Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2018).
Economic shifts and cultural changes in individualism: A cross-temporal perspective.
In A. Uskul & S. Oishi (Eds.), Socioeconomic environment and human psychology: Social, ecological, and cultural perspectives (pp. 247-270). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

This chapter discusses the relationship between economic affluence and individualism from a cross-temporal perspective. Previous research has indicated that wealth and individualism are positively correlated at both the individual and the national level. This chapter discusses whether this relationship is also found at the temporal level. This chapter consists of three parts. First, a theory about the association between economic affluence and individualism is summarized. Second, the chapter introduces empirical evidence on temporal changes in individualism and their relationship with economic development in three cultures (United States, Japan, China). These studies indicated that the three cultures have shifted toward greater individualism over time. Moreover, these changes in individualism were positively linked to increases in economic affluence at the annual level. Third, the chapter is summarized and directions for future research are raised. Overall, this chapter discusses how socioecological factors and human psychologies/behaviors are associated particularly from a cross-temporal perspective.