Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2022). Ethnic differences in names in China: A comparison between Chinese Mongolian and Han Chinese cultures in Inner Mongolia. 中国における名前の民族差：内モンゴルの中国系モンゴル文化と漢民族文化の比較 F1000Research, 11, 55. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.76837.1
I propose two suggestions on Stojcic et al.’s (2020) Study 3, which examined ethnic differences in individualism between Chinese Mongolian and Han Chinese cultures in China. The authors analyzed the names of all residents in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China and found that the percentages of common names among Chinese Mongolians were smaller than those among Han Chinese. The authors concluded that Chinese Mongolians are more independent than Han Chinese. However, two questions remain unanswered. First, although the authors analyzed the names of people in all age groups together and did not analyze the names by birth year, how was the effect of time controlled? Second, although the authors treated name indices, which have been used as group-level indicators in previous research, as individual-level indicators, how did the authors confirm whether name indices can be used as individual-level indicators? Addressing these two questions would contribute to a better understanding of ethnic differences in individualism in China.
Hashimoto, H. (橋本博文), Maeda, K. (前田楓), Yamamoto, K. (山本佳祐), Mifune, N. (三船恒裕) (2022). Willingness to be the recipient during the dictator game. 独裁者ゲームにおいて「受け手になりたい」と思う人たち BMC Research Notes, 15: 261 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-022-06148-3
Objective: Researchers have investigated human altruism toward strangers for decades, using economic games such as the dictator game (DG) in their experiments. However, factors that cause the allocating behavior exhibited by those participants willing to be recipients in the DG have not been identified and the psychological mechanism of avoiding decision-making in economic games has not been widely addressed in previous studies. This study aimed to replicate previous findings regarding the number of people who are willing to be assigned the role of recipient and their allocation behavior and to explore why they share more than people who are willing to be dictators. Results: We demonstrate that there are people willing to be assigned the role of the recipient, rather than the role of the dictator during the dictator game. In addition, we find evidence indicating that people who are willing to be recipients behave more altruistically in the dictator game than those who prefer to be dictators. Based on our results, we argue that willingness to be a recipient, in relation to the psychological unwillingness to assume responsibility and reputational concerns, is a strategic consideration.
Park, J. (パクジュナ）& Joshanloo, M. (2022). Mediating and moderating effects of perceived social support on the relationship between discrimination and well-being: A study of South Koreans living in Japan. 差別と幸福の関係におけるソーシャルサポートの媒介効果および調整効果：日本在住の韓国人を対象とした研究 Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.922201
We examined the relationship between discrimination and mental wellbeing among South Korean residents (N = 181) in Japan. The roles of need for belonging (NTB) as a mediator and identification with one’s group as a moderator of this relationship were examined. Perceived social support was also examined as both a potential moderator and mediator. We also included a measure of perceived in-group inclusion in the host society, the Circle of Ingroup Inclusion (CII), to examine its influence on the relationship between discrimination and wellbeing. Three types of coping styles-active constructive coping, passive constructive coping, and destructive coping-were controlled for in the analysis. Results showed that participants’ educational level, socioeconomic status, and different coping styles predicted wellbeing; however, discrimination was the strongest (negative) predictor of wellbeing. Social support was both a moderator and mediator of the relationship between discrimination and wellbeing, suggesting that perceived social support not only buffers the negative effect of discrimination on wellbeing, but also partially explains the negative association between discrimination and wellbeing. NTB was not a significant mediator. Identification with one’s ethnic group and perceived membership in one’s group also did not affect the relationship. The results suggest that it is important to consider social support based on interpersonal relationships among members of minority groups in Japanese society. The psychological factors involved in acculturation processes may be different in different ethnic groups. This study calls for greater consideration of group-specific characteristics in understanding acculturation processes and interactions between groups in society.
Park, J., van den Broek, K.L., Bhullar, N., Ogunbode, C.A., Schermer, J.A., Doran, R., Ardi, R., Hanss, D., Maran, D.A., Aquino, S., Ayanian, A.H., Chegeni, R., Chukwuorji, J.C., Enea, V., Ghanbarian, E., Jian, F., Lins, S., Lomas, M.J., Lu, S., Marot, T., Mbungu, W., Navarro-Carrillo, G., Kehinde, O.A., Onyutha, C., Reyes, M.E.S., Salmela-Aro, K., Sollar, T., Tahir, H., Tan, C.S., Torres-Marin, J., Tsubakita, T., Volkodav, T., Wlodarczyk, A., & Yadav, R. (in press). Comparison of the Inter-item Correlations of the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) between Western and non-Western contexts. Big Five Inventory-10（BFI-10）の項目間相関に関する欧米諸国と非欧米諸国の比較 Personality and Individual Differences, 196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111751
The Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10; Rammstedt & John, 2007) is one of many short versions of personality inventories that measure the Big Five trait dimensions. Short versions of scales often present methodological challenges as a trade-off for their convenience. Based on samples from 28 countries (N = 10,560), the current study investigated inter-item correlations estimated using Omega coefficients within each of the five personality characteristics measured by the BFI-10. Results showed that inter-item correlations were significantly lower, in the sample data from non-Western countries compared with the Western countries, for three of the five personality traits, specifically Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Emotional Stability. Our findings indicate that the psychometric challenges exist across different cultures and traits. We offer recommendations when using short-item scales such as BFI-10 in survey research.
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Hashimoto, T.(橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K.(唐沢かおり) (2022). Ageist attitudes: Youth identity, subjective time to become older, and impressions of the general older population's physical and mental health. エイジズム：若者アイデンティティ、高齢者になるまでの主観的時間、高齢者一般の身体的・精神的健康状態への印象との関連について Advances in Gerontology, 12(2), 157-161. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2079057022020163
Reduction in ageist attitudes is crucial to resolve intergenerational conflicts between older adults and other generations. As factors related to ageist attitudes, the extent to which people perceive themselves to be young should be the focus. The perceived link between older adults and illness also has a significant relationship with ageist attitudes. This study examines the relationship between ageist attitudes and youth identity (the extent to which people feel they belong to the young population as opposed to the older population), and impressions of the physical and mental health of the general older population. The results of an online survey of Japanese participants (n = 474) showed that those with higher youth identity held stronger ageist attitudes. While impressions of the physical health of the general older population were not associated with ageist attitudes, participants with more positive impressions of older adults’ mental health had weaker ageist attitudes. Future research should extend our model by adding factors not considered in this study.
