Kusumi, T., Miura, A., Ogura, K., & Nishikawa, K. (2023).
Kusumi, T.（楠見孝）, Miura, A.（三浦麻子）, Ogura, K.（小倉加奈代）, & Nishikawa, K.（西川一二） (2023). Attitudes toward possible food radiation contamination following the Fukushima nuclear accident: A nine-year, ten-wave panel survey. 福島第一原発事故による食品放射線リスクへの態度：9年10波パネル調査による検討 Journal of Risk Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2023.2181856
After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we examined changes in risk perception regarding the radiation contamination of food and information-seeking behavior among residents of three regions progressively more distant from the disaster area, the Tokyo Metropolitan area to the Kansai area. We conducted a ten-wave panel survey and obtained data from 1,752 citizens six months to nine years after the accident. The results indicate that anxiety related to radioactive contamination, active information-seeking behavior, and avoidance of foods from affected areas decreased with time. Active information-seeking behavior and radiation-related knowledge were higher in the disaster-affected prefectures than in other areas. Conversely, avoidance of foods from affected areas was lower in affected prefectures than in the Kansai area. The credibility of government information increased from a considerably low level but did not reach the midpoint level. Multiple regression analysis, cross-lagged analysis, and structural equation modeling indicated that avoidance of foods from affected areas was promoted by anxiety related to radioactive contamination (experiential thinking/System 1) and inhibited by critical thinking attitudes (analytical thinking/System 2). Finally, we discussed the significance of risk literacy, which integrates risk-related knowledge, scientific literacy, media literacy, and critical thinking.
Horita Y. (2023).
Horita Y.（堀田結孝） (2023). Paranoid thinking and perceived competitive intention. パラノイア思考と競争的意図 PeerJ, 11:e15003 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.15003
Paranoid thinking, that others are hostile, can be seen even in the general population. Paranoia is considered the expectation that others are competitors who aim to maximize the differences in payoffs rather than maximize their own payoffs. This study examined whether paranoia reflects the irrational belief that others have a competitive intention and is associated with avoiding perceived competition. We recruited 884 US residents via the Internet and conducted a modified Dictator Game, in which monetary allocation was carried out between the Dictator and the Recipient. The Dictator chooses either fair or competitive allocation while selecting the competitive allocation is irrelevant to increasing the Dictator’s payoffs. The Recipient decides whether to accept the Dictator’s decision or receive sure but low rewards. We found that Recipients with high-level paranoid thinking expected their opponent to select competitive allocation more than those with low levels, even when selecting it was costly for Dictators. Paranoid thinking was not associated with selecting sure rewards or competitive allocations. The results suggest that paranoia reflects the belief that others have a competitive intention but is not related to avoidance behavior against perceived threats and unilateral attacks.
Morii, D., Miura, A., & Komori, M. (2023).
Morii, D., Miura, A.（三浦麻子）, & Komori, M. (2023). The impact of television on-air time on hand hygiene compliance behaviors during COVID-19 outbreak. 新型コロナウイルス感染禍における手指消毒遵守に及ぼすテレビ報道時間の効果 American Journal of Infection Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2023.03.001
There is limited data to support the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hand hygiene compliance among hospital visitors.
We monitored hand hygiene compliance among university hospital visitors in Osaka, Japan by direct observation, from December 2019 to March 2022. During this time, we measured the amount of coverage time dedicated to COVID-19 related news on the local public television channel and the number of confirmed cases and deaths.
Over 148 days, 111,071 visitors hand hygiene compliance was monitored. The baseline compliance was 5.3% (213 of 4026) in December 2019. From late January 2020, compliance rose significantly to almost 70% in August 2020. It remained at a level of 70% to 75% until October 2021, after which, the compliance slowly declined to the mid-60% range. The number of newly confirmed cases and deaths were not related to the change in compliance, but the association between the on-air time of COVID-19-related news and compliance was statistically significant.
Hand hygiene compliance dramatically increased following the COVID-19 pandemic. The role of television in increasing hand hygiene compliance was significant.
Ogihara, Y. (2023).
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2023). Popular names are given less frequently to babies in individualistic countries: Further validation of unique names as an indicator of individualism. 個人主義的な国では人気のある名前が新生児に与えられる頻度が低い：個性的な名前が個人主義傾向を示す指標として妥当かに関する更なる検証 Current Research in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 100094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crbeha.2022.100094
A prior study showed that popular names are given less frequently to babies in individualistic countries in European, Anglo-American (North American), and Oceanian cultures. However, the samples of the previous study were limited, and it did not examine other cultures, leaving it unclear whether the relationship is still found even when other cultures are included. It is important to confirm validity of indices cross-culturally. Thus, the present study included two unexamined cultures in the analyses: East Asian culture and Latin American culture. Following the previous study, I calculated the rates of popular baby names in Japan and Puerto Rico, and examined how the addition of these two regions affected the results. Analyses showed that the negative relationships between the rates of popular names and individualism scores were still salient. Therefore, this study further confirmed the validity of unique names as an indicator of individualism in more diverse cultural contexts. / ヨーロッパ・北アメリカ・オセアニア文化圏における個人主義的な国では、人気のある名前が新生児に与えられる頻度が低いことを、先行研究は示していた。しかし、先行研究のサンプルは限定されており、他の文化を含めてもその関係が見られるか不明であった。指標の妥当性を文化横断的に検証することが重要である。よって本研究では、これまで検討されていなかった東アジア文化（日本）とラテンアメリカ文化（プエルトリコ）を含めて分析を行った。先行研究に従い、日本とプエルトリコにおける人気のある新生児の名前の割合を算出し、その2つの地域を含めることで結果がどのように変わるのかを検討した。分析の結果、人気のある名前の割合と個人主義得点には、負の関連が依然として見られた。そのため本研究は、名前指標が個人主義指標として妥当であることを、より文化的に多様な文脈において再確認したと言える。
Buchanan, E. M. et al. (2023).
Buchanan, E. M., Lewis, S. C., Paris, B., Forscher, P. S., Pavlacic, J. M., Beshears, J. E., Drexler, S. M., Gourdon-Kanhukamwe, A., Mallik, P. R., Silan, M. A. A., Miller, J. K., IJzerman, H., Moshontz, H., Beaudry, J. L., Suchow, J. W., Chartier, C. R., Coles, N. A., Sharifian, M., Todsen, A. L., … Primbs, M. A. (2023). The Psychological Science Accelerator’s COVID-19 rapid-response dataset. The Psychological Science AcceleratorによるCOVID-19に対する行動・感情反応についての研究データセット Scientific Data, 10(1), 87. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-022-01811-7
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Psychological Science Accelerator coordinated three large-scale psychological studies to examine the effects of loss-gain framing, cognitive reappraisals, and autonomy framing manipulations on behavioral intentions and affective measures. The data collected (April to October 2020) included specific measures for each experimental study, a general questionnaire examining health prevention behaviors and COVID-19 experience, geographical and cultural context characterization, and demographic information for each participant. Each participant started the study with the same general questions and then was randomized to complete either one longer experiment or two shorter experiments. Data were provided by 73,223 participants with varying completion rates. Participants completed the survey from 111 geopolitical regions in 44 unique languages/dialects. The anonymized dataset described here is provided in both raw and processed formats to facilitate re-use and further analyses. The dataset offers secondary analytic opportunities to explore coping, framing, and self-determination across a diverse, global sample obtained at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be merged with other time-sampled or geographic data.
＊調査票の日本語訳および日本データの収集を井隼経子（福岡工業大学）・石井辰典（日本女子大学）・国里愛彦（専修大学）・角南直幸（Erasmus University Rotterdam）・山田祐樹（九州大学）が担当しました（氏名は姓のアルファベット順）。この活動に際し、日本心理学会の「新型コロナウイルス感染拡大に関連した実践活動及び研究」の助成を受けました。
Suzuki, T., Yamamoto, H., Ogawa, Y.& Umetani, R. (2023).
Suzuki, T.（鈴木貴久）, Yamamoto, H.（山本仁志）, Ogawa, Y.（小川祐樹）& Umetani, R.（梅谷凌平） (2023). Effects of media on preventive behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic. コロナ禍における予防行動に対するメディアの効果 Humanities and Social Science Communications 10, 58. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-023-01554-9
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required implementation of a variety of measures. In addition to pharmaceutical measures, such as vaccines, changing individuals’ nonpharmaceutical preventive behaviour is essential to prevent the spread of infection. In uncertain situations, such as a pandemic, media sources are important for guiding individuals’ decision-making behaviour. In this study, we examined the effects of media use on preventive behaviour during COVID-19. Earlier studies have shown that social networking service (SNS) browsing promotes preventive behaviour. However, those studies only assessed a single point during the early stages of the pandemic; therefore, the effects on ongoing preventive behaviour are unclear. Thus, a two-wave panel survey was conducted in 2020 and 2021 for an exploratory analysis of changes in the effects of media on individuals’ preventive behaviour over time. The results show that the effect of SNS browsing on preventing going out was confirmed only during the early stage of the pandemic and was not observed 1 year later. It is also shown that those who shifted from self-restraint to going out within 1 year were not affected by the type of media use, but by cognitive factors. As the situation changes during a pandemic, analyses that consider time-series changes are essential for gaining insights about the effects of media on the promotion and maintenance of continuous prevention behaviours.
