日本の社会心理学者たちは,活発な研究活動を展開・公表しており,その成果は日本語による論文であれば例えば日本社会心理学会の機関誌である「社会心理学研究」等の学会誌に掲載され,また学術書として公刊されています.一方,当然のことながら学問に国境はなく,特に近年では国際的な論文誌や書籍にその成果が掲載されることも増えてきました.しかし,こうした国際的成果をくまなく知ることは,あまりにそのフィールドが広いためにあまり容易ではありませんでした.

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Ishii (2013)

Ishii, I. (石井健一) (2013).
Nationalism and preferences for domestic and foreign animation programmes in China.
International Communication Gazette, 75(2), 225-245.
doi: 10.1177/1748048512459148
Since China implemented animation control policies in 2004, foreign animationprogrammes have almost disappeared from Chinese television. At the same time, the Chinese government has invested enormous amounts of money in developing the animation industry as a creative industry. A questionnaire survey was conducted to explore how the Chinese audience views domestic and foreign animationprogrammes. The results indicate that pirated Japanese animation is widely viewed via the Internet by adolescents; on the other hand, domestic animation is popular only among children. Preferences for domestic animation correlate positively with age and patriotism but negatively with Internet use, while preferences for Japanese animation correlate negatively with age and patriotism but positively with Internet use. These results show that nationalistic sentiments are associated with preferences for either domestic or foreign animation programmes. However, preferences for Japanese animation are not significantly associated with anti-government attitudes.

Simnovic et al. (2013)

Simunovic, D., Mifune, N.(三船恒裕), & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2013).
Preemptive strike: An experimental study of fear-based aggression.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(6), 1120-1123.
doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.08.003
The mere presence of a potential threat of attack was found to be sufficient to lead significant proportion of participants to engage in preemptive attacks toward potential threats; this response occurred even without an incentive for either party to attack the other. We developed a new experimental game—the preemptive strike game (PSG)—to demonstrate this tendency for defensive aggression. We also found that the rate at which participants attacked an individual representing a potential threat was not influenced by their minimal group membership; participants were no less likely to preemptively attack a member of their own minimal group and no more likely to use aggression against members of another minimal group. These findings indicate a need to further examine the role that fear-based defensive aggression, rather than anger-based spiteful aggression, plays in inter-individual and inter-group conflict.

Hashimoto et al. (2013)

Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2013).
Two faces of interdependence: Harmony seeking and rejection avoidance.
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16(2), 142-151.
doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12022
We argue that the current concept of interdependent self-construal as ‘harmony seeking’ has overlooked a strategic aspect of interdependence, which we term ‘rejection avoidance’. Using newly constructed scales of interdependent self-construal, one for harmony seeking and one for rejection avoidance, we find that Japanese respondents showed lower independence and higher rejection avoidance than Americans, while no cultural difference was found in harmony seeking. These findings explain why past efforts to demonstrate cultural differences in interdependent self-construal using self-report measures exclusively focusing on the harmony seeking aspect have failed.

Ando et al. (2013)

Ando, J., Fujisawa, K., Shikishima, C.(敷島千鶴), Hiraishi, K.(平石界), Nozaki, M.,Yamagata, S.(山形伸二), Takahashi, Y., Ozaki, K., Suzuki, K., Deno, M., Sasaki, S., Toda, T., Kobayashi, K., Sugimoto, Y., Okada, M., Kijima, N., Ono, Y., Yoshimura, K., Kakihana, S., Maekawa, H., Kamakura, T., Nonaka, K., Kato, N., & Ooki, S. (2013).
Two Cohort and Three Independent Anonymous Twin Projects at the Keio Twin Research Center (KoTReC).
Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 202-216.
The Keio Twin Research Center has conducted two longitudinal twin cohort projects and has collected three independent and anonymous twin data sets for studies of phenotypes related to psychological, socio-economic, and mental health factors. The Keio Twin Study has examined adolescent and adult cohorts, with a total of over 2,400 pairs of twins and their parents. DNA samples are available for approximately 600 of these twin pairs. The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project has followed a total of 1,600 twin pairs from infancy to early childhood. The large-scale cross-sectional twin study (CROSS) has collected data from over 4,000 twin pairs, from 3 to 26 years of age, and from two high school twin cohorts containing a total of 1,000 pairs of twins. These data sets of anonymous twin studies have mainly targeted academic performance, attitude, and social environment. The present article introduces the research designs and major findings of our center, such as genetic structures of cognitive abilities, personality traits, and academic performances, developmental effects of genes and environment on attitude, socio-cognitive ability and parenting, genes x environment interaction on attitude and conduct problem, and statistical methodological challenges and so on. We discuss the challenges in conducting twin research in Japan.