Kanemasa, Y. (金政祐司), Asano, R (浅野良輔), Komura, K. (古村健太郎), & Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基). (in press) longitudinal associations between personality traits and psychological intimate partner violence. パーソナリティ特性と心理的IPVに関する縦断的関連性 Journal of Marriage and Family. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12869
Objective and background: This study examined the longitudinal adverse influences of attachment anxiety and the dark triad on psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization through daily negative emotions. Method: We conducted a 1-year paired longitudinal study that followed married couples across three waves of assessment. The participants were 471 married couples in Japan. They completed measures of the dark triad and attachment anxiety (Wave 1), daily negative emotions (Wave 2: 1 month after Wave 1), and psychological IPV victimization (Wave 3: 1 year after Wave 1). Results: The actor–partner interdependence model showed that attachment anxiety and the dark triad were positively associated with psychological IPV perpetration 1 year later through different processes. Whereas attachment anxiety was related to psychological IPV perpetration through daily negative emotions for both men and women, the dark triad was directly related to psychological IPV perpetration across sex groups. In addition, attachment anxiety was positively related to psychological IPV victimization through daily negative emotions for men and women, but the dark triad was not. Conclusion and implication: Attachment anxiety and the dark triad were associated differently with psychological IPV perpetration 1 year later, whereas these processes are equivalent for men and women. Our results imply that for individuals with high attachment anxiety, interventions to regulate daily negative emotions such as depression and distress may buffer against both IPV victimization and perpetration.
Kajimura, S., Nozaki, Y.（野崎優樹）, Goto, T.（後藤崇志）, & Smallwood, J. (2022). Not all daydreaming is equal: A longitudinal investigation of social and general daydreaming and marital relationship quality. 空想はすべて同じではない：社会的および一般的な空想と夫婦関係の質との関連についての縦断的調査 Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 904025. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.904025
Preliminary evidence suggests that daydreaming about other people has adaptive value in daily social lives. To address this possibility, we examined whether daydreaming plays a role in maintaining close, stable relationships using a 1-year prospective longitudinal study. We found that individuals’ propensity to daydream about their marital partner is separate to general daydreaming. In contrast to general daydreaming, which was associated with lower subsequent relationship investment size (i.e., magnitude and importance of resources attached to a relationship) in the marital partner, partner-related social daydreaming led to a greater subsequent investment size. Additionally, attachment styles moderated these effects. The effect of daydreaming regarding investment size was found only in securely attached individuals. This research advances the emerging field of social daydreaming and highlights self-generated thought as a critical tool that can help people navigate the complex social world.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二), & Ito, A. (伊藤篤希) (2022). Unique names increased in Japan over 40 years: Baby names published in municipality newsletters show a rise in individualism, 1979-2018. 個性的な名前は40年間にわたって増加している：地方自治体の広報誌に掲載された新生児の名前は個人主義傾向の増加を示している, 1979-2018 Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology, 3, 100046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cresp.2022.100046
We examined whether Japanese culture became more individualistic by investigating baby names published in municipality newsletters for 40 years between 1979 and 2018. Previous research has shown that the rates of unique names increased in Japan between 2004 and 2018, suggesting a rise in uniqueness-seeking and individualism. However, it was unclear whether the trend after the 2000s was found before the 2000s. To discuss cultural changes, it is desirable to examine trends over longer periods of time. Unlike in the U.S., databases of names given to newborns in previous years did not exist in Japan. Thus, we collected baby names published in municipality newsletters. Results showed that over the 40 years, unique names increased in all of the municipalities examined, indicating an increase in uniqueness-seeking and individualism in Japan. The current research investigated cultural changes for a longer time period and presented further evidence of rising individualism in Japan.
Wang, K., Goldenberg, A., Miller, J. K. et al. (2021). A multi-country test of brief reappraisal interventions on emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic. [Registered Report] 新型コロナウィルス感染症流行下におけるネガティブ情動に対する情動制御方略の効果：超多国間実験による検証 Nature Human Behaviour, 5, 1089-1110. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01173-x
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries and regions (n = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vesus both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing interventions had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world.
調査票の日本語訳および日本データの収集を山田祐樹（九州大学）・石井辰典（日本女子大学）・国里愛彦（専修大学）・角南直幸（Delaware Data Innovation Lab）・井隼経子（福岡工業大学）が担当した。この活動に際し、日本心理学会の「新型コロナウイルス感染拡大に関連した実践活動及び研究」の助成を受けた。
Psychological Science Accelerator Self-Determination Theory Collaboration (2022). A global experiment on motivating social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. 社会的距離拡大方略を動機づけるものは何か？新型コロナウィルス流行下における超多国間実験 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(22), e2111091119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2111091119
Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-country, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e., a controlling message) compared with no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. On the other hand, the autonomy-supportive message lowered feelings of defiance compared with the controlling message, but the controlling message did not differ from receiving no message at all. Unexpectedly, messages did not influence autonomous motivation (a highly internalized form of motivation relying on one’s core values) or behavioral intentions. Results supported hypothesized associations between people’s existing autonomous and controlled motivations and self-reported behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing. Controlled motivation was associated with more defiance and less long-term behavioral intention to engage in social distancing, whereas autonomous motivation was associated with less defiance and more short- and long-term intentions to social distance. Overall, this work highlights the potential harm of using shaming and pressuring language in public health communication, with implications for the current and future global health challenges.
