ時代の"Tele-Cocooning"仮説再考 Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12116
The tele-cocooning hypothesis posits that mobile communication increases interaction with communication rich ties, while simultaneously weakening interaction with communication weak ties. In this study, we demonstrate how smartphones can be used to mitigate tele-cocooning behavior by stimulating interaction with communication weak ties. Using a smartphone application to collect non-identifying mobile communication log data, we conducted a field experiment with 193 Japanese participants. The treatment consisted of onscreen reminders designed to stimulate interaction with communication weak ties. The results indicate that the treatment promoted the activation of communication weak ties and the acquisition of information through those ties, suggesting that smartphones can be utilized to promote access to social capital.
Thomson, R., & Ito, N. (2014). Facebook advertisements for survey participant recruitment: Considerations from a multi-country study. 調査参加者募集のためのフェイスブック広告：20カ国調査による考察 International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies, 5(2), 199-218. doi: 10.7903/ijecs.1175
Facebook’s global reach suggests good potential for recruiting research participants and collecting objective behavioral data for cross-cultural research. Previous literature suggests the usefulness of Facebook advertisements to recruit participants in single-country studies. However, Facebook advert use in multi-country studies has not yet been reported. Nor are there any reports about soliciting Facebook user data (via Facebook applications) using Facebook advertisements. This paper contributes to this gap in Internet research, reporting on the effectiveness of Facebook advertisements to recruit participants, and for soliciting anonymized Facebook user data, in a 20-country study about privacy concerns on Facebook. Over seven days, 399 Facebook users from 18 countries responded to country-targeted advertisements in 13 languages. Response rates (ratio of advert clicks to valid responses) per country varied from 0% up to 14%. Overall, two-thirds of the country response rates were below 5%, and many country samples were gender-biased due to confounding societal factors. We conclude that for multi-national studies, Facebook advertisements may have potential for simple participant recruitment for surveys, but has limitations for soliciting Facebook user data. For user data collection, methods such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and snowball sampling may be more effective, but can be limited in their international reach.
Kawamoto, T.（川本大史）, Ura, M.（浦光博）, & Nittono, H. (2015). Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. 社会的排除の個人内/対人過程 Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 9:62. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00062
Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2014). Preference-expectation reversal in the ratings of independent and interdependent individuals: A USA–Japan comparison.独立的/相互依存的個人の評定における選好-期待の逆転：日米比較 Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014 doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12094
We predicted and supported the prediction that a ‘preference-expectation reversal’ would occur among Japanese but not among Americans. American and Japanese participants evaluated ideal-typical independent and interdependent persons on the negative–positive dimension, and estimated how others would evaluate these persons. They also indicated their preference for acting like each of the target persons; that is, which of the two target persons they would prefer to act like. Both the American and Japanese participants wanted to act like the typical independent person rather than the typical interdependent person. However, the Japanese participants expected that others would evaluate the interdependent person more positively than the independent person. This preference-expectation reversal was not observed among the American participants. Further analysis demonstrated that the American participants’ personal evaluations of the two targets were consistent with their preferences. The Japanese participants’ personal evaluation represented a compromise between their preferences and the expected responses of others. These results suggest that the culturally shared belief in Japan that interdependent persons would receive more positive evaluations than independent persons created an incentive for them to behave interdependently despite their preferences.
Tanaka, H.（田中大貴）, Yagi, A.（八木彩乃）, Komiya, A.（小宮あすか）, Mifune, N.（三船恒裕）, & Ohtsubo, Y.（大坪庸介） (2015). Shame-Prone People Are More Likely to Punish Themselves: A Test of the Reputation-Maintenance Explanation for Self-Punishment. 恥を感じやすい人は自分を罰しがち Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 9(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1037/ebs0000016
Recent experimental studies have accumulated evidence about self-punishment. In accordance with the evolutionary perspective that shame has a reputation-maintenance function, we speculated that shame would promote self-punishment. Accordingly, we tested whether proneness to shame would predict self-punishment. In the first phase of the experiment, 98 undergraduates completed the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), a standard measure of proneness to shame and guilt. About 2 months later, 50 of the original participants took part in a self-punishment experiment, in which they all unintentionally made an unfair resource allocation, and then had the opportunity to inflict self-punishment by abandoning some of the money they had allocated to themselves. The amount of money the participants relinquished was significantly correlated with their shame-proneness. The intensity of posttransgression shame mediated the effect of shame-proneness on self-punishment. These results provide support for the evolutionary theorization of shame as a reputation-maintenance emotion.