Shikishima et al. (2013)

Shikishima, C.(敷島千鶴), Hiraishi, K.(平石界). Yamagata, S.(山形伸二), Neiderhiser, J.M. & Ando, J. (2013).
Culture Moderates the Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of Parenting: A Cultural Behavior Genetic Approach.
Social Psychological & Personality Science, 4(4), 434-444.
doi:10.1177/1948550612460058
A cultural behavior genetic approach was introduced as a prospective means to describe psychological differences between cultures. We compared genetic and environmental influences on remembered parenting for samples of twins from Japan and Sweden. Data were collected from 720 pairs of young adult Japanese twins and 824 pairs of adult Swedish twins using the Parental Bonding Instrument. In both samples, a very similar phenotypic factor structure was developed for maternal and paternal parenting. However, the genetic and environmental contributions were different. Parenting in Japan showed more genetic influences, whereas parenting in Sweden showed more shared environmental influences. Moreover, covariationamong the six dimensions of parenting (i.e., maternal and paternal Warmth, Protectiveness, and Authoritarianism) was due to genetic correlations in Japan and to shared environmental correlations in Sweden. These results are consistent with the cultural psychology argument that parenting practices are child centered in Japan but parent centered in the West.

Kikuchi et al. (2013)

Kikuchi, H., Mifune, N.(三船恒裕), Niino, M., Kira, J., Kohriyama, T., Ota, K., Tanaka, M., Ochi, H., Nakane, S., & Kikuchi, S. (2013).
Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis.
BMC Neurology, 13(10), 1-9.
Background: To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL.
Methods: Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J) tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff). Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL.
Results: The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMSsubscale scores.
Conclusions: Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL.

Park et al. (2013)

Park,J., Haslam,N., Shimizu, H.(清水裕士), Kashima, Y., and Uchida, Y.(内田由紀子). (2013).
More Human Than Others, but Not Always Better: The Robustness of Self-Humanizing Across Cultures and Interpersonal Comparisons.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 671-683.
doi:10.1177/0022022113485429
Research has shown that people perceive themselves as more human than the average person, independent of their tendencies to self-enhance. This self-humanizing (SHN) effect has been examined in comparisons of the self with fictional or average others, but not with actual others such as a real, though unfamiliar,classmate or a friend. In Study 1, European Australian and Japanese undergraduates compared themselves with either an unfamiliar classmate or average university students to examine their tendencies for SHN. SHN was consistently found across the two comparisons and across the two cultures. Study 2 extended the findings by examining self-other comparisons involving close friend or unfamiliar peer among Australian, Japanese, and Korean undergraduates. As predicted, SHN was obtained in every culture, and SHN effect was greater in East Asia than in Australia. In contrast, self-enhancement was weak and inconsistent across samples and comparisons. The findings extend the current theory of SHN, indicating that the effect is robust and present even in comparisons involving individuated actual others.