調査票の日本語訳および日本データの収集を山田祐樹（九州大学）・石井辰典（日本女子大学）・国里愛彦（専修大学）・角南直幸（Delaware Data Innovation Lab）・井隼経子（福岡工業大学）が担当した。またこの活動に際し、日本心理学会「新型コロナウイルス感染拡大に関連した実践活動及び研究」の助成を受けた。
Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, & Watanabe, K. (2022). Do empathetic people have strong religious beliefs? Survey studies with large Japanese samples. 共感的な人々は固い宗教的信念を持つだろうか？：大規模日本人サンプルを用いた検証 The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2022.2057059
The exploration of personality factors to explain individual differences in religiosity has demonstrated a link between empathic concern and religious beliefs using the Empathic Concern subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-EC). Research in the cognitive science of religion emphasized the role of empathizing ability related to mentalizing in acquisition of religious belief and has demonstrated the relationship between the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and religious belief. The current study was designed to compare the strength of relationships between religious belief and two representative measures of empathy (the IRI-EC and the EQ). Study 1 aimed to statistically evaluate the strength of the relationship between the EQ/IRI-EC and religious belief with four Japanese samples (Ns = 207, 155, 208, 183). The mini meta-analysis results with random effect model indicated that the effect size (semi partial correlation, r_sp) of the IRI-EC (r_sp = .120, 95%CI [.0002, .237]) was larger than that of the EQ (r_sp = .074, 95%CI [−.0001, .147]). Moreover, these results were confirmed by Study 2 (N = 1440). Thus, the present study provided reliable evidence of the link between empathy and religious belief in non-Western samples. We discuss how empathic concern and mentalizing-related empathy contribute to acquiring religious beliefs.
Lee, S. (李受珉), Shimizu, H., & Nakashima, K. I (中島健一郎). (2022). Shift-and-Persist Strategy: Tendencies and Effect on Japanese Parents and Children's Mental Health. Shift-and-Persist Strategy: 日本人親子の類似性とメンタルヘルスへの影響 Japanese Psychological Research https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12421
Low socioeconomic status has various adverse effects on health, which can be mitigated through the shift-and-persist (S-P) strategy. Studies have focused on how this strategy can affect health in the face of adversity. However, that children learn this strategy from positive role models, such as parents, is an unexamined precondition of the theory. This study presents one bit of supporting evidence for this precondition by examining the similarity in S-P among parent–child dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model. We also examine parent and child strategies related to depressive tendencies based on mixed results in relevant research. The results from 309 parent–child pairs indicate that shifting and persisting tendencies and depressive tendencies were similar among the parent–child pairs. Furthermore, regardless of their socioeconomic status, the parents’ and children’s persisting scores predicted lower levels of depressive tendencies as actor effects. Although this study does not fully support S-P theory, it provides important insights regarding similar patterns of strategic tendencies between parents and children and highlights the importance of positive role models.
Shimizu, Y. (清水佑輔), Osaki, S., Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2022). Social acceptance of smart city projects: Focus on the Sidewalk Toronto case. スマートシティにおける社会的受容：トロントのケースに着目して Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10, 898922. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2022.898922
We focused on Sidewalk Toronto, where the lack of trust in the business operators declined the social acceptance of the project. There are two main reasons for selecting Sidewalk Toronto as the focus of this research. First, Sidewalk Toronto has been extensively discussed in previous studies as a representative example of a large-scale smart city project whose decline in social acceptance may have caused its cancellation. Second, although Sidewalk Toronto is a public utility, the development involved the sister company of Google, a global data giant with a head office outside of Canada. As a result, to increase the social acceptance of smart city projects, we found that business operators should rigorously handle individual data, transparently implement projects, and provide an appropriate scope for the public authority. This research provides new perspectives for a wide range of research areas (e.g., environmental science, urban planning, and psychology) that aim to enhance the social acceptance of smart city projects. This research is also meaningful for business operators who work with the community. Future research will compare a variety of cases using interviews with citizens residing in cities with failed/successful smart city projects.
Kanemasa, Y. (金政祐司), Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), & Arai, T. (荒井崇史). (2022). Do the Dark Triad and psychological intimate partner violence mutually reinforce each other? An examination from a four-wave longitudinal study. Dark Triad と心理的IPV は相互に強化し合うのか？4 波の縦断調査からの検討 Personality and Individual Differences. 196, 111714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111714
Although cross-sectional research showed a correlation between the Dark Triad and intimate partner violence (IPV), it was unclear whether the Dark Triad facilitated violence toward partners or whether violent acts fostered the dark personality traits. We aimed to statistically clarify the causal relationships between the Dark Triad traits and psychological IPV perpetration in romantic relationships. We conducted a longitudinal study every four months for one year across four waves in a sample of individuals who were currently in romantic relationships. A total of 1392 individuals (Mage = 29.73, SDage = 5.92) who dated the same partners throughout completed the four waves of surveys that measured the Dark Triad traits, psychological IPV, and demographic variables. Cross-lagged panel models revealed consistent patterns in the associations between each of the Dark Triad traits and psychological IPV perpetration throughout the four waves. Machiavellianism and psychological IPV perpetration increased each other. Psychological IPV perpetration reinforced the tendency for psychopathy, but not vice versa. Narcissism promoted future psychological IPV perpetration, but not vice versa. Our study illustrates how the Dark Triad traits accelerate psychological violence toward romantic partners and how such violence fosters the dark side of personality.
Naito, A. (内藤碧), Katahira, K. & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (2022). Insights about the common generative rule underlying an information foraging task can be facilitated via collective search. 情報探索課題を生成する共通法則の理解は、集団での探索によって促進される Scientific Reports, 12, 8047. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12126-3
Social learning is beneficial for efficient information search in unfamiliar environments (“within-task” learning). In the real world, however, possible search spaces are often so large that decision makers are incapable of covering all options, even if they pool their information collectively. One strategy to handle such overload is developing generalizable knowledge that extends to multiple related environments (“across-task” learning). However, it is unknown whether and how social information may facilitate such across-task learning. Here, we investigated participants’ social learning processes across multiple laboratory foraging sessions in spatially correlated reward landscapes that were generated according to a common rule. The results showed that paired participants were able to improve efficiency in information search across sessions more than solo participants. Computational analysis of participants’ choice-behaviors revealed that such improvement across sessions was related to better understanding of the common generative rule. Rule understanding was correlated within a pair, suggesting that social interaction is a key to the improvement of across-task learning.