Inoue, Y., Mifune, N., & Saijo, T. (2023).
Inoue, Y.（井上裕香子）, Mifune, N.（三船恒裕）, & Saijo, T. (2023). Positive reputation for altruism toward future generations regardless of the cost for current others. 現世代他者へのコストを伴う場合でも、将来世代への利他行動は良い評判を得る Frontiers in Psychology, 13: 895619. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.895619
Recently, altruism toward future generations (future altruism) has become a hot research topic. Although future altruism has been observed in several previous experiments, it is not yet clear when and why people are more likely to engage in future altruism. Drawing upon the empirical literature of reputation and cooperation, we predicted that future altruism brings reputational disadvantages. Accordingly, we investigated whether future altruism was evaluated positively or negatively by others in the current generation in two vignette studies (total N = 1,237). Contrary to our initial prediction, we found that future altruism was positively evaluated even when it decreased the payoff of the members of the current generation. The difference in the evaluation of future altruism, as opposed to unsustainable current-generation focused behavior, was most pronounced when people do not know how a future altruist allocates rewards among individuals in the current generation. However, the positive evaluation of future altruism did not stem from the expectation that future altruists would also be altruistic toward the current generation. These results indicated that reputational benefits (i.e., positive reputation from others in the current generation) promote future altruism.
そこで本研究では、ISDG(Kamijo et al., 2017) という将来世代への利他行動を測定する経済ゲームを用い、意思決定者を評価させる場面想定法課題をオンラインで実施した。具体的には、意思決定者が将来世代に利他的な選択をすると、評価者である参加者を含めた「現世代全体」の利益が減る状況で、将来世代に利他的な選択をした意思決定者と現世代の利益を最大化する選択をした意思決定者それぞれを参加者に評価させた。その結果、将来世代に利他的な意思決定者の方がより高く評価された。ただし、意思決定者が「現世代全体」の利益をその後どう世代内で分配したかという情報を追加すると、将来世代への意思決定が評価に及ぼす効果が小さくなった。
Nagaya, K., & Shimizu, H. (2023).
Nagaya, K.(長谷 和久), & Shimizu, H. (2023). Effects of graphical presentation of benefits on cognitive judgments induced by affect heuristic: Focusing on the acceptance of genetically modified foods. 感情ヒューリスティック判断における便益情報の図的提示の効果: 遺伝子組み換え品種の受容に着目して Appetite, 182, 106450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2023.106450
Genetically modified (GM) foods have been assumed to be seen through intuitive and affective routes (i.e., affect heuristics) rather than analytical and deliberative routes. We examined the impact of the graphical presentation of benefits derived from GM or conventionally bred foods on the acceptance of these varieties. In the two experiments (n = 266 for study 1 and n = 402 for study 2), no differences emerged in the estimation of farmers’ benefits resulting from the introduction of improved varieties by the type of improvement. However, there were statistically significant differences in the magnitude of risk and the degree of acceptance of the improved varieties. Therefore, despite presenting identical benefits as a graphical figure, GM foods were consistently evaluated as providing higher risk and were less frequently accepted than conventionally bred foods. These results suggest that while the graphical presentation of benefits may promote comprehension of some advantages of the introduction of GM varieties, this may not lead to acceptance from the consumer’s point of view. Based on the current findings, as well as previous studies on trust in risk managers, we discuss the specific factors that might promote acceptance of GM products.
Ge, F., Syropoulos, S., Gensler, J., Leidner, B., Loughnan, S., Chang, J-H., Harada, C. (原田知佳), Mari, S., Paladino, M. P., Shi, J., Yeung, V. W. L., Kuo, C. Y., & Tsuchiya, K. (土屋耕治) (2022).
Ge, F., Syropoulos, S., Gensler, J., Leidner, B., Loughnan, S., Chang, J-H., Harada, C. (原田知佳), Mari, S., Paladino, M. P., Shi, J., Yeung, V. W. L., Kuo, C. Y., & Tsuchiya, K. (土屋耕治) (2022).
Constructivist Self-Construal: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.
Cross-Cultural Research, 56 (1), 29-61.
Building on independent versus interdependent self-construal theory, three studies provide initial empirical evidence for a third way of construing the self: the constructivist self-construal. People with a constructivist view perceive the self as constantly changing (impermanence), as a collection of distinct phenomena from moment to moment (discontinuity), as lacking an essence (disentification), and as psychologically overlapping with other people and things in the universe (boundlessness/boundaries). In Study 1, we piloted a new Constructivist Self-Construal Scale and established preliminary evidence for the discriminant validity of the scale. Studies 2 and 3 found that across seven countries with diverse cultural backgrounds, the self was consistently cognitively represented on the four dimensions of constructivist self. People from collectivistic cultures where Buddhist philosophy is more prevalent tended to endorse the dimensions of the constructivist self-construal to a greater degree than people from other cultures. Implications regarding the development of the constructivist self-construal and future research recommendations are discussed.
相互独立的自己観と相互依存的自己観に対する第三の自己観 (構成論の考え方で自己を捉える構成主義的自己観) に関する実証的研究を行った。構成主義的な見方をする人は，自己を常に変化するもの (impermanence)，瞬間から瞬間まで異なる現象の集まり (discontinuity)，本質を持たないもの (disentification)，心理的に宇宙の他の人や物と重なるもの (boundlessness / boundaries) として認識する。研究1では，新しい構成主義的自己観尺度を試験的に作成し，その尺度の妥当性を検証した。研究2と3では，多様な文化的背景を持つ7カ国において，自己は一貫して構成主義的自己の4つの次元で認知表現されていることを明らかにした。また，仏教思想が浸透している集団主義的な文化圏の人々は，他の文化圏の人々よりも構成主義的な自己の次元をより強く支持する傾向があった。構成主義的自己観の発展に関するインプリケーションと今後の研究への提言が議論された。
Shimizu, Y., Suzuki, M., Hata, Y., & Sakaki, T. (2022).
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Suzuki, M., Hata, Y., & Sakaki, T. (2022). Influence of perceived ageism on older adults: Focus on attitudes toward young people and life satisfaction. 高齢者がエイジズムを感じることの影響：若者への態度と生活満足度に着目して Advances in Gerontology, 12(4), 370-374. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2079057022040142
The world’s population is aging, and intergenerational conflicts between older adults and young people are becoming more serious. This study focused on ageism as a cause of intergenerational conflicts and older adults’ diminished mental health status. We conducted an online survey of older Japanese participants (n = 1.096). Our results indicated that older adults who perceived more ageism directed toward them (1) had more negative attitudes toward young people and (2) had lower life satisfaction, which persisted even after controlling for variables such as old age identity and depressive tendencies. Accordingly, we suggest that ageism may reinforce intergenerational conflicts between older adults and young people and compromise older adults’ mental health status. The findings of this study can aid gerontological and psychological research aimed at reducing ageism.
Nakanishi, D., Yokota, K., & Igawa, J. (2022).
Nakanishi, D. (中西大輔), Yokota, K. (横田晋大), & Igawa, J. (井川純一) (2022). Can scientific literacy reduce purchase avoidance of Fukushima products? Environment Systems and Decisions. 科学的リテラシーは福島県産品の買い控えを減少させるか? Environment Systems and Decisions. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-022-09883-x
This study aimed to explore the effect of scientific literacy on the tendency towards purchase avoidance of foods made in Fukushima due to harmful rumours associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A web survey was sent to 880 Japanese monitors to determine their attitudes towards the damage caused by untrue rumours, food risks, and media literacy, and to verify whether respondents’ knowledge about radioactive material reduced their intention to purchase products made in Fukushima Prefecture. A factor analysis of all the items of the two literacy scales (i.e. food and media) and food faddism scales revealed three factors: food risk literacy, media literacy, and health care. Multiple regression analysis to investigate the effect of each factor on the intention to purchase, controlling for some demographic variables, revealed that food risk literacy and media literacy promoted purchase avoidance, while knowledge of radioactive material reduced purchase avoidance of Fukushima products.
・フードファディズム傾向の大部分の項目は食品リスクリテラシーと同一の因子 (食品リテラシー因子) に高い負荷を示した。
Murakami M., Hiraishi K., Yamagata M., Nakanishi D., Miura A. (2022).
Murakami M., Hiraishi K.（平石界）, Yamagata M.（山縣芽生）, Nakanishi D.（中西大輔）, Miura A.（三浦麻子） (2022). Belief in just deserts regarding individuals infected with COVID-19 in Japan and its associations with demographic factors and infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics: a cross-sectional study. 「感染は自業自得」と考える人の特徴は何か：日本の横断研究 PeerJ 10:e14545 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.14545
Prejudice related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a social issue worldwide. A possible psychological factor that promotes prejudice is the belief in just deserts (BJD) regarding individuals infected with COVID-19 (i.e., the belief that the infected individual deserves to be infected). The BJD is based on the belief in immanent justice. It is reportedly higher in Japan than in other countries. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the BJD among Japanese individuals and clarify its associations with demographic factors or infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics. To this end, we conducted an online questionnaire survey in Japan from August 7–8, 2020, with 1,207 respondents aged 20–69 years. We performed screening to exclude inappropriate responses. We investigated the association between the BJD and demographic factors such as gender and age. We also investigated the association between the BJD and infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics, including risk perception of COVID-19 infection and human rights restrictions (i.e., the degree of agreement with government restrictions on individuals’ behavior during emergencies). Among the surveyed items, human rights restrictions showed a strong association with BJD, followed by risk perception of COVID-19 infection. Men had a slightly higher BJD than women. Our study is significant in that it is the first to investigate the items associated with the BJD, thereby providing foundational information for revising individual perceptions of justice related to COVID-19 and solving prejudice-related issues.
