Komoto, Y., Shoun, A.(祥雲暁代), Akiyama, K., Sakamoto, A.(坂元章) et al. (2017).
Development and validation of the Pachinko/Pachi-Slot Playing Ambivalence Scale. 
パチンコ・パチスロ遊技両価性尺度の開発と妥当化
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health, 7(3) . 
DOI: 10.1186/s40405-017-0023-6

Background
A scale aimed at measuring ambivalence among people with pachinko/pachi-slot playing disorder, the Pachinko/Pachi-Slot Playing Ambivalence Scale (PPAS), was developed and its reliability and validity ascertained.
Methods
A total of 522 participants (average year: 48.0) who were residing in Tokyo Metropolitan Area, and had played pachinko within the previous year completed questions relating to demographics, four gambling-related scales (including South Oaks Gambling Screen) and two general ambivalence scales (including Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire).
Results
Internal consistency (α = 0.87) and test–retest reliability (r = 0.66) were confirmed. The PPAS’s score was associated with each related scale’s score (r = 0.37–0.62).
Conclusions
The PPAS was shown to be consistent with previous scales and useful in clinical settings