Shimizu, Y. (清水佑輔), Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2022). Decreasing anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes: Conducting a 'Stereotype Embodiment Theory'-based intervention. 高齢者に対する差別的態度の軽減：ステレオタイプ・エンボディメント理論に基づいた介入の実施 European Journal of Social Psychology, 52(1), 174-190. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2823
Stereotype Embodiment Theory (SET) implies that people who hold negative attitudes towards the elderly are more likely to experience a decline in various cognitive/physical functions themselves. Anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes, which negatively affect the elderly’s health status, could be reduced by communicating the contents of SET to non-elderly people. To weaken anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes, in Study 1, we had participants read about SET and related empirical findings (SET intervention), which intended to increase their self-interested motives for avoiding anti-elderly discrimination. In Study 2, we conducted an ‘integrated intervention’ containing a SET intervention and one selected aspect of educational intervention (i.e., presenting some information about some commonly misunderstood aspects of the elderly). Consequently, the integrated/SET interventions reduced participants’ anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes and these effects persisted for at least 1 week. Our new interventions will be useful for those who work with the elderly.
Kameda, T. (亀田達也), Toyokawa, W., & Tindale, R.S. (2022). Information aggregation and collective intelligence beyond the wisdom of crowds. Nature Reviews Psychology. 「群衆の知恵」を超える情報統合と集合的知性 https://doi.org/10.1038/s44159-022-00054-y
In humans and other gregarious animals, collective decision-making is a robust behavioural feature of groups. Pooling individual information is also fundamental for modern societies, in which digital technologies have exponentially increased the interdependence of individual group members. In this Review, we selectively discuss the recent human and animal literature, focusing on cognitive and behavioural mechanisms that can yield collective intelligence beyond the wisdom of crowds. We distinguish between two group decision-making situations: consensus decision-making, in which a group consensus is required, and combined decision-making, in which a group consensus is not required. We show that in both group decision-making situations, cognitive and behavioural algorithms that capitalize on individual heterogeneity are the key for collective intelligence to emerge. These algorithms include accuracy or expertise-weighted aggregation of individual inputs and implicit or explicit coordination of cognition and behaviour towards division of labour. These mechanisms can be implemented either as ‘cognitive algebra’, executed mainly within the mind of an individual or by some arbitrating system, or as a dynamic behavioural aggregation through social interaction of individual group members. Finally, we discuss implications for collective decision-making in modern societies characterized by a fluid but auto-correlated flow of information and outline some future directions.
Ueshima, A.（上島淳史）, & Takikawa, H. (2021). Analyzing vaccination priority judgments for 132 occupations using word vector models. 132職業に対するワクチン接種優先度評定の単語ベクトルを用いた解析 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence. https://doi.org/10.1145/3498851.3498933
Most human societies conduct a high degree of division of labor based on occupation. However, determining the occupational field that should be allocated a scarce resource such as vaccine is a topic of debate, especially considering the COVID-19 situation. Though it is crucial that we understand and anticipate people’s judgments on resource allocation prioritization, quantifying the concept of occupation is a difficult task. In this study, we investigated how well people’s judgments on vaccination prioritization for different occupations could be modeled by quantifying their knowledge representation of occupations as word vectors in a vector space. The results showed that the model that quantified occupations as word vectors indicated high out-of-sample prediction accuracy, enabling us to explore the psychological dimension underlying the participants’ judgments. These results indicated that using word vectors for modeling human judgments about everyday concepts allowed prediction of performance and understanding of judgment mechanisms.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2022). Common names decreased in Japan: Further evidence of an increase in individualism. 日本で人気のある新生児の名前の割合は低下している：個人主義傾向の増加を示す更なる証拠 Experimental Results, 3, e5. https://doi.org/10.1017/exp.2021.27
Previous research has demonstrated that unique names increased in Japan, which shows a rise in uniqueness-seeking and individualism. To increase the validity of the prior findings, it is important to confirm the robustness of their results. Therefore, this study examined another indicator of historical changes in names in Japan. Specifically, I investigated whether the rates of common names decreased in Japan between 2004 and 2018. The dataset used in the previous study was analyzed. The results consistently showed that the rates of common names decreased for both boys and girls for the period. These results were consistent with the previous research, which further increases the validity of the finding that Japanese culture became more individualistic.
Hashimoto, H.（橋本博文）, Maeda, K.（前田楓）, & Matsumura, K.（松村楓） (2022). Fickle Judgments in Moral Dilemmas: Time Pressure and Utilitarian Judgments in an Interdependent Culture. 道徳ジレンマにおける「移ろいやすい」判断：相互協調文化におけるタイムプレッシャーと功利主義的判断の関係 Frontiers in Psychology, 13:795732. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.795732/full
In the trolley problem, a well-known moral dilemma, the intuitive process is believed to increase deontological judgments, while deliberative reasoning is thought to promote utilitarian decisions. Therefore, based on the dual-process model, there seems to be an attempt to save several lives at the expense of a few others in a deliberative manner. This study examines the validity of this argument. To this end, we manipulate decision-making time in the standard trolley dilemma to compare differences among 119 Japanese female undergraduates under three conditions: intuitive judgment, deliberative judgment, and judgment after a group discussion. The current results demonstrate that utilitarian judgments decreased from 52.9% in the intuition condition to 43.7% in the deliberation condition and 37.0% after the discussion. Additional analysis suggests that the decrease in utilitarian judgments may be related to psychological unwillingness to assume responsibility for the lives of others rather than to an increase in deontological judgments. Finally, these results are discussed from an adaptationist perspective.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (野村理朗) (2022). Relationships between right-wing authoritarianism and spirituality in Japan. 日本におけるRWAとスピリチュアリティの関係 Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/rel0000462
Right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) consists of two factors: authoritarianism—the tendency to venerate and submit to established authorities—and conventionalism—the propensity to protect traditional values. By focusing on ancestor and nature worship in Japan, this study highlighted the construct of RWA in terms of two aspects of spirituality: feelings of respect for and connectedness to higher-order entities, and feelings of universality and oneness with others. Study 1 (cross-sectional) indicated that the tendencies of ancestor worship predicted higher levels of authoritarianism, while those of nature worship predicted lower levels of conventionalism, even when controlling for general attitudes toward religious symbols. Study 2 (experimental) showed that while the recollection of spiritual experiences did not directly affect RWA, indirect routes via feelings of spirituality existed. Specifically, the recollection of an ancestor worship experience increased feelings of respect/connectedness for ancestors, which were related to higher levels of authoritarianism, and that of a nature worship experience increased feelings of universality/oneness under nature, which were associated with lower levels of conventionalism. These results provide a more nuanced understanding of RWA through demonstrating that RWA might be specifically associated with these two aspects of spirituality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)