Ikeda, K. (2023)
Ikeda, K. (池田謙一)(2023) Contemporary Japanese Politics & Anxiety Over Governance. 現代日本政治と統治の不安 London: Routledge. http://www.routledge.com/9781032159331
Chapters start by revealing the declining impacts of social capital on politics, the shrinking range of political parties from which to choose, and the mixing of Asian values with liberal democratic values. Then, by conceptualizing and empirically examining anxiety over governance, i.e., the perception of excessive risk for future governance, Ikeda explores the links of anxiety to Japanese political behavior. While the high regard for democratic politics lowers anxiety among the Japanese, the changes in Japanese political behavior/environment and culture contribute to a generally high level of anxiety, which also had a significant negative impact on the evaluation of countermeasures against COVID-19.
For more details, please see; https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/974690 NEWS RELEASE 16-DEC-2022
Hayashi, Y., & Sasaki, H. (2022).
Hayashi, Y（林洋一郎）., & Sasaki, H. (2022). Effect of leaders' regulatory‐fit messages on followers' motivation. リーダーの制御適合メッセージがフォロワーのモチベーションに与える効果 Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 52(7), 496-510. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12874
The regulatory fit between regulatory focus and framing of leaders’ messages to motivate their followers was examined in this study. Toward this end, an exploratory survey was conducted to develop messages germane to regulatory focus. These messages were employed in the following two experimental studies. Study 1 tested the regulatory-fit hypotheses from the perspective of leaders, who selected positively or negatively framed messages for promotion- and prevention-focused scenarios. The results revealed that leaders were more likely to choose positively framed messages when conveying promotion-focused messages and negatively framed messages when conveying prevention-focused messages. While leaders high in promotion focus and transformational leadership tended to choose positive framing, those high in prevention and authoritarian leadership were inclined to prefer negative framing. The effect of regulatory fit from followers’ perspective was examined in Study 2 to determine whether regulatory-fit messages increased followers’ motivation. The results revealed that participants in the regulatory-fit condition exhibited higher motivation only in the promotion and positive-framing condition. The implications of the findings for regulatory-fit theory and leadership research are discussed.
Nozaki, Y. & Mikolajczak, M. (2022).
Nozaki, Y.（野崎優樹） & Mikolajczak, M. (2022). Effectiveness of extrinsic emotion regulation strategies in text-based online communication. オンラインテキストコミュニケーションにおける他者の情動を調整する方略の有効性 Emotion. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0001186
In daily life, others play a key role in helping regulate an individual’s emotions. Such emotion regulation occurs not only in face-to-face communication but also in text-based online communication. To date, much research has examined strategies for alleviating one’s own negative emotions (intrinsic emotion regulation) based on the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015a). However, little is known about the effectiveness of the full range of strategies for alleviating others’ negative emotions (extrinsic emotion regulation) derived from this model. This research aims to fill this gap. In study 1, participants wrote response letters to bogus pen pals who had recently experienced negative emotional events. Independent coders rated the effectiveness of these response letters in alleviating pen pal’s negative emotions. In study 2, participants communicated with each other on an online forum by posting about distressing events and messages that attempted to alleviate another person’s negative emotions. When participants received a reply to their posts, they rated its effectiveness in alleviating their negative emotions. The results of both studies consistently showed that strategies classified as reappraisal and empathic responding effectively alleviated others’ negative emotions. Moreover, emotional intensity moderated the effectiveness of some extrinsic emotion regulation strategies. Specifically, problem-solving and reappraisal showed positive effects on the alleviation of relatively less intense negative emotions. However, these effects were neither positive nor negative in regulating relatively intense negative emotions. The present study offers novel insights into other-focused emotion regulation research by clarifying similarities and differences between intrinsic and extrinsic emotion regulation.
情動調整において、他者は重要な役割を担っています。本研究では、情動調整のプロセスモデル（Gross, 1998, 2015a）に基づき、他者のネガティブ情動を調整する方略を分類しました。そして、オンラインテキストコミュニケーションにおける各方略の有効性を検討しました。2つの研究で一貫して、情動調整方略のうち「再評価」と「共感的応答」が相手のネガティブ情動を緩和する上で効果的に働くことが示されました。さらに、研究2では、相手のネガティブ情動の強度が、いくつかの情動調整方略の有効性を調整することが示されました。具体的には、「問題解決」と「再評価」は、比較的強度の低いネガティブ情動の緩和に対して正の効果を示すものの、この効果は比較的強いネガティブ情動の調整においては見られませんでした。本研究は、「自己の情動の調整」と「他者の情動の調整」の類似点と相違点を明らかにすることで、情動調整理論の発展に寄与するものです。
Hashimoto, H., Maeda, K., & Sato, K. (2022).
Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), Maeda, K. (前田楓), & Sato, K.(佐藤剛介) (2022). Future-oriented thinking promotes positive attitudes toward the “Help Mark” in Japan. 未来志向のメッセージはヘルプマークに対する肯定的な理解を促す Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, 3:967033. https://doi.org/10.3389/fresc.2022.967033
The “Help Mark,” created in Japan, is worn by people who need help in public settings. It is designed to induce help from others for those in need of help because of their hidden disabilities or health conditions. Several attempts have been made to publicize the meaning and implications of this wearable sign through various media. However, it is difficult to assert whether there is sufficient awareness regarding this sign in the Japanese society. The purpose of this study was to examine the type of messages that are more effective in promoting the “Help Mark” system (Study 1). Additionally, based on the data obtained in Study 1, we presented a newly designed poster to promote the “Help Mark” sign and attempted to empirically examine the effect of this poster (Study 2). The results suggest that a message that reflects that the “Help Mark” is for “everyone,” based on future-oriented thinking, is more effective. Furthermore, it was indicated that people who saw the poster containing a message implying that the “Help Mark” is “for everyone” reported increased positive attitudes toward the “Help Mark” system. These results indicate that encouraging future-oriented thinking may lead to positive attitudes regarding the “Help Mark” system.
Shimizu, Y., Suzuki, M., Hata, Y., & Sakaki, T. (2023).
Shimizu, Y.（清水佑輔）, Suzuki, M., Hata, Y., & Sakaki, T. (2023). Negative attitudes of healthy older adults toward unhealthy older adults: Focus on the subjective health. 健康な高齢者が不健康な高齢者に対して抱くネガティブな態度：主観的健康度に着目して Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 105, 104850. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2022.104850
Negative attitudes toward older adults, especially those with declining physical function and/or advanced dementia (i.e., unhealthy older adults), are serious. It is important to identify psychological factors associated with such negative attitudes toward unhealthy older adults. In this study, we focused on subjective health (subjective perception of one’s own health status). We tested the hypothesis that healthy older adults with lower subjective health have more negative attitudes toward unhealthy older adults. We also examined whether this association is still pronounced after controlling for the participants’ physical health status and demographics. In this study, an online survey was conducted among Japanese older adults who were not certified as needing long-term care (N = 1,082, aged 65–88). To control for the participants’ physical health status, we focus on frailty. We conducted a factor analysis and multiple regression analysis on negative attitudes toward unhealthy older adults. As a result, healthy older participants with lower subjective health perceived unhealthy older adults negatively, and this association was still pronounced even after controlling for the participants’ frailty score and demographics. Based on our findings, it is suggested that increasing the subjective health of older adults may help them view each other more positively. Therefore, it is important to devise gerontological and psychological interventions to improve older adults’ subjective health. This study has limitations, such as the fact that we conducted only an online survey. Previous studies on how older adults perceive the social group of older adults are scarce, and further studies are expected.
Miyagawa, Y. (2022).
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基) (2022). Self-compassion manipulation regulates affect and aggressive inclinations in the context of social rejection. 社会的排斥場面において、セルフコンパッションを高めることが情動および攻撃性の制御を促す Personality and Individual Differences. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111954
Three studies (combined N = 1035) tested whether inducing a self-compassionate state of mind would help people regulate affect and aggressive inclinations toward rejecters. State self-compassion, negative affect, and pin counts in the voodoo doll task were assessed across all the studies, positive affect was assessed in Studies 2 and 3, and calm affect and revenge intention were assessed in Study 3. Compared with those in the control condition, participants in the self-compassion condition reported higher levels of state self-compassion (Studies 1 to 3), positive affect (Studies 2 and 3), and calm affect (Study 3), and lower levels of negative affect (Studies 1 to 3) and revenge intention (Study 3). A mini meta-analysis showed that participants in the self-compassion condition selected fewer pins to stab into a voodoo doll. Mediation analyses further suggested that negative affect and calm affect played mediator roles in the association between self-compassion manipulation and aggressive inclinations.
Hirashima, T., & Igarashi, T. (2022).