Ikeda et al. (2013)

Ikeda K.(池田謙一), Richey, S., & Teresi, H. (2013).
Browsing Alone: The Differential Impact of Internet Platforms on Political Participation.
Japanese Journal of Political Science, 14(3), 305-319.
doi:10.1017/S1468109913000121
We research the political impact of how users access the Internet. Recent research suggests that Internet usage may promote political participation. Internet usage is proposed to be beneficial because it increases activity in diverse politicized social networks and through greater access to information. Even though Internet usage may begin as a non-political activity, we outline several reasons to believe that it may spark later political participation. This impact, however, is likely to be non-existent in new forms of Internet browsing such as through mobile phones, where users do less fullscale browsing. Themore difficult browsing interface ofmobilephones reduces activity in chat rooms and in-depth browsing of online sources of information which promote participation. To test these ideas, we use nationally representative survey data from Japan, a country which has more pronounced usage of mobile phone browsing. Using a Seemingly Unrelated Regression Model, we also show that the chief determinants of using PC’s over mobile phones for Internet browsing are age and education. We then show that PC-based Internet activity correlates with increased political participation, but mobile phone usage correlates with less participation.

Ikeda (2013)

Ikeda, K.(池田謙一) (2013).
Social and institutional trust in East and Southeast Asia.
Taiwan Journal of Democracy, 9(1), 13-45.
This study explores the structures of social and institutional trust found in East and Southeast Asian political culture. For this purpose, we utilize the Asian Barometer 3 dataset, which currently comprises eleven countries and regions in this part of the world. The primary focus of the analysis is whether so-called Asian cultural values bring about a different structure of social/institutional trust from that found in more developed Western countries. This concerns not only the relationship between trust and culture, but also the cultural effects of the relationship between trust and political participation, which is a major social consequence of social/institutional trust. We employ hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) for the analysis, a method well suited to cross-country comparative analysis, even though the small number of countries in our study may not be strictly sufficient.

Yoshida et al. (2013)

Yoshida, T., Gotoh, T., Tomizawa, N., & Ikeda, K.(池田謙一)  (2013). 
Snowball sampling consumer behaviour research to characterize| the influence of market mavens on social networks. 
International Journal of Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications, 12(3/4), 268-282.
Market maven is a type of consumers who spread their capricious knowledge widely. Although the existence of market mavens has been known, our research is the first to characterize their disposition and role on social networks. We carried outresearches about consumer behaviour and social network, applying snowball sampling technique, an ideal way to acquire samples of influential individuals. Market mavens were included more among influential respondents. In addition, by the analysis of social network structure, market mavens were found to be taking part in more groups of people and therefore act as a bridge between groups that spreads information from one to others. These results revealed the market mavens’ influence in diffusion processes.

Takagi et al. (2013)

Takagi, D.(高木大資), Kondo, K., Kondo, N., Cable, N., Ikeda, K.(池田謙一), & Kawachi, I. (2013).
Social disorganization / social fragmentation and risk of depression among older people in Japan: Multilevel investigation of indices of social distance. 
Social Science & Medicine, 83, 81-89.
doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.01.001.
Previous studies reported that social disorganization/fragmentation could predict mental well-being of residents in a community. The aim of this study is to examine how area and individual level of social distance could predict likelihood of mental health among older people in Japan. We empirically derived an index of “social distance” by taking averaged differences in sociodemographic characteristics that are income, education, hometown of origin, the duration of residency, and life stage, between the study participants and their neighbors. We used the study participants (n = 9147) from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study, which targeted residents with aged 65 years or over in a central part in Japan. Depressive symptoms of the study participants were assessed using the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). We also tested if area-level social capital would moderate the association between social distance and depressive symptoms. Using multilevel analyses, we found that higher social distance from neighbors was associated with increased depressive symptoms, independently of respondents’ own values of income and educational attainment. At the individual level, each standard deviation in income-based and education-based social distance was associated with an odds ratio for depressive symptoms of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01–1.30) and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03–1.32), respectively. However, the area-aggregated indices of social distance were not associated with depressive symptoms. Additionally, area-level social capital indicating higher levels of trust between neighbors and social participation, buffered the adverse effect of social distance on depressive risk. In an instance of the “dark side” of social capital, we also found that stronger social cohesion increased depressive symptoms for residents whose hometown of origin differed from the communities where they currently resided.