Shimizu, Y（清水佑輔）., Hashimoto, T.（橋本剛明）, & Karasawa, K.（唐沢かおり） (2022). Influence of contact experience and germ aversion on negative attitudes toward older adults: Role of youth identity. 高齢者偏見に対する接触経験と感染嫌悪の影響：若者アイデンティティに着目して Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 829742. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.829742
The world’s population is currently aging, and the issue of ageism has become serious worldwide, including in Japan. Negative attitudes toward older adults can have undesirable effects on the mental and physical health of this group. We focused on the effects of contact experience with older adults and germ aversion, or the degree of aversion to infection, on negative attitudes toward older adults. Additionally, we included a moderating variable; youth identity, or the sense of belonging with younger rather than older age groups. An online survey was conducted with Japanese participants (N = 603). We conducted multiple regression analyses and the results showed that the interaction effect between youth identity and contact experience on negative attitudes toward older adults was significant. The findings suggest that contact experience may help in reducing negative attitudes toward older adults among people with low youth identity. The interaction effect between youth identity and germ aversion, however, was not significant. Academic research on the effects of some psychological interventions (e.g., intergenerational social exchange) should pay particular attention to the role of youth identity. Future directions for empirical studies are also discussed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2022). Further explanations for difficulties in reading recent Japanese names correctly. 近年の日本人の名前を正しく読むことの難しさに関する更なる説明 Frontiers in Education, 6, 799119. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.799119
A previous study analyzed the names of babies born in Japan between 2004 and 2018 and demonstrated that common writings have many variations in readings, which makes it difficult to choose the correct reading at first glance (Ogihara, 2021c). The study provides empirical evidence of the difficulties in reading recent Japanese names correctly. The current article answers three questions on Ogihara (2021c). Specifically, I explain 1) it is still difficult to read recent Japanese names correctly even if one tries to remember the most frequent readings of names 2) specific numbers of reading variations are not important, and 3) how we should deal with these difficulties. This new information would certainly help to further comprehend the difficulties in reading recent Japanese names correctly, which contributes to a better understanding of names and naming practices not only in Japan but also across the entire Sinosphere.
Maeda, K. (前田楓), Hashimoto, H. (橋本博文), Sato, K. (佐藤剛介) (2021). Creating a positive perception toward inclusive education with future-oriented thinking. 未来志向がインクルーシブ教育に対する肯定的な認識に及ぼす効果 BMC Research Notes, 14:467. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05882-4
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the ways that encouraged people to develop positive attitudes and perceptions toward inclusive education. The Japanese special needs education system for students with disabilities has been shifting from a segregated model to a more inclusive form which is the major challenge facing educational systems around the world. While support for inclusive practices has grown rapidly in Japan, their implementation requires more attention. Considering these situations, in the current study, we experimentally manipulated future-oriented thinking and examined whether positive perceptions about inclusive education was enhanced if people acknowledged and realized that an inclusive society may improve the long-term welfare of not only people with disabilities but also people without disabilities or functional limitations. Results: Our results partially confirmed that future-oriented thinking encouraged positive perceptions of inclusive education. It increased only when participants thought about the future employment of people with/without disabilities. No significant effects were found for the present orientation or control conditions.
Van Bavel, J.J., Cichocka, A., Capraro, V. et al. (2022). National identity predicts public health support during a global pandemic. 世界的パンデミック時の公衆衛生行動や政策支持とナショナル・アイデンティティの関連 Nature Communicaions, 13, 517. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27668-9
Changing collective behaviour and supporting non-pharmaceutical interventions is an important component in mitigating virus transmission during a pandemic. In a large international collaboration (Study 1, N = 49,968 across 67 countries), we investigated self-reported factors associated with public health behaviours (e.g., spatial distancing and stricter hygiene) and endorsed public policy interventions (e.g., closing bars and restaurants) during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-May 2020). Respondents who reported identifying more strongly with their nation consistently reported greater engagement in public health behaviours and support for public health policies. Results were similar for representative and non-representative national samples. Study 2 (N = 42 countries) conceptually replicated the central finding using aggregate indices of national identity (obtained using the World Values Survey) and a measure of actual behaviour change during the pandemic (obtained from Google mobility reports). Higher levels of national identification prior to the pandemic predicted lower mobility during the early stage of the pandemic (r = −0.40). We discuss the potential implications of links between national identity, leadership, and public health for managing COVID-19 and future pandemics.
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Ishizuna, A., Osaki, S., Hashimoto, T.(橋本剛明), Tai, M., Tanibe, T.(谷辺哲史), & Karasawa, K.(唐沢かおり) (2022). The social acceptance of smart health services in Japan. 日本におけるスマートヘルス関連事業への社会受容性 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(3), 1298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031298
In recent years, smart health (s-Health) services have gained momentum worldwide. The s-Health services obtain personal information and aim to provide efficient health and medical services based on these data. In Japan, active efforts to implement these services have increased, but there is a lack of social acceptance. This study examined social acceptance concerning various factors such as trust in the city government, perceived benefits, perceived necessity, perceived risk, and concern about interventions for individuals. An online survey was conducted, and Japanese participants (N = 720) were presented with a vignette depicting a typical s-Health service overview. The results of structural equation modeling showed that trust was positively related to perceived benefit and necessity and negatively related to perceived risk and concern about interventions for individuals. Perceived benefit and trust were positively related to social acceptance, and perceived risk was negatively related to acceptance. The model obtained in this study can help implement s-Health services in public. Empirical studies that contribute to improving public health by investigating the social acceptance of s-Health services should be conducted in the future.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2022). Common writings of baby names in Japan, 1989-2003: Explanation of survey data. 日本における新生児の名前の一般的な表記, 1989-2003: 調査データの説明 Data in Brief, 40, 107678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2021.107678
Previous research on Japanese names has analyzed the surveys on baby names conducted by Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company. The company displayed the yearly top 10 common writings of baby names between 1989 and 2003. However, it was unclear how the surveys for those 15 years were conducted. The data are necessary to evaluate the usableness of the surveys and conduct empirical research. Therefore, I asked the company for further data about the surveys. The methods of the surveys were consistent not only between 1989 and 2003, but also consistent with those between 2004 and 2018. The analyses on the annual sample sizes by gender showed that the surveys between 1989 and 2003 are comparable to the surveys between 2004 and 2018. The company is unable to access the raw data of these surveys, which makes it impossible to provide results other than the top 10 most common writings.