Hirashima, T.(平島太郎), & Igarashi, T(五十嵐祐). (2022). Is Mentalizing Essential to Predict Human Network Size? Reexamining the Social Brain Hypothesis From a Social Network Perspective. メンタライジングはヒト社会的ネットワークサイズの基盤となるか？ 社会的ネットワークの視点に基づく社会脳仮説の検証 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 13(2), 50–56. https://doi.org/10.5178/lebs.2022.99
One central question in social science and evolutionary anthropology is how humans can form and maintain large social networks. The social brain hypothesis argues that humans use their mentalizing ability to read others’ minds for the development of dyadic relationships in layered social networks. However, previous empirical studies have not directly examined the association between mentalizing and the size of the active network located at the outermost layer. By introducing a social network perspective, we predicted that individuals use their mentalizing ability not only to form and maintain dyadic relationships but also to belong to multiple communities, which indirectly expands the active network size. We collected data from undergraduates in Japan (N = 175) to examine how mentalizing is linked to the size of online social networks. Mentalizing was positively associated with the number of dyads but not with the number of communities and the active network size. These findings suggest that the social brain hypothesis has limited validity, and there is a need for more careful explanations surrounding the psychological and structural underpinnings of large human social networks.
社会科学や進化人類学の中心的な問いの一つは、ヒトがどのようにして大規模な社会的ネットワークを形成・維持するかということである。社会脳仮説は、ヒトが「他者の心を読む」メンタライジングを用い、多数の他者との社会関係を構築することで大きな社会集団を維持すると主張する。しかし、これまでの実証研究では、メンタライジングと最外層のアクティブネットワークのサイズとの関連は直接的には検討されていない。本研究は、社会ネットワークの視点から、個人がメンタライジングを、ダイアドの形成・維持だけでなく、複数のコミュニティへの所属に用いることで、間接的にアクティブネットワークのサイズを拡大させると予測した。日本人大学生（N = 175）を対象に調査を実施し、LINEの利用状況をもとにネットワークサイズを測定し、メンタライジングとの関連を検討した。その結果、メンタライジングはダイアド数とは正の相関を示したが、所属コミュニティ数およびアクティブネットワークのサイズとは無相関であった。これらの結果は、社会脳仮説の妥当性に限界があることを示唆しており、大規模な人間の社会的ネットワークの心理的・構造的基盤について、より慎重な説明が必要であることを示唆している。
Hashimoto, H., Ohashi, T. & Yamaguchi, S.(2022).
Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), Ohashi, T. & Yamaguchi, S.(山口勧) (2022). Solicitation matters: Cultural differences in solicited and unsolicited support provision. 援助要請の明確さが重要：要請が明確な場合と不明確な場合における援助提供の文化的差異 Frontiers in Psychology 13:953260. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.953260
Two studies aimed to examine cultural differences in social support provision, with or without solicitation, in Japan and the United States (US). In Study 1, we replicated a previous study with Japanese university students. We found that the Japanese participants did not provide social support when it was not solicited, as compared with when it was solicited. Furthermore, in Study 2, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding a hypothetical stressful situation experienced by a close other and to indicate their willingness to provide support. We confirmed our hypothesis that Japanese participants hesitate to provide unsolicited support to close others (such as family members or close friends), even when they recognize that the close others are in need, whereas the American participants do not hesitate to provide such support. Contrastingly, regarding solicited support, the Japanese and Americans were equally ready to provide support, as hypothesized. The cultural difference in social support resides in the provision of unsolicited support. These results suggest that differences in culturally appropriate responses to needy people are responsible for the difference in the provision of unsolicited vs. solicited social support.
Dorison, C., Lerner, J., … Ishii, T., … & Coles, N. A. (2022).
Dorison, C., Lerner, J., … Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, … & Coles, N. A. (2022). In COVID-19 Health Messaging, Loss Framing Increases Anxiety with Little-to-No Concomitant Benefits: Experimental Evidence from 84 Countries COVID-19に関する健康情報を損失フレーミングで送っても、不安を増大させるばかりで利点はない：84ヶ国での実験的証拠 Affective Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42761-022-00128-3
The COVID-19 pandemic (and its aftermath) highlights a critical need to communicate health information effectively to the global public. Given that subtle differences in information framing can have meaningful effects on behavior, behavioral science research highlights a pressing question: Is it more effective to frame COVID-19 health messages in terms of potential losses (e.g., “If you do not practice these steps, you can endanger yourself and others”) or potential gains (e.g., “If you practice these steps, you can protect yourself and others”)? Collecting data in 48 languages from 15,929 participants in 84 countries, we experimentally tested the effects of message framing on COVID-19-related judgments, intentions, and feelings. Loss- (vs. gain-) framed messages increased self-reported anxiety among participants cross-nationally with little-to-no impact on policy attitudes, behavioral intentions, or information seeking relevant to pandemic risks. These results were consistent across 84 countries, three variations of the message framing wording, and 560 data processing and analytic choices. Thus, results provide an empirical answer to a global communication question and highlight the emotional toll of loss-framed messages. Critically, this work demonstrates the importance of considering unintended affective consequences when evaluating nudge-style interventions.
この研究では、COVID-19に関する健康メッセージを、”損失” を強調するフレームで送る場合（例：もし△△をしなかったら、自分や他者を危険に晒すことになります）と、”獲得” を強調するフレームで送る場合（例：もし△△をしたら、自分や他者を守ることになります）で、思考・感情・行動に与える影響が異なるかを検討しています。その結果、損失フレーミングは獲得フレーミングに比べて強く不安を喚起することが、様々な国と地域を超えて確認されました。それ以外（行動意図、政策への態度など）へのフレーミングの影響は、国・地域によるばらつきも大きく、一貫した効果は認められませんでした。つまり損失フレーミングは不安を増大させるばかりで、特に行動を変えることはなさそうだということです。 ＊調査票の日本語訳および日本データの収集を井隼経子（福岡工業大学）・石井辰典（日本女子大学）・国里愛彦（専修大学）・角南直幸（Delaware Data Innovation Lab）・山田祐樹（九州大学）が担当しました（氏名は姓のアルファベット順）。この活動に際し、日本心理学会の「新型コロナウイルス感染拡大に関連した実践活動及び研究」の助成を受けました。
Yamamoto, H., Okada, I., Uchida, S., & Sasaki, T. (2022).
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Okada, I.(岡田勇), Uchida, S., & Sasaki, T. (2022). Exploring norms indispensable for both emergence and maintenance of cooperation in indirect reciprocity. 間接互恵において協力の進化と協力の維持に必須な規範の探索 Frontiers in Physics, 10(September), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphy.2022.1019422
Indirect reciprocity is one of the major mechanisms of the evolution of human cooperation. In indirect reciprocity, social norms with which individuals distinguish good people from bad people play essential roles. On the one hand, previous studies have suggested the various different norms which are evolutionarily stable against the invasion of free riders. However, these approaches could not reveal what norms would be selected in the process of evolution of cooperation because they are based on the premise that a single norm is shared in a society. On the other hand, recent studies have tackled the mechanisms of the coevolution of norms and cooperation. However, the norms which are necessary for emergence or sustenance of cooperation have not been revealed. Here, we show some indispensable norms for emergence and sustenance of cooperation using a norm knockout method which has been developed to analyze a function of each norm in the environment of coexistence of many norms. The results revealed that norms known as “shunning” and “image scoring” are indispensable in the emergence of cooperation but they are not required after a cooperative society is achieved. Furthermore, “simple standing” is a unique norm which is necessary to maintain cooperation. We call the former as a pioneer norm and the latter as a keystone norm. The results indicate importance to focus on the dynamics of evolution because the role of indispensable norms has been overlooked by the static analysis of evolutionarily stable norms.
Kowal, M., Sorokowski, P., … Ishii, T., … & Zumárraga-Espinosa, M. (2022).
Kowal, M., Sorokowski, P., … Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, … & Zumárraga-Espinosa, M. (2022). Predictors of enhancing human physical attractiveness: Data from 93 countries. 身体的魅力を高める行動の規定因は何か？93の国・地域での調査 Evolution and Human Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2022.08.003
People across the world and throughout history have gone to great lengths to enhance their physical appearance. Evolutionary psychologists and ethologists have largely attempted to explain this phenomenon via mating preferences and strategies. Here, we test one of the most popular evolutionary hypotheses for beauty-enhancing behaviors, drawn from mating market and parasite stress perspectives, in a large cross-cultural sample. We also test hypotheses drawn from other influential and non-mutually exclusive theoretical frameworks, from biosocial role theory to a cultural media perspective. Survey data from 93,158 human participants across 93 countries provide evidence that behaviors such as applying makeup or using other cosmetics, hair grooming, clothing style, caring for body hygiene, and exercising or following a specific diet for the specific purpose of improving ones physical attractiveness, are universal. Indeed, 99% of participants reported spending >10 min a day performing beauty-enhancing behaviors. The results largely support evolutionary hypotheses: more time was spent enhancing beauty by women (almost 4 h a day, on average) than by men (3.6 h a day), by the youngest participants (and contrary to predictions, also the oldest), by those with a relatively more severe history of infectious diseases, and by participants currently dating compared to those in established relationships. The strongest predictor of attractiveness-enhancing behaviors was social media usage. Other predictors, in order of effect size, included adhering to traditional gender roles, residing in countries with less gender equality, considering oneself as highly attractive or, conversely, highly unattractive, TV watching time, higher socioeconomic status, right-wing political beliefs, a lower level of education, and personal individualistic attitudes. This study provides novel insight into universal beauty-enhancing behaviors by unifying evolutionary theory with several other complementary perspectives.