Kobayashi et al. (2013)

Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Okada, H., Cooharojananone, N., Bracamonte, V., & Suzuki, T. (forthcoming).
How can electronic commerce in developing countries attract users from developedcountries? A comparative study of Thailand and Japan.
International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies.  

A comparative study of Thailand and Japan investigated how electronic commerce (EC) in developing countries can be used to attract customers from developedcountries. Thai and Japanese participants were shown language-appropriate versions of a hotel booking website in Thailand. Perceptions of and trust in the website were assessed, as was the willingness to book a room in the hotel using the website. The Thai participants tended to evaluate the quality of the website more highly and to trust it more than did the Japanese participants. Furthermore, the Thai participants tended to think that the hotel was more responsible for their hotel reservations than was the EC service, and that the content of the website was developed by the hotel rather than by the EC service. Thai participants were more likely to express willingness to reserve a room if they thought that the hotel had developed the website content, whereas the Japanese participants’ willingness to book a room were greater when they thought that the EC service had developed the content. Based on these results, customization strategies for EC in developing countries to attract customers from developed countries are discussed.

Yamane et al. (2013)

Yamane, S., Takahashi, T.(高橋泰城), Kamesaka, A., Tsutsui, Y., & Ohtake, F. (2013).
 Socio-emotional status, education, and time-discounting in Japanese non-smoking population: A multi-generational study. 
Psychology, 4(2), 124-132.
doi:10.4236/psych.2013.42018
Recent studies in behavioral economics and neuroeconomics have revealed that emotion affects impulsivity in intertemporal choice. We examined the roles of socio-emotional status (i.e., perceived stress, depression, quality of sleep, loneliness) in temporal discounting behavior by Japanese non-smokers in a generation-specific manner (20 – 70 s) with a relatively large sample size (N = 3450). We observed that 1) both men and women are the most impulsive in their 60 s; 2) education has a negative impact on impulsivity in men aged 40 – 49 and women aged 50 – 59; 3) perceived stress has a negative impact on impulsivity in men aged 60 – 69; and 4) sleeplessness has negative and positive impacts on impulsivity in men aged 40 – 49 and women aged 30 – 39, respectively. Biological and social factors underlying observed findings are discussed.

Masui et al. (2013)

Masui, K.(増井啓太), Fujiwara, H., & Ura, M.(浦光博) (2013). 
 Social exclusion mediates the relationship between psychopathy and aggressive humor style in noninstitutionalized young adults. 
Personality and Individual Differences, 55(2), 180-184.
doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.03.001
Previous research indicates a positive relation ship between psychopathy and various negative humor styles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate social exclusion as a possible mediator of the association between psychopathy and negative humor styles in noninstitutionalized young adults. One hundred and thirty-nine university students participated by responding to questionnaires that assess psychopathy, the experience of exclusion from friends, and four humor styles (self-enhancing, affiliative, aggressive, and self-defeating). There was a significant positive association between psychopathy, social exclusion, and aggressive styles of humor, and a negative association between psychopathy and affiliative styles of humor. Moreover, the results of a mediation analysis indicated that the association between psychopathy and aggressive humor style is completely explaine d by the experience of social exclusion. These results suggest that high psychopathic participants who are socially excluded use an aggressive humor style more often than low psychopathic individuals. The present study provides further insights into the role played by social environmental factors in the links between psychopathy and associated interpersonal characteristics.