Sawaumi, T. (澤海崇文), Yamaguchi, S. (山口勧), Park, J., & Robinson, A. R. (2015). Japanese control strategies regulated by urgency and interpersonal harmony: Evidence based on extended conceptual framework. 日本人のコントロール方略選択への状況切迫性と対人的調和の影響 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46(2), 252-268. doi: 10.1177/0022022114563749
Ishii, K. (石井敬子), Kitayama, S. (北山忍), & Uchida, Y. (内田由紀子) (2014). Voluntary settlement and its consequences on predictors of happiness: The influence of initial cultural context. 自発的移住と幸福感 Frontiers in Psychology, 5:1311. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01311
Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2014). Consequences of voluntary settlement: Normative beliefs related to independence in Hokkaido. 自発的移住の帰結：北海道における独立性に関する規範的信念 Journal of Cognition and Culture, 14(3-4), 159–169. doi: 10.1163/15685373-12342118
Nand, K., Masuda, T. (増田貴彦), Senzaki, S., & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2014). Examining cultural drifts in artworks through development and history: Cultural comparisons between Japanese and Western landscape paintings and drawings. 絵画の文化的「流れ」：発達から歴史まで Frontiers in Psychology, 5:1041. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01041
Ando, K.（安藤香織）, Yorifuji, K.（依藤佳世）, Ohnuma, S.（大沼進）, Matthies, E., & Kanbara, A.（神原歩） (2014) Transmitting pro-environmental behaviours to the next generation: A comparison between Germany and Japan. 向環境行動の次世代への伝達：日独比較 Asian Journal of Social Psychology. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12078
Murakami, K.（村上幸史） (2014). Absolute and relative judgments in relation to strength of belief in good luck. 「運の強さ」の信念に関する絶対的・相対的判断 Social Behavior and Personality, 42(7), 1105-1115. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2014.42.7.1105
Yamagishi, T.（山岸俊男） (2014). From a measurement model to a dynamic causal model: Commentary on Schwartz. 測定モデルから因果モデルへ：Schwartzへのコメント Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(1), 30-36. doi: 10.1177/0022022113513105
Shinada, M.（品田瑞穂）, & Yamagishi, T.（山岸俊男） (2014). Attractiveness and cooperation in a prisoner’s dilemma game. 囚人のジレンマゲームにおける魅力度と協力行動 Evolution and Human Behavior, 35(6), 451-455. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.06.003
Hashimoto, H.（橋本博文）, Mifune, N.（三船恒裕）, & Yamagishi, T.（山岸俊男） (2014). To be perceived as altruistic: Strategic considerations that support fair behavior in the dictator game. 利他敵と認知されること：独裁者ゲームでの公正行動を支える戦略的基盤 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 5(2), 17-20.
Van Lange, P., Rockenbach, B. & Yamagishi, T.（山岸俊男） (2014). Reward and punishment in social dilemmas. 社会的ジレンマにおける報酬と罰（書籍） Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780199300747
Reward and punishment is a classic theme in research on social dilemmas. More recently, it has received considerable attention from scientists working in various disciplines such as economics, neuroscience, and psychology. We know now that reward and punishment can promote cooperation in so-called public good dilemmas, where people need to decide how much from their personal resources to contribute to the public good. Clearly, enjoying the contributions of others while not contributing is tempting. Punishment (and reward) are effective in reducing free-riding. Yet the recent explosion of research has also triggered many questions. For example, who can reward and punish most effectively? Is punishment effective in any culture? What are the emotions that accompany reward and punishment? Even if reward and punishment are effective, are they also efficient — knowing that rewards and punishment are costly to administer? How can sanctioning systems best organized to be reduce free-riding? The chapters in this book, the first in a series on human cooperation, explore the workings of reward and punishment, how they should be organized, and their functions in society, thereby providing a synthesis of the psychology, economics, and neuroscience of human cooperation.
Ohtsubo, Y. （大坪庸介）, & Yagi, A.（八木彩乃） (2015). Relationship Value Promotes Costly Apology-Making: Testing the Valuable Relationships Hypothesis from the Perpetrator’s Perspective. 関係価値はコストのかかる謝罪を促進する Evolution and Human Behavior. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.11.008
The valuable relationships hypothesis posits that people are inclined to reconcile with their valuable-relationship partners. Focusing on a particular type of credible conciliatory signal (i.e., costly apology), the present study tested this hypothesis from the perpetrator’s perspective. In Studies 1 and 2, after imagining that they had committed an interpersonal transgression against one of their real friends, participants (N = 529 and 311 in Studies 1 and 2, respectively) rated their willingness to incur a cost in order to apologize to the victim. Apology cost was operationalized as “canceling plans to make an apology as soon as possible” in Study 1, and as “offering compensation” in Study 2. The results showed that the instrumentality of the partner to achieving the participants’ goals would increase their willingness to make a costly apology, after controlling for the participants’ sex, version of the transgression scenario, closeness to the victim, and expected forgiveness of the victim. To ensure the external validity of this finding, Studies 3 and 4 asked participants to recall one of their interpersonal transgression experiences, and to report whether they had offered compensation for it (N = 190 and 224 in Studies 3 and 4, respectively). Study 3 confirmed the hypothesis, while Study 4 did not directly support it. However, Study 4 did show that participants were more willing to reconcile with their valuable partners. Taken together, these results indicate that the valuable relationships hypothesis applies not only to victims, but also their perpetrators as well.
Takagi, D. (高木大資), Kondo, N., Takada, M., & Hashimoto, H. (2014). Differences in spousal influence on smoking cessation by gender and education among Japanese couples. 日本人夫婦における、性別と学歴による禁煙への配偶者効果の違い BMC Public Health, 14:1184 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1184
Takahashi, T., Takagishi, H.（高岸治人）, Nishinaka, H., Makino, T., & Fukui, H. (2014). Neuroeconomics of psychopathy: risk taking in probability discounting of gain and loss predicts psychopathy. サイコパシーの神経経済学 Neuro Endocrinology Letters, 36(6), 510-517