Shimizu, Y. (清水佑輔) (2022). Multiple desirable methods in outlier detection of univariate data with R source codes. 単変量データにおける外れ値の検出法およびRによる実装 Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 819854. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.819854
The existence of outliers has been a methodological obstacle in various literature. There are many cases when we should deal with outliers of univariate data. If inappropriate methods are used, it can lead to biased and wrong conclusions. The purpose of this opinion paper is reviewing more desirable methods for detecting outliers of univariate data (specifically, square root transformation, median absolute deviation, Grubbs’ test, and Ueda’s method), and presenting source code and sample data that allow us to conduct each detection method. These detection methods have desirable advantages over the conventional method and they are relatively easy to implement. In addition, the results of applying each outlier detection method to a real data set are shown. Presented methods in this article can be conducted using R, a free statistical software. By summarizing various outlier detection methods and providing analysis source codes, useful knowledge in psychological research can be provided.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), Tóth-Király, I., Knox, M. C., Taniguchi, J.(谷口淳一), & Niiya, Y. (新谷優). (2022). 日本語版状態セルフ・コンパッション尺度 (SSCS-J) の開発 Development of the Japanese Version of the State Self-Compassion Scale (SSCS-J). Frontiers in Psychology, 12:779318. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.779318
Research in the U.S. developed and validated the State Self-Compassion Scale (SSCS), which measures self-compassionate reactions toward a specific negative event. The current study is aimed at developing the Japanese version of the State Self-Compassion Scale (SSCS-J) and extending previous findings in the U.S. by showing measurement invariance across sexes and demonstrating the construct validity of this scale. Across two studies (n = 596 in Study 1, n = 474 in Study 2), the bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling representation of the SSCS-J showed excellent fit in which a single global factor (i.e., self-compassion) and most of the specific factors (six subscales) were well defined. Study 1 further provided evidence for the measurement invariance across sexes. The SSCS-J was related with higher trait self-compassion and lower fear of and negative beliefs about self-compassion. In Study 2, participants who were instructed to be self-compassionate reported higher scores in the SSCS-J relative to those in the control condition. These results attest to the replicability of the factor structure of the SSCS in Japan and provide further evidence for the construct validity of this scale.
Neff et al. (2021, Mindfulness) による状態セルフ・コンパッション尺度 (State Self-Compassion Scale) の日本語版です。Studies 1 and 2で、日本語版状態セルフ・コンパッション尺度 (SSCS-J) の因子構造を確認し、他の変数との関連から妥当性を検討しました。Study 2ではNeff et al. (2021) で用いられた状態的にセルフ・コンパッションを高める実験操作 (Self-compassionate mindstate induction) を用いて、セルフコンパッション群では統制群に比べて、状態セルフ・コンパッションが高いことを示しました。SSCS-Jの項目や日本語版Self-compassionate mindstate inductionの教示は論文の電子付録に掲載しております。
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2021). Social security number holders in the United States, 1909-2019. アメリカ（1909-2019）における社会保障番号保持者の割合 Frontiers in Big Data, 4:802256. https://doi.org/10.3389/fdata.2021.802256
Currently, a social security number (SSN) is held by almost every legal resident of the United States and works as an important numbering system. However, this was not the case in the early years of the Social Security program and historical changes in SSN holder rates had not been examined sufficiently. It is important to understand the changes in health policies and situations. Thus, the present article examined historical changes in the rates of SSN holders in the United States between 1909 and 2019. Analyses demonstrated that the rates clearly increased. Specifically, in Phase 1 (1909-1919), the rates were low in the early period, but they increased markedly. In Phase 2 (1919-1952), the rates continued to increase gradually. In Phase 3 (1952-2019), the rates were almost 100% and reached saturation. This basic information leads to a better understanding of the health policies and situations, contributing to medical and social science research.
Hiraoka, D.（平岡大樹）, Nomura, M., & Kato, M. (2021). Longitudinal Study of Maternal Beliefs About Infant Crying During the Postpartum Period: Interplay With Infant’s Temperament. 産褥期における乳児の泣き声に関する母親の信念の縦断的研究：乳児の気質との相互関係 Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 6041. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.786391
Infant crying is an important signal for their survival and development, and maternal beliefs about crying predict responsiveness to crying. Most studies have considered caregivers’ reactions to crying to be fixed, and it is unclear how they change with their caregiving experience. Additionally, it has recently been suggested that there is a bidirectional relationship between changes in mothers’ beliefs about crying and infants’ temperament. This study examined that relationship using a longitudinal study design. Maternal beliefs about crying and infant temperament of 339 Asian first-time mothers (mean age = 28.7 years, SD = 4.1) were measured at 1-month intervals over 4 months. There were 289 participants in Wave 2, 240 in Wave 3, and 164 in Wave 4. Prior to the main survey, we conducted a pre-survey to confirm the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Infant Crying Questionnaire. The results showed that parent-oriented beliefs, which focus on the caregiver rather than the crying infant, increased in mothers who had infants aged 3 months or older at Wave 1. We also found that the process of change in maternal beliefs was not uniform, and that infants high on surgency predicted changes in maternal beliefs about infant crying. Longitudinal studies of caregivers’ changes, such as the present study, are expected to contribute to understanding the co-development of caregivers and infants.