Yuki et al. (2013)

Yuki, M.(結城雅樹), Sato, K.(佐藤剛介), Takemura, K.(竹村幸祐), & Oishi, S. (2013). 
Social ecology moderates the association between self-esteem and happiness.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(4), 741-746.
doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.02.006
Previous research has found cross-cultural differences in the strength of the association between self-esteem and happiness. We propose that this difference can be explained by relational mobility, or the degree to which options exist in the givensocio-ecological context for relationship formation and dissolution. In Study 1, we found that the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger among American participants than among Japanese participants. As predicted, this cultural difference was explained by the difference in relational mobility. In Study 2, we found that the association between self-esteem and happiness was stronger among Japanese living in relationally mobile regions than among Japanese living in less mobile regions. In Study 3, we manipulated relational mobility and demonstrated that the thought of living in a relationally mobile society caused individuals to base their life satisfaction judgments on self-esteem. Overall, our research demonstrates the utility of examining cultural differences from a socio-ecological perspective.

Oishi et al. (2013)

Oishi, S., Kesebir, S., Miao, F. F., Talhelm, T., Endo, Y.(遠藤由美), Uchida, Y.(内田由紀子), Shibanai, Y.(柴内康文), & Norasakkunkit, V. (2013). 
 Residential mobility increases motivation to expand social network: But why?. 
 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(2), 217-223. 
 doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.10.008
We conducted two studies to explore psychological consequences of a mobile lifestyle. In Study 1, we found that participants who were randomly assigned to think about a mobile lifestyle used more loneliness and sadness-related words and anticipated having fewer friends in the future than those who thought about a stable lifestyle (or a typical day as a control). In Study 2, we replicated this finding with a non-college sample. In addition, we found that those in the mobility condition reported being more motivated to expand their social network. Finally, the effect of mobility on the motivation to expand social networks was mediated by anticipated loneliness and sadness.

Yamagishi (2013)

Yamagishi, T. (山岸俊男) (2013). 
Placing the action‐outcome contingency at the core of the situation. 
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16(1), 22-25.
doi:10.1111/ajsp.12015

Comments on an article by Michael Harris Bond (see record 2013-04015-001), who, in analyzing the original formula by Lewin, viz., B = f(P.S), first considers the importance accorded the situation in previous theorizing about ‘Asianness’, then analyzes the contributions of the actor’s personality. The current author states that Bond encourages Asian social psychologists to provide unique contributions to the development of social psychology by fully utilizing the insight provided by Kurt Lewin. This is because Asians are more sensitive than Westerners to the intricate influences that the situation has on their actions. Bond advises Asian psychologists to pay close attention to the role of the situation in theory building, rather than focusing more attention on the uniquely Asian psychological phenomena.

Yamagishi et al. (2013)

Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男), Mifune, N.(三船恒裕), Li, Y.(李楊), Shinada, M.(品田瑞穂),Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), Horita, Y.(堀田結孝), Miura, A.(三浦亜利紗), Inukai, K.(犬飼佳吾), Tanida, S.(谷田林士), Kiyonari, T.(清成透子),  Takagishi, H.(高岸治人) &Simunovic, D. (2013). 
Is behavioral pro-sociality game-specific? Pro-social preference and expectations of pro-sociality.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 120(2), 260-271.
doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2012.06.002
We observed the behaviors of the same people across five games—two prisoner’s dilemma games, a trust game (in which the subject took on the role of both trusterand trustee), a dictator game, and a faith game—any pair of which was separated by an interval of several months to reduce potential carry-over effects, and found strong consistency in behaviors among these games. We also found consistency between the expectations of other players’ behaviors and the player’s own behavior across games. We further found that the consistent behavioral pro-socialityobserved across different games was related to the general measures of pro-social value orientation and perceiving the game situations. These findings suggest that individual and cultural differences in game behaviors can reflect both the ways in which people perceive game situations and their general social preferences.

Olsson et al. (2013)

Olsson, L. E., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., Friman, M., & Fujii, S.(藤井聡) (2013).
 Happiness and satisfaction with work commute. 
Social Indicators Research, 111(1), 255-263.
doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0003-2

Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to overall happiness. It is also found that feelings during the commutes are predominantly positive or neutral. Possible explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom. Satisfaction with being employed in a recession may also spill over to positive experiences of work commutes.