de Lissa, P., Watanabe, K., Gu, L., Ishii, T., Nakamura, K., Kimura, T., Sagasaki, A., & Caldara, R. (2022).
de Lissa, P., Watanabe, K., Gu, L., Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, Nakamura, K., Kimura, T., Sagasaki, A., & Caldara, R. (2022). Race categorization in noise. ノイズの中での顔識別課題と人種効果 i-Perception, 13(4), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/20416695221119530
People are typically faster to categorize the race of a face if it belongs to a race different from their own. This Other Race Categorization Advantage (ORCA) is thought to reflect an enhanced sensitivity to the visual race signals of other race faces, leading to faster response times. The current study investigated this sensitivity in a cross-cultural sample of Swiss and Japanese observers with a race categorization task using faces that had been parametrically degraded of visual structure, with normalized luminance and contrast. While Swiss observers exhibited an increasingly strong ORCA in both reaction time and accuracy as the face images were visually degraded up to 20% structural coherence, the Japanese observers manifested this pattern most distinctly when the faces were fully structurally-intact. Critically, for both observer groups, there was a clear accuracy effect at the 20% structural coherence level, indicating that the enhanced sensitivity to other race visual signals persists in significantly degraded stimuli. These results suggest that different cultural groups may rely on and extract distinct types of visual race signals during categorization, which may depend on the available visual information. Nevertheless, heavily degraded stimuli specifically favor the perception of other race faces, indicating that the visual system is tuned by experience and is sensitive to the detection of unfamiliar signals.
Miyagawa, Y. & Kanemasa, Y. (2022).
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基) & Kanemasa, Y. (金政祐司) (2022). Insecure attachment and psychological intimate partner violence perpetration: Low self-compassion and compassionate goals as mediators. 不安定なアタッチメントと親密なパートナーへの心理的暴力加害―セルフ・コンパッションと思いやり目標を媒介要因として― Journal of Family Violence. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-022-00436-z
Purpose In this pre-registered research, we tested how attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were related to psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Specifically, we examined the mediating roles of self-compassion and compassionate goals in these associations. Method Available data were collected online from 513 participants (241 men, 272 women) who were currently in a dating relationship in Japan. These participants completed a measure of general romantic attachment styles and, then, brought their current dating partners to mind. Subsequently, they completed measures of compassionate goals, self-compassion, and psychological IPV perpetration and victimization in their current dating relationships. Results We tested the saturated mediation model in which we treated attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance as predictors, self-compassion and compassionate goals as parallel mediators, and psychological IPV perpetration as an outcome variable. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that low self-compassion mediated the positive associations between attachment anxiety and psychological IPV perpetration, point estimate = 0.006, 95% CI [0.003, 0.010], and between attachment avoidance and psychological IPV perpetration, point estimate = 0.004, 95% CI [0.002, 0.008]. Furthermore, low compassionate goals mediated the positive association between attachment avoidance and psychological IPV perpetration, point estimate = 0.018, 95% CI [0.010, 0.026]. These indirect effects remained significant even when the influence of psychological IPV victimization and covariates, such as participants’ sex and relationship characteristics, were considered in the model. Conclusions Our findings imply that insecure attachment styles may orient people to be less compassionate toward themselves and their relationship partners and, thus, engage in psychological IPV perpetration.
Nishimura T, Souma T, Kito M, Taniguchi J, Kanemasa Y, Yamada J and Miyagawa Y (2022)
Nishimura T(西村太志), Souma T(相馬敏彦), Kito M(鬼頭美江), Taniguchi J(谷口淳一), Kanemasa Y(金政祐司), Yamada J(山田順子) and Miyagawa Y(宮川裕基) (2022) Collaboration among psychological researchers, the government, and non- profit organizations for “Konkatsu” (marriage hunting) in Japan. 日本における「婚活」支援に関する心理学者と行政等の協働 Frontiers in Psychology, 13:982102. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.982102
In contemporary Japanese society, it is difficult to find a marriage partner, and therefore, “Konkatsu”, the search for a marriage partner, has become a socially accepted activity in Japan. In response to this social challenge, in addition to private companies, governments and non-profit organizations are supporting individuals in their search for a marriage partner. This paper reviews statistical information related to marriage hunting published in Japan. In addition, some of the authors’ collaborative activities and academic publications based on these activities are reviewed. Subsequently, the paper discusses and highlights the importance of helping individuals have confidence in their physical attractiveness.
Ogawa, K., & Hall, J. A. (2022).
Ogawa, K (小川一美) & Hall, J. A. (2022). Development of the Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II (TONCK-II). 非言語的手がかりに関する知識テスト-II (Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II ; TONCK-II) の開発 Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 46(4), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-022-00414-5
The Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK; Rosip and Hall in J Nonverbal Behav 28(4): 267–286, 2004) was developed to measure explicit knowledge of nonverbal cue meanings and usages. The objective of this research was to develop the TONCK-II, which is a shortened version of the TONCK to address the weaknesses of TONCK and to facilitate use. In Study 1, we partially revised the items of the TONCK scale to increase its appropriateness and reduce the number of items based on discrimination parameters and difficulty parameters. Through Study 1, 2, and 3, the reliabilities of TONCK-II were confirmed from the ω coefficient. The correlations with participants’ motivation to accurately decode others’ nonverbal cues as well as their self-assessment of ability to accurately decode such cues were not significant or correlated only weakly. Moreover, TONCK-II showed only a weak positive correlation with cognitive intelligence in Study 3. That is, the discriminant validity of TONCK-II was supported. Convergent validity was demonstrated in Study 2 by a significant positive correlation with GEMOK-Features (Schlegel and Scherer in Cogn Emot 32(8): 1514–1530, 2018), a test that measures accurate semantic knowledge about the experience and expression of emotions, and by the relation to the original TONCK in Study 3. In relation to demographic variables, women had significantly higher TONCK-II scores than men, especially in the younger generation, but other demographic variables showed no strong correlation with TONCK-II. Finally, based on the results, the characteristics and future directions regarding TONCK-II and research issues of knowledge about nonverbal communication were discussed.
本研究では，RosipとHall (2004)が非言語的手がかりの意味や利用に関する顕在的知識を測定するために作成したTest of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK)の短所を改善し，利用可能性を高めた短縮版のテスト（Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II; TONCK-II) を開発した。3つの研究から，TONCK-IIの信頼性と妥当性を検証し，非言語的手がかりに関する知識と人口統計学的変数との関連についても検討した。
Shimizu, Y., Hashimoto, T., & Karasawa, K. (2022).
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Hashimoto, T.(橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K.(唐沢かおり) (2022). Relationship between disease avoidance and attitudes toward older people. 感染嫌悪と高齢者への態度の関連 Advances in Gerontology, 12(3), 242-246. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2079057022030110
Negative attitudes toward older people persist, leading to the neglect and marginalization of older adults’ will. The social group of older people is often perceived as being overly associated with disease, and disease avoidance is related to negative attitudes. Meanwhile, people with higher disease avoidance tend to avoid others, not just older adults. Therefore, whether disease avoidance and attitudes toward older people have a significant relationship should be examined, even after controlling for attitudes toward general others (i.e., younger people) and other personality determinants of social interactions (i.e., extroversion, general trust). We conducted an online survey of Japanese participants (n = 962). The results showed that the relationship between higher disease avoidance and ageist attitudes was significant, even after controlling for the above variables. Psychological interventions that weaken the cognitive link between older adults and disease would effectively reduce ageism. The limitations and future directions of this study are discussed.
Jonason, P.K., Czerwiński, S.K., Tobaldo, F. Ramos-Diaz, J., Adamovic, M., Adams, B.G., Ardi, R., Bălțătescu, S., Cha, Y.S., Chobthamkit, P., El-Astal, S., Gundolf, K., Jukić, T., Knezović, E., Liik, K., Maltby, J., Mamuti, A., Milfont, T.L., Moreta-Herrera, R., Park, J., Piotrowski, J., Samekin, A., Tiliouine, H., Tomšik, R., Umeh, C., van den Bos, K., Vauclair, C-M., Włodarczyk, A., Yahiiaiev, I., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., & Sedikides, C. (2022).