Hashimoto, H.（橋本博文）, & Maeda, K.（前田楓） (2021). Collegial organizational climate alleviates Japanese schoolteachers’ risk for burnout. 同僚的な学校組織風土は日本人教諭のバーンアウトリスクを軽減する Frontiers in Psychology, 12:737125. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.737125
The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of individuals’ help-seeking preference (HSP) and their collective perception of the organizational climate in school on teachers’ mental health. Previous studies demonstrated that HSP was negatively associated with risk of burnout, suggesting that teachers who hesitate to seek help from their colleagues are more likely to have mental health problems. Thus, the current study hypothesized that a collegial organizational climate would be negatively associated with burnout. To test this hypothesis, we developed a scale to measure schoolteachers’ collective perception of their organizational climate (Study 1), and the newly developed scale was used to assess its relationship with HSP and teachers’ burnout risk (Study 2). The results demonstrated that younger teachers, a low level of help-seeking, and a less collaborative climate increased the risk of burnout. The results also showed a significant interaction effect, indicating that HSP was less closely associated with teachers’ burnout risk if their organization was perceived as having a collegial climate. These findings clearly show how the social environment of a school’s organizational climate can affect schoolteachers’ mental health in Japan.
Shimizu, Y. (清水 佑輔) (2021). An overlooked perspective in psychological interventions to reduce anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes. 高齢者に対する差別的態度の軽減を目指した心理学的介入の盲点 Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 765394. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.765394
The world’s population is aging at a remarkable rate. In this aging society, intergenerational conflicts between the elderly and the rest of the population are frequently observed in many workplaces and nursing care. Anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes held by non-elderly people have been examined as one of the major causes of such intergenerational conflicts. This opinion paper will begin with a broad overview of the interventions that have been implemented to reduce anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes. Then, an important perspective specific to a social group of the elderly, which have not been sufficiently paid attention to, is pointed out; all people will eventually belong to a social group of the elderly. As a theory that incorporates this perspective, Levy’s (2009) stereotype embodiment theory (SET) will be introduced, and a typical factor (i.e., subjective time to become elderly) that should be focused on in future interventions to reduce anti-elderly discriminatory attitudes, will be discussed.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基) & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一). (2021). Sticking fewer (or more) pins into a doll? The role of self-compassion in the relations between interpersonal goals and aggression. 対人目標と攻撃性の関連におけるセルフコンパッションの役割 Motivation and Emotion. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-021-09913-2
Through two studies that utilized pin counts in the voodoo doll aggression task, we tested how compassionate and self-image goals in relationships were associated with aggressive inclinations. Participants in Study 1 (N = 381) recalled and wrote about an experience of being accepted or rejected and participants in Study 2 (N = 391) imagined themselves in hypothetical scenarios of being rejected either by a romantic partner or a supervisor. Regardless of the type of event (Study 1) or rejecter (Study 2), compassionate goals were related to higher self-compassionate reactions that were in turn linked to lower aggressive inclinations, whereas self-image goals were associated with higher aggressive inclinations through lower self-compassionate reactions. Study 2 showed that nonzero-sum beliefs accounted for positive associations between compassionate goals and self-compassionate reactions. Considered together, our findings implied that people who pursue compassionate goals might hold nonzero-sum beliefs that their well-being is connected with those of others and, thus, might display self-compassionate reactions that are linked to lower aggressive inclinations.
Voodoo doll課題を用いた2つの研究で、関係性における思いやり目標と自己イメージ目標がどのように攻撃性と関連するかを検討しました。研究１(N = 381) では、参加者は他者から受容あるいは排斥された出来事を想起し、研究２(N=391)では、参加者は恋愛相手あるいは上司から排斥されたシナリオを読みました。出来事や排斥者の種類にかかわらず、思いやり目標はセルフコンパッションの高さを介して攻撃性の低さと関連していました。一方、自己イメージ目標はセルフコンパッションの低さを介して攻撃性の高さと関連していました。研究２では、思いやり目標とセルフコンパッションの正の関連性が関係性におけるノンゼロサム信念により媒介されることが示されました。以上の結果から、思いやり目標の高い人は、自分と他者のウェルビーイングがつながっているというノンゼロサム信念を有しているため、攻撃性の低さと関連するセルフコンパッションを用いやすいことが示唆されました。
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2021). Direct evidence of the increase in unique names in Japan: The rise of individualism. 日本における個性的な名前の増加: 個人主義傾向の上昇 Current Research in Behavioral Sciences, 2, 100056. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crbeha.2021.100056
Previous research analyzed rankings of common baby names and indicated that common names decreased in Japan, suggesting an increase in uniqueness-seeking and individualism. However, it did not directly examine whether unique names increased. To adequately understand the historical changes in naming practices and underlying cultural trends, overcoming this limitation is important. Therefore, I analyzed raw data on baby names and directly examined the historical changes in the rates of unique names in Japan between 2004 and 2018. The results showed that the rates of unique names increased for both boys and girls, providing further evidence of the rise in uniqueness-seeking and individualism. Additionally, unique names increased more rapidly for girls than for boys, which may suggest that parents came to have stronger hope for their daughters that they become unique and independent. This is new evidence showing that sex is a moderating factor of cultural changes in naming in Japan.
Shimizu, Y. (清水佑輔), Osaki, S., Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2021). How do people view various kinds of smart city services? Focus on the acquisition of personal information. 人々はスマートシティ関連サービスをどのように捉えているのか：個人情報の取得という観点に着目して Sustainability, 13(19), 11062. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911062
In smart city services, large volumes of personal information are generally captured, and urban development is based on that data. However, people do not always have accepting attitudes toward smart city services. The purpose of this study was to identify the expectations and anxieties that people have toward five typical services in smart cities (social credit, artificial intelligence (AI) cameras, health information, garbage collection, and automatic vehicles) by using mainly open-ended questions. An online survey was conducted with Japanese participants by presenting them with one of the five vignettes about the services described above. The results showed that the participants’ expectations from each service were distinctly different between the vignettes. Anxieties about the leakage of personal information were found for the vignettes of social credit and health information. For the vignettes of AI cameras and garbage collection, anxieties that privacy would not be sufficiently ensured and that people would be involved in a surveillance society were noted. Additionally, the participants tended to exhibit lower accepting attitudes toward services considered to capture a large amount of personal information. We believe that our findings are meaningful to operators leading smart city projects and researchers in urban planning and psychology.