Nakashima et al. (2013)

Nakashima, K.(中島健一郎), Yanagisawa, K.(柳澤邦昭), & Ura, M.(浦光博) (2013). 
 Dissimilar effects of task‐relevant and interpersonal threat on independent–interdependent self‐construal in individuals with high self‐esteem. 
 Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16(1), 50-59. 
 doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2012.01386.x
Previous research has indicated that individuals with high trait self-esteem (HSEs) become more independent and less interdependent after experiencing a task-relevant threat. However, these studies have not investigated other sources of ego threats, such as interpersonal threats. Therefore, the moderating effects of the degree of trait self-esteem on task-relevant and interpersonal ego threats were investigated in relation to independent, or interdependent self-construal. It was predicted that in HSEs, the level of task-relevant stress would be positively–negatively related to their independence–interdependence, whereas the level of interpersonal stress would be negatively–positively related to their independence–interdependence. In individuals with low trait self-esteem (LSEs), the two types of stresses and independent–interdependent self-construal may not have a significant relationship. We conducted a questionnaire survey with undergraduates.Correlational analysis of the results indicated that in HSEs, greater task-relevant stress was related to heightened independence, whereas greater interpersonal stress had the opposite effect, indicating lower independence and heightened interdependence. However, these stresses were not related to the self-construal of LSEs. These findings suggest that task-relevant and interpersonal threat could have differential effects on independent and interdependent self-construal for HSEs, but not in LSEs.

Owe et al. (2013)

Owe, E., Vignoles, V. L., Becker, M., Brown, R., Smith, P. B., Lee, S. S., & ... Yuki, M.(結城雅樹), & ... Jalal, B. (2013). 
 Contextualism as an important facet of individualism-collectivism: Personhood beliefs across 37 national groups. 
 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(1), 24-45.
 doi:10.1177/0022022111430255

Beliefs about personhood are understood to be a defining feature of individualism-collectivism (I-C), but they have been insufficiently explored, given the emphasis of research on values and self-construals. We propose the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, as a facet of cultural collectivism. A brief measure was developed and refined across 19 nations (Study 1: N = 5,241), showing good psychometric properties for cross-cultural use and correlating well at the nation level with other supposed facets and indicators of I-C. In Study 2 (N = 8,652), nation-level contextualism predicted ingroup favoritism, corruption, and differential trust of ingroup and outgroup members, while controlling for other facets of I-C, across 35 nations. We conclude that contextualism is an important part of cultural collectivism. This highlights the importance of beliefs alongside values and self-representations and contributes to a wider understanding of cultural processes.

Park et al. (2013)

Park, J., Kitayama, S., Karasawa, M.(唐澤真弓), Curhan, K., Markus, H. R., Kawakami, N., Miyamoto, Y.(宮本百合) & ... Ryff, C. D. (2013). 
 Clarifying the links betweensocial support and health: Culture, stress, and neuroticismmatter.
 Journal of Health Psychology, 18(2), 226-235.
 doi:10.1177/1359105312439731

Although it is commonly assumed that social support positively predicts health, the empirical evidence has been inconsistent. We argue that three moderating factors must be considered: (1) support-approving norms (cultural context); (2) support-requiring situations (stressful events); and (3) support-accepting personal style (lowneuroticism). Our large-scale cross-cultural survey of Japanese and US adults found significant associations between perceived support and health. The association was more strongly evident among Japanese (from a support-approving cultural context) who reported high life stress (in a support-requiring situation). Moreover, the link between support and health was especially pronounced if these Japanese were low inneuroticism.

Jung (2016)

Jung, K. H. (鄭珪煕) (2016).
 Happiness as an Additional Antecedent of Schadenfreude. 
 Journal of Positive Psychology.
 doi: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1173224

The current study examined whether dispositionally happy individuals feel less happiness when another person experiences a misfortune. Happy individuals are known to be less vulnerable to upward comparison information. In addition, schadenfreude is elicited by upward comparison targets (e.g. high achievers and tall poppies). Thus, it was assumed that happiness would decrease schadenfreude. The lower level of hostile feelings in happy individuals, which are elicited by threats to one’s person and inferiority heightened when confronted with a high achiever, was hypothesized to decrease schadenfreude. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with scenario experiments, and the hypotheses were supported in both studies. Regression analyses revealed a significant direct effect of happiness on a reduction in schadenfreude. How not feeling schadenfreude when witness another person’s misfortune helps people maintain and/or increase their happiness is discussed.