Jonason, P.K., Czerwiński, S.K., Tobaldo, F. Ramos-Diaz, J., Adamovic, M., Adams, B.G., Ardi, R., Bălțătescu, S., Cha, Y.S., Chobthamkit, P., El-Astal, S., Gundolf, K., Jukić, T., Knezović, E., Liik, K., Maltby, J., Mamuti, A., Milfont, T.L., Moreta-Herrera, R., Park, J.（パクジュナ）, Piotrowski, J., Samekin, A., Tiliouine, H., Tomšik, R., Umeh, C., van den Bos, K., Vauclair, C-M., Włodarczyk, A., Yahiiaiev, I., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., & Sedikides, C. (2022). Milieu effects on the Dark Triad traits and their sex differences in 49 countries. 49ヶ国の「ダークトライアド」の特性に対する環境効果とその性差 Personality and Individual Differences, 197, 111796 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111796
Most research on the development of personality traits like the Dark Triad (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) focuses on local effects like parenting style or attachment, but people live in a larger society that may set the stage for any local effects. Here we paired nation-level data on the traits from 49 nations with several milieu indicators (e.g., life expectancy, homicide rates) from three timepoints (and change among them) where the average participant (≈ 22yo) would have been a child (≈ 6yo), a pre-teen (≈ 11yo), and a teenager (≈ 16yo). Congruent with previous research, variance in narcissism was far more sensitive to variance in milieu conditions in general and across all three time points than variance in Machiavellianism or psychopathy. The milieu conditions differentiated the traits somewhat with income and education revealing negative correlations with narcissism, positive correlations with Machiavellianism, and null correlations with psychopathy. Sex differences in Machiavellianism and narcissism were correlated with homicide rates across the three timepoints. The evidence that changes in milieu conditions in ones’ past predicts the traits was erratic, but larger sex differences in the traits were associated with decreased life expectancies and homicide rates between childhood and pre-teens.
Maeda, K., Kumai, Y., & Hashimoto, H. (2022)
Maeda, K. (前田楓), Kumai, Y. (熊井優日), & Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文) (2022) Potential influence of decision time on punishment behavior and its evaluation. 罰行動とその評価に対する意思決定時間の効果 Frontiers in Psychology, 13:794953. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.794953
Previous studies on whether punishers are rewarded by reputational gains have yielded conflicting results. Some studies have argued that punitive behaviors potentially result in a positive evaluation, while others have found the opposite. This study aims to clarify the conditions that lead to the positive evaluation of costly punishment. Study 1 utilized one-round and repeated public goods game (PGG) situations and manipulated decision time for participants’ punitive behavior toward the non-cooperative person in the situation. We also asked participants to report their impression evaluations of punitive behavior toward non-cooperative people. Moreover, utilizing the second- and third-party punishment games, Study 2 manipulated the decision time of participants’ punitive behavior toward the self-interested person and asked them to evaluate the punitive behavior. The results showed that those who punished intuitively were not likely to be evaluated positively. However, punishers were rewarded when the decision to punish was made after deliberation or made by those who were not direct victims. These findings extend previous research on the evaluation of punitive behavior and reveal that deliberative punishment is evaluated positively occasionally.
Ogihara, Y. (2022).
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2022). Ethnic differences in names in China: A comparison between Chinese Mongolian and Han Chinese cultures in Inner Mongolia. 中国における名前の民族差：内モンゴルの中国系モンゴル文化と漢民族文化の比較 F1000Research, 11, 55. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.76837.1
I propose two suggestions on Stojcic et al.’s (2020) Study 3, which examined ethnic differences in individualism between Chinese Mongolian and Han Chinese cultures in China. The authors analyzed the names of all residents in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China and found that the percentages of common names among Chinese Mongolians were smaller than those among Han Chinese. The authors concluded that Chinese Mongolians are more independent than Han Chinese. However, two questions remain unanswered. First, although the authors analyzed the names of people in all age groups together and did not analyze the names by birth year, how was the effect of time controlled? Second, although the authors treated name indices, which have been used as group-level indicators in previous research, as individual-level indicators, how did the authors confirm whether name indices can be used as individual-level indicators? Addressing these two questions would contribute to a better understanding of ethnic differences in individualism in China.
Hashimoto, H., Maeda, K., Yamamoto, K., Mifune, N. (2022).
Hashimoto, H. (橋本博文), Maeda, K. (前田楓), Yamamoto, K. (山本佳祐), Mifune, N. (三船恒裕) (2022). Willingness to be the recipient during the dictator game. 独裁者ゲームにおいて「受け手になりたい」と思う人たち BMC Research Notes, 15: 261 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-022-06148-3
Objective: Researchers have investigated human altruism toward strangers for decades, using economic games such as the dictator game (DG) in their experiments. However, factors that cause the allocating behavior exhibited by those participants willing to be recipients in the DG have not been identified and the psychological mechanism of avoiding decision-making in economic games has not been widely addressed in previous studies. This study aimed to replicate previous findings regarding the number of people who are willing to be assigned the role of recipient and their allocation behavior and to explore why they share more than people who are willing to be dictators. Results: We demonstrate that there are people willing to be assigned the role of the recipient, rather than the role of the dictator during the dictator game. In addition, we find evidence indicating that people who are willing to be recipients behave more altruistically in the dictator game than those who prefer to be dictators. Based on our results, we argue that willingness to be a recipient, in relation to the psychological unwillingness to assume responsibility and reputational concerns, is a strategic consideration.
Park, J. & Joshanloo, M. (2022).
Park, J. (パクジュナ）& Joshanloo, M. (2022). Mediating and moderating effects of perceived social support on the relationship between discrimination and well-being: A study of South Koreans living in Japan. 差別と幸福の関係におけるソーシャルサポートの媒介効果および調整効果：日本在住の韓国人を対象とした研究 Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.922201
We examined the relationship between discrimination and mental wellbeing among South Korean residents (N = 181) in Japan. The roles of need for belonging (NTB) as a mediator and identification with one’s group as a moderator of this relationship were examined. Perceived social support was also examined as both a potential moderator and mediator. We also included a measure of perceived in-group inclusion in the host society, the Circle of Ingroup Inclusion (CII), to examine its influence on the relationship between discrimination and wellbeing. Three types of coping styles-active constructive coping, passive constructive coping, and destructive coping-were controlled for in the analysis. Results showed that participants’ educational level, socioeconomic status, and different coping styles predicted wellbeing; however, discrimination was the strongest (negative) predictor of wellbeing. Social support was both a moderator and mediator of the relationship between discrimination and wellbeing, suggesting that perceived social support not only buffers the negative effect of discrimination on wellbeing, but also partially explains the negative association between discrimination and wellbeing. NTB was not a significant mediator. Identification with one’s ethnic group and perceived membership in one’s group also did not affect the relationship. The results suggest that it is important to consider social support based on interpersonal relationships among members of minority groups in Japanese society. The psychological factors involved in acculturation processes may be different in different ethnic groups. This study calls for greater consideration of group-specific characteristics in understanding acculturation processes and interactions between groups in society.
Park, J., van den Broek, K.L., Bhullar, N., Ogunbode, C.A., Schermer, J.A., Doran, R., Ardi, R., Hanss, D., Maran, D.A., Aquino, S., Ayanian, A.H., Chegeni, R., Chukwuorji, J.C., Enea, V., Ghanbarian, E., Jian, F., Lins, S., Lomas, M.J., Lu, S., Marot, T., Mbungu, W., Navarro-Carrillo, G., Kehinde, O.A., Onyutha, C., Reyes, M.E.S., Salmela-Aro, K., Sollar, T., Tahir, H., Tan, C.S., Torres-Marin, J., Tsubakita, T., Volkodav, T., Wlodarczyk, A., & Yadav, R. (in press).
Park, J., van den Broek, K.L., Bhullar, N., Ogunbode, C.A., Schermer, J.A., Doran, R., Ardi, R., Hanss, D., Maran, D.A., Aquino, S., Ayanian, A.H., Chegeni, R., Chukwuorji, J.C., Enea, V., Ghanbarian, E., Jian, F., Lins, S., Lomas, M.J., Lu, S., Marot, T., Mbungu, W., Navarro-Carrillo, G., Kehinde, O.A., Onyutha, C., Reyes, M.E.S., Salmela-Aro, K., Sollar, T., Tahir, H., Tan, C.S., Torres-Marin, J., Tsubakita, T., Volkodav, T., Wlodarczyk, A., & Yadav, R. (in press). Comparison of the Inter-item Correlations of the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) between Western and non-Western contexts. Big Five Inventory-10（BFI-10）の項目間相関に関する欧米諸国と非欧米諸国の比較 Personality and Individual Differences, 196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111751
The Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10; Rammstedt & John, 2007) is one of many short versions of personality inventories that measure the Big Five trait dimensions. Short versions of scales often present methodological challenges as a trade-off for their convenience. Based on samples from 28 countries (N = 10,560), the current study investigated inter-item correlations estimated using Omega coefficients within each of the five personality characteristics measured by the BFI-10. Results showed that inter-item correlations were significantly lower, in the sample data from non-Western countries compared with the Western countries, for three of the five personality traits, specifically Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Emotional Stability. Our findings indicate that the psychometric challenges exist across different cultures and traits. We offer recommendations when using short-item scales such as BFI-10 in survey research.
Shimizu, Y., Hashimoto, T., & Karasawa, K. (2022).
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Hashimoto, T.(橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K.(唐沢かおり) (2022). Ageist attitudes: Youth identity, subjective time to become older, and impressions of the general older population's physical and mental health. エイジズム：若者アイデンティティ、高齢者になるまでの主観的時間、高齢者一般の身体的・精神的健康状態への印象との関連について Advances in Gerontology, 12(2), 157-161. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2079057022020163
Reduction in ageist attitudes is crucial to resolve intergenerational conflicts between older adults and other generations. As factors related to ageist attitudes, the extent to which people perceive themselves to be young should be the focus. The perceived link between older adults and illness also has a significant relationship with ageist attitudes. This study examines the relationship between ageist attitudes and youth identity (the extent to which people feel they belong to the young population as opposed to the older population), and impressions of the physical and mental health of the general older population. The results of an online survey of Japanese participants (n = 474) showed that those with higher youth identity held stronger ageist attitudes. While impressions of the physical health of the general older population were not associated with ageist attitudes, participants with more positive impressions of older adults’ mental health had weaker ageist attitudes. Future research should extend our model by adding factors not considered in this study.