Kase et al. (2016)

*Kase, T.(嘉瀬貴祥), Endo, S., & Oishi, K. (2016).
Process linking social support to mental health through a sense of coherence in Japanese university students.
Mental Health & Prevention.
doi: 10.1016/j.mhp.2016.05.00
This study aims to investigate the relationships among mental health, a “sense of coherence” (SOC), and social support in Japanese university students with a focus on gender differences. Participants (548 university students) completed General Health Questionnaire-12, of the SOC-13 scales, and of the social support scale. Structural equation modeling indicates indicate that improvement in social support may be effective in strengthening SOC as a precaution against the decline of mental health in university students. Additionally, it is suggested that enhancing support from friends in males and support from family members and special people in females is effective in strengthening SOC.

Tsuboya et al. (2016)

Tsuboya, T., Aida, J., *Hikichi, H.(引地博之), Subramanian, SV., Kondo, K., Osaka, K., & Kawachi, I. (2016).
Predictors of depressive symptoms following the Great East Japan earthquake: A prospective study.
Social Science & Medicine.
doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.05.026
We sought to investigate prospectively the association between exposure to disaster (the 2011 East Japan Earthquake) and change in depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adult survivors. We used two waves of data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), an ongoing population-based, prospective cohort study in Japan. A unique feature of our study was the availability of information about mental health status pre-dating the disaster. Our sample comprised community-dwelling survivors aged 65 and older, who responded to surveys in 2010 (i.e. one year before the disaster) and in 2013 (n = 3464). We categorized disaster exposure according to three types of experiences: loss of family/friends, property damage, and disruption in access to medical service. Our main outcome was change in depressive symptoms, measured by the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS). Among the participants, 917 (26.5%) reported losing a family member to the disaster, while a further 537 (15.5%) reported losing a friend. More than half of the participants reported some damage to their homes. After adjusting for demographics and baseline mental health, people whose homes were completely destroyed had significantly elevated depressive symptom scores three years later (+1.22 points, 95%CI: 0.80, 1.64, p < 0.0001). Disruption of psychiatric care was also associated with change in GDS scores (+2.51 points, 95%CI: 1.28, 3.74, p < 0.0001). By contrast, loss of family/friends was no longer associated with GDS after 3 years; +0.18 points (95%CI: −0.018, 0.37, p = 0.08) for loss of family, and −0.045 points (95%CI: −0.28, 0.19, p = 0.71) for loss of friends. Three years after the disaster, survivors of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami appeared to have recovered from loss of loved ones. By contrast, property loss and disruption of psychiatry care were associated with persistent adverse impact on mental health.

Schug et al. (2016)

*Schug, J.(シューグ・ジョアンナ),  *Takagishi, H.(高岸治人),  Benech, C., & Okada, H. (2016).
The development of theory of mind and positive and negative reciprocity in preschool children.
Frontiers in Psychology.
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00888
This study examined the relation between the acquisition of false-beliefs theory of mind and reciprocity in preschoolers. Preschool-aged children completed a task assessing the understanding of false beliefs, and played an Ultimatum Game (UG) with another child in a face-to-face setting. Negative reciprocity was assessed by examining the rejection of unfair offers made by another child in the UG, while positive reciprocity by examining allocations made by participants in a Dictator Game (DG) following the UG. The results indicated that children who had passed a task assessing first-order false beliefs were more likely to make generous offers in a DG following a fair offer made by their partner in a proceeding UG, but that the false beliefs theory of mind was unrelated to the rejection of unfair offers in the UG.