Kanemasa, Y., Asano, R, Komura, K., & Miyagawa, Y. (in press).
Kanemasa, Y. (金政祐司), Asano, R (浅野良輔), Komura, K. (古村健太郎), & Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基). (in press) longitudinal associations between personality traits and psychological intimate partner violence. パーソナリティ特性と心理的IPVに関する縦断的関連性 Journal of Marriage and Family. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12869
Objective and background: This study examined the longitudinal adverse influences of attachment anxiety and the dark triad on psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization through daily negative emotions. Method: We conducted a 1-year paired longitudinal study that followed married couples across three waves of assessment. The participants were 471 married couples in Japan. They completed measures of the dark triad and attachment anxiety (Wave 1), daily negative emotions (Wave 2: 1 month after Wave 1), and psychological IPV victimization (Wave 3: 1 year after Wave 1). Results: The actor–partner interdependence model showed that attachment anxiety and the dark triad were positively associated with psychological IPV perpetration 1 year later through different processes. Whereas attachment anxiety was related to psychological IPV perpetration through daily negative emotions for both men and women, the dark triad was directly related to psychological IPV perpetration across sex groups. In addition, attachment anxiety was positively related to psychological IPV victimization through daily negative emotions for men and women, but the dark triad was not. Conclusion and implication: Attachment anxiety and the dark triad were associated differently with psychological IPV perpetration 1 year later, whereas these processes are equivalent for men and women. Our results imply that for individuals with high attachment anxiety, interventions to regulate daily negative emotions such as depression and distress may buffer against both IPV victimization and perpetration.
Kajimura, S., Nozaki, Y., Goto, T., & Smallwood, J. (2022).
Kajimura, S., Nozaki, Y.（野崎優樹）, Goto, T.（後藤崇志）, & Smallwood, J. (2022). Not all daydreaming is equal: A longitudinal investigation of social and general daydreaming and marital relationship quality. 空想はすべて同じではない：社会的および一般的な空想と夫婦関係の質との関連についての縦断的調査 Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 904025. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.904025
Preliminary evidence suggests that daydreaming about other people has adaptive value in daily social lives. To address this possibility, we examined whether daydreaming plays a role in maintaining close, stable relationships using a 1-year prospective longitudinal study. We found that individuals’ propensity to daydream about their marital partner is separate to general daydreaming. In contrast to general daydreaming, which was associated with lower subsequent relationship investment size (i.e., magnitude and importance of resources attached to a relationship) in the marital partner, partner-related social daydreaming led to a greater subsequent investment size. Additionally, attachment styles moderated these effects. The effect of daydreaming regarding investment size was found only in securely attached individuals. This research advances the emerging field of social daydreaming and highlights self-generated thought as a critical tool that can help people navigate the complex social world.
Ogihara, Y., & Ito, A. (2022).
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二), & Ito, A. (伊藤篤希) (2022). Unique names increased in Japan over 40 years: Baby names published in municipality newsletters show a rise in individualism, 1979-2018. 個性的な名前は40年間にわたって増加している：地方自治体の広報誌に掲載された新生児の名前は個人主義傾向の増加を示している, 1979-2018 Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology, 3, 100046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cresp.2022.100046
We examined whether Japanese culture became more individualistic by investigating baby names published in municipality newsletters for 40 years between 1979 and 2018. Previous research has shown that the rates of unique names increased in Japan between 2004 and 2018, suggesting a rise in uniqueness-seeking and individualism. However, it was unclear whether the trend after the 2000s was found before the 2000s. To discuss cultural changes, it is desirable to examine trends over longer periods of time. Unlike in the U.S., databases of names given to newborns in previous years did not exist in Japan. Thus, we collected baby names published in municipality newsletters. Results showed that over the 40 years, unique names increased in all of the municipalities examined, indicating an increase in uniqueness-seeking and individualism in Japan. The current research investigated cultural changes for a longer time period and presented further evidence of rising individualism in Japan.
Wang, K., Goldenberg, A., Miller, J. K. et al. (2021).
Wang, K., Goldenberg, A., Miller, J. K. et al. (2021). A multi-country test of brief reappraisal interventions on emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic. [Registered Report] 新型コロナウィルス感染症流行下におけるネガティブ情動に対する情動制御方略の効果：超多国間実験による検証 Nature Human Behaviour, 5, 1089-1110. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01173-x
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries and regions (n = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vesus both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing interventions had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world.
調査票の日本語訳および日本データの収集を山田祐樹（九州大学）・石井辰典（日本女子大学）・国里愛彦（専修大学）・角南直幸（Delaware Data Innovation Lab）・井隼経子（福岡工業大学）が担当した。この活動に際し、日本心理学会の「新型コロナウイルス感染拡大に関連した実践活動及び研究」の助成を受けた。
Psychological Science Accelerator Self-Determination Theory Collaboration (2022).
Psychological Science Accelerator Self-Determination Theory Collaboration (2022). A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. 社会的距離拡大方略を動機づけるものは何か？新型コロナウィルス流行下における超多国間実験 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(22), e2111091119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2111091119
Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-country, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e., a controlling message) compared with no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. On the other hand, the autonomy-supportive message lowered feelings of defiance compared with the controlling message, but the controlling message did not differ from receiving no message at all. Unexpectedly, messages did not influence autonomous motivation (a highly internalized form of motivation relying on one’s core values) or behavioral intentions. Results supported hypothesized associations between people’s existing autonomous and controlled motivations and self-reported behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing. Controlled motivation was associated with more defiance and less long-term behavioral intention to engage in social distancing, whereas autonomous motivation was associated with less defiance and more short- and long-term intentions to social distance. Overall, this work highlights the potential harm of using shaming and pressuring language in public health communication, with implications for the current and future global health challenges.
調査票の日本語訳および日本データの収集を山田祐樹（九州大学）・石井辰典（日本女子大学）・国里愛彦（専修大学）・角南直幸（Delaware Data Innovation Lab）・井隼経子（福岡工業大学）が担当した。またこの活動に際し、日本心理学会「新型コロナウイルス感染拡大に関連した実践活動及び研究」の助成を受けた。
Ishii, T., & Watanabe, K. (2022).
Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, & Watanabe, K. (2022). Do empathetic people have strong religious beliefs? Survey studies with large Japanese samples. 共感的な人々は固い宗教的信念を持つだろうか？：大規模日本人サンプルを用いた検証 The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2022.2057059
The exploration of personality factors to explain individual differences in religiosity has demonstrated a link between empathic concern and religious beliefs using the Empathic Concern subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-EC). Research in the cognitive science of religion emphasized the role of empathizing ability related to mentalizing in acquisition of religious belief and has demonstrated the relationship between the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and religious belief. The current study was designed to compare the strength of relationships between religious belief and two representative measures of empathy (the IRI-EC and the EQ). Study 1 aimed to statistically evaluate the strength of the relationship between the EQ/IRI-EC and religious belief with four Japanese samples (Ns = 207, 155, 208, 183). The mini meta-analysis results with random effect model indicated that the effect size (semi partial correlation, r_sp) of the IRI-EC (r_sp = .120, 95%CI [.0002, .237]) was larger than that of the EQ (r_sp = .074, 95%CI [−.0001, .147]). Moreover, these results were confirmed by Study 2 (N = 1440). Thus, the present study provided reliable evidence of the link between empathy and religious belief in non-Western samples. We discuss how empathic concern and mentalizing-related empathy contribute to acquiring religious beliefs.
Lee, S., Shimizu, H., & Nakashima, K. I. (2022).
Lee, S. (李受珉), Shimizu, H., & Nakashima, K. I (中島健一郎). (2022). Shift-and-Persist Strategy: Tendencies and Effect on Japanese Parents and Children's Mental Health. Shift-and-Persist Strategy: 日本人親子の類似性とメンタルヘルスへの影響 Japanese Psychological Research https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12421
Low socioeconomic status has various adverse effects on health, which can be mitigated through the shift-and-persist (S-P) strategy. Studies have focused on how this strategy can affect health in the face of adversity. However, that children learn this strategy from positive role models, such as parents, is an unexamined precondition of the theory. This study presents one bit of supporting evidence for this precondition by examining the similarity in S-P among parent–child dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model. We also examine parent and child strategies related to depressive tendencies based on mixed results in relevant research. The results from 309 parent–child pairs indicate that shifting and persisting tendencies and depressive tendencies were similar among the parent–child pairs. Furthermore, regardless of their socioeconomic status, the parents’ and children’s persisting scores predicted lower levels of depressive tendencies as actor effects. Although this study does not fully support S-P theory, it provides important insights regarding similar patterns of strategic tendencies between parents and children and highlights the importance of positive role models.
Shimizu, Y., Osaki, S., Hashimoto, T., & Karasawa, K. (2022).
Shimizu, Y. (清水佑輔), Osaki, S., Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2022). Social acceptance of smart city projects: Focus on the Sidewalk Toronto case. スマートシティにおける社会的受容：トロントのケースに着目して Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10, 898922. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2022.898922
We focused on Sidewalk Toronto, where the lack of trust in the business operators declined the social acceptance of the project. There are two main reasons for selecting Sidewalk Toronto as the focus of this research. First, Sidewalk Toronto has been extensively discussed in previous studies as a representative example of a large-scale smart city project whose decline in social acceptance may have caused its cancellation. Second, although Sidewalk Toronto is a public utility, the development involved the sister company of Google, a global data giant with a head office outside of Canada. As a result, to increase the social acceptance of smart city projects, we found that business operators should rigorously handle individual data, transparently implement projects, and provide an appropriate scope for the public authority. This research provides new perspectives for a wide range of research areas (e.g., environmental science, urban planning, and psychology) that aim to enhance the social acceptance of smart city projects. This research is also meaningful for business operators who work with the community. Future research will compare a variety of cases using interviews with citizens residing in cities with failed/successful smart city projects.
Kanemasa, Y., Miyagawa, Y., & Arai, T. (2022).
Kanemasa, Y. (金政祐司), Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), & Arai, T. (荒井崇史). (2022). Do the Dark Triad and psychological intimate partner violence mutually reinforce each other? An examination from a four-wave longitudinal study. Dark Triad と心理的IPV は相互に強化し合うのか？4 波の縦断調査からの検討 Personality and Individual Differences. 196, 111714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111714
Although cross-sectional research showed a correlation between the Dark Triad and intimate partner violence (IPV), it was unclear whether the Dark Triad facilitated violence toward partners or whether violent acts fostered the dark personality traits. We aimed to statistically clarify the causal relationships between the Dark Triad traits and psychological IPV perpetration in romantic relationships. We conducted a longitudinal study every four months for one year across four waves in a sample of individuals who were currently in romantic relationships. A total of 1392 individuals (Mage = 29.73, SDage = 5.92) who dated the same partners throughout completed the four waves of surveys that measured the Dark Triad traits, psychological IPV, and demographic variables. Cross-lagged panel models revealed consistent patterns in the associations between each of the Dark Triad traits and psychological IPV perpetration throughout the four waves. Machiavellianism and psychological IPV perpetration increased each other. Psychological IPV perpetration reinforced the tendency for psychopathy, but not vice versa. Narcissism promoted future psychological IPV perpetration, but not vice versa. Our study illustrates how the Dark Triad traits accelerate psychological violence toward romantic partners and how such violence fosters the dark side of personality.
Naito, A., Katahira, K. & Kameda, T. (2022).
Naito, A. (内藤碧), Katahira, K. & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (2022). Insights about the common generative rule underlying an information foraging task can be facilitated via collective search. 情報探索課題を生成する共通法則の理解は、集団での探索によって促進される Scientific Reports, 12, 8047. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12126-3
Social learning is beneficial for efficient information search in unfamiliar environments (“within-task” learning). In the real world, however, possible search spaces are often so large that decision makers are incapable of covering all options, even if they pool their information collectively. One strategy to handle such overload is developing generalizable knowledge that extends to multiple related environments (“across-task” learning). However, it is unknown whether and how social information may facilitate such across-task learning. Here, we investigated participants’ social learning processes across multiple laboratory foraging sessions in spatially correlated reward landscapes that were generated according to a common rule. The results showed that paired participants were able to improve efficiency in information search across sessions more than solo participants. Computational analysis of participants’ choice-behaviors revealed that such improvement across sessions was related to better understanding of the common generative rule. Rule understanding was correlated within a pair, suggesting that social interaction is a key to the improvement of across-task learning.
Shimizu, Y., Hashimoto, T., & Karasawa, K. (2022).
Shimizu, Y. (清水佑輔), Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2022). Decreasing anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes: Conducting a 'Stereotype Embodiment Theory'-based intervention. 高齢者に対する差別的態度の軽減：ステレオタイプ・エンボディメント理論に基づいた介入の実施 European Journal of Social Psychology, 52(1), 174-190. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2823
Stereotype Embodiment Theory (SET) implies that people who hold negative attitudes towards the elderly are more likely to experience a decline in various cognitive/physical functions themselves. Anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes, which negatively affect the elderly’s health status, could be reduced by communicating the contents of SET to non-elderly people. To weaken anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes, in Study 1, we had participants read about SET and related empirical findings (SET intervention), which intended to increase their self-interested motives for avoiding anti-elderly discrimination. In Study 2, we conducted an ‘integrated intervention’ containing a SET intervention and one selected aspect of educational intervention (i.e., presenting some information about some commonly misunderstood aspects of the elderly). Consequently, the integrated/SET interventions reduced participants’ anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes and these effects persisted for at least 1 week. Our new interventions will be useful for those who work with the elderly.
Kameda, T., Toyokawa, W., & Tindale, R.S. (2022).
Kameda, T. (亀田達也), Toyokawa, W., & Tindale, R.S. (2022). Information aggregation and collective intelligence beyond the wisdom of crowds. Nature Reviews Psychology. 「群衆の知恵」を超える情報統合と集合的知性 https://doi.org/10.1038/s44159-022-00054-y
In humans and other gregarious animals, collective decision-making is a robust behavioural feature of groups. Pooling individual information is also fundamental for modern societies, in which digital technologies have exponentially increased the interdependence of individual group members. In this Review, we selectively discuss the recent human and animal literature, focusing on cognitive and behavioural mechanisms that can yield collective intelligence beyond the wisdom of crowds. We distinguish between two group decision-making situations: consensus decision-making, in which a group consensus is required, and combined decision-making, in which a group consensus is not required. We show that in both group decision-making situations, cognitive and behavioural algorithms that capitalize on individual heterogeneity are the key for collective intelligence to emerge. These algorithms include accuracy or expertise-weighted aggregation of individual inputs and implicit or explicit coordination of cognition and behaviour towards division of labour. These mechanisms can be implemented either as ‘cognitive algebra’, executed mainly within the mind of an individual or by some arbitrating system, or as a dynamic behavioural aggregation through social interaction of individual group members. Finally, we discuss implications for collective decision-making in modern societies characterized by a fluid but auto-correlated flow of information and outline some future directions.
Ueshima, A., & Takikawa, H. (2021).
Ueshima, A.（上島淳史）, & Takikawa, H. (2021). Analyzing vaccination priority judgments for 132 occupations using word vector models. 132職業に対するワクチン接種優先度評定の単語ベクトルを用いた解析 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence. https://doi.org/10.1145/3498851.3498933
Most human societies conduct a high degree of division of labor based on occupation. However, determining the occupational field that should be allocated a scarce resource such as vaccine is a topic of debate, especially considering the COVID-19 situation. Though it is crucial that we understand and anticipate people’s judgments on resource allocation prioritization, quantifying the concept of occupation is a difficult task. In this study, we investigated how well people’s judgments on vaccination prioritization for different occupations could be modeled by quantifying their knowledge representation of occupations as word vectors in a vector space. The results showed that the model that quantified occupations as word vectors indicated high out-of-sample prediction accuracy, enabling us to explore the psychological dimension underlying the participants’ judgments. These results indicated that using word vectors for modeling human judgments about everyday concepts allowed prediction of performance and understanding of judgment mechanisms.
Ogihara, Y. (2022).
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2022). Common names decreased in Japan: Further evidence of an increase in individualism. 日本で人気のある新生児の名前の割合は低下している：個人主義傾向の増加を示す更なる証拠 Experimental Results, 3, e5. https://doi.org/10.1017/exp.2021.27
Previous research has demonstrated that unique names increased in Japan, which shows a rise in uniqueness-seeking and individualism. To increase the validity of the prior findings, it is important to confirm the robustness of their results. Therefore, this study examined another indicator of historical changes in names in Japan. Specifically, I investigated whether the rates of common names decreased in Japan between 2004 and 2018. The dataset used in the previous study was analyzed. The results consistently showed that the rates of common names decreased for both boys and girls for the period. These results were consistent with the previous research, which further increases the validity of the finding that Japanese culture became more individualistic.
Hashimoto, H., Maeda, K., & Matsumura, K. (2022).
Hashimoto, H.（橋本博文）, Maeda, K.（前田楓）, & Matsumura, K.（松村楓） (2022). Fickle Judgments in Moral Dilemmas: Time Pressure and Utilitarian Judgments in an Interdependent Culture. 道徳ジレンマにおける「移ろいやすい」判断：相互協調文化におけるタイムプレッシャーと功利主義的判断の関係 Frontiers in Psychology, 13:795732. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.795732/full
In the trolley problem, a well-known moral dilemma, the intuitive process is believed to increase deontological judgments, while deliberative reasoning is thought to promote utilitarian decisions. Therefore, based on the dual-process model, there seems to be an attempt to save several lives at the expense of a few others in a deliberative manner. This study examines the validity of this argument. To this end, we manipulate decision-making time in the standard trolley dilemma to compare differences among 119 Japanese female undergraduates under three conditions: intuitive judgment, deliberative judgment, and judgment after a group discussion. The current results demonstrate that utilitarian judgments decreased from 52.9% in the intuition condition to 43.7% in the deliberation condition and 37.0% after the discussion. Additional analysis suggests that the decrease in utilitarian judgments may be related to psychological unwillingness to assume responsibility for the lives of others rather than to an increase in deontological judgments. Finally, these results are discussed from an adaptationist perspective.