Miyagawa, Y.(宮川裕基), Niiya, Y.(新谷優), & Taniguchi, J.(谷口淳一) (2021). Compassionate goals and responses to social rejection: A mediating role of self-compassion. 思いやり目標と社会的排斥への反応：セルフコンパッションによる媒介過程 Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02345-8
The present study examined how people with compassionate goals cope with the threat of social rejection. Specifically, we tested whether self-compassion mediates the associations between compassionate goals and adaptive responses in the wake of social rejection. Participants (n = 358) first filled out the measure of compassionate goals and then described their personal experience of being rejected by others in their life. Later, they reported their levels of self-compassionate reactions toward their experience, fundamental need satisfaction, and revenge intention toward the rejecter. A path model showed that self-compassionate reactions mediated the relations of compassionate goals to higher satisfaction of fundamental needs, B = 0.170, 95%CI [0.062, 0.273], and lower revenge intention, B = −0.077, 95%CI [−0.164, −0.027]. These mediation pathways remained significant for current need satisfaction, B = 0.196, 95%CI [0.089, 0.290], and revenge intention, B = −0.079, 95%CI [−0.161, −0.029], even after controlling for the characteristics of rejection experiences. This study highlights that people who pursue compassionate goals would likely engage in self-compassion to cope with social rejection and thus maintain greater intra-and interpersonal well-being.
Murayama, A.（村山綾）, Miura, A.（三浦麻子）, & Furutani, K.（古谷嘉一郎） (2021). Cross-cultural comparison of engagement in ultimate and immanent justice reasoning. 究極的・内在的公正推論への関与の文化間比較 Asian Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12510
We investigated direct cross-cultural differences in individuals’ immanent and ultimate justice reasoning about others’ misfortunes, focusing on deservingness as a mediating variable. Participants from the United States and Japan read a scenario describing a subject’s misfortune. The target subject’s moral worth was manipulated as that of a respected person or a thief. After reading the scenario, participants completed questionnaires containing items on immanent and ultimate justice reasoning as well as deservingness of receiving the misfortune and of future restitution. The analysis revealed that Japanese respondents tended to engage more in immanent justice reasoning than did American respondents when the target subject was of low moral worth, while American participants overall engaged more in ultimate justice reasoning compared with Japanese. Our hypotheses on the mediation effect of deservingness on the relationship between country and justice reasoning were partly supported. These findings suggest that an exploration of cultural differences in justice reasoning, incorporating the role of deservingness, can contribute to extending and strengthening the theory of justice reasoning.
Shimizu, Y. (清水佑輔), Osaki, S., Hashimoto, T. (橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K. (唐沢かおり) (2021). The social acceptance of collecting and utilizing personal information in smart cities. スマートシティにおける個人情報の取得・活用に対する社会的受容の検討 Sustainability, 13(16), 9146. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169146
In recent years, active efforts to implement smart cities have increased worldwide. In smart cities, a large amount of personal information is captured, and urban development is based on these data. In Japan, implementations of smart cities continue to gain momentum, but the issue of social acceptance has become apparent, as smart cities are not fully accepted by citizens because of concerns about data leaks and misuse of personal information. This study examines the social acceptance of collecting and utilizing personal information in smart cities in relation to a variety of factors such as trust and perceptions of risk, justice, benefit, and necessity. An online survey was conducted wherein participants (N = 568) were presented with a vignette depicting an overview of a typical smart city. The results of structural equation modeling showed that perceived justice was positively related to trust and trust was negatively related to perceived risk and positively related to perceived benefit and necessity. Trust, perceived benefit, and perceived necessity were significantly related to social acceptance, with trust having the greatest relationship. The model obtained in this study contributes to practical efforts for the implementation of smart cities, and future directions are discussed.
Horita, Y. （堀田結孝）(2021). Conjecturing harmful intent and preemptive strike in paranoia. パラノイアにおける危害的な意図の推測と先制攻撃 Frontiers in Psychology, 12:726081. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.726081
Paranoia depicts a belief of others having harmful intent. Research using economic games has exhibited the correlation between paranoia and the propensity to characterize ambiguous intentions as harmful. Using a non-clinical sample recruited online from the United States (N=290), we examined whether paranoid thoughts influence aggressive behavior against the subjective perception of harmful intent. We conducted a preemptive strike game wherein aggressive behavior was assumed to be guided by the fear of an opponent. The outcomes indicate that (1) individuals with high paranoia assume harmful intent of an opponent more than those with low paranoia (2) conjecturing an opponent’s harmful intent predicted an increase in the probability of a preemptive strike, and (3) paranoia did not have a statistically significant effect on encouraging a preemptive strike. Additionally, the exploratory analysis revealed that paranoia was related to participant’s aggressiveness and with suppositions of other’s self-interests and competitiveness. This study presents empirical evidence that paranoia is related to the perception of social threats in an uncertain situation. We discuss the possibility that paranoid ideation can promote or inhibit a preemptive strike.
Murphy, S. L., Ozaki, Y.（尾崎由佳）, Friese, M., & Hofmann, W. (2021). Testing buddha: Is acute desire associated with lower momentary happiness? ブッダを検証する：激しい欲望は幸福感の一時的低下と関連するか Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-021-00362-9
A central Buddhist claim is that having desires causes suffering. While this tenet draws from the belief that an acute desire state is more momentarily aversive than a no-desire state, the efficacy of this belief has yet to be comprehensively examined. To empirically investigate this claim, we furnished data from two experience sampling studies across USA/Canadian (N = 101; 3224 observations) and Japanese cultures (N = 237; 8497 observations). We compared states of acute desire with states of no desire regarding momentary happiness. We then tested, in an additional step, whether acute desires at greater conflict with personal goals were associated with even lower levels of momentary happiness. Findings were consistent across studies, with participants experiencing greater momentary happiness when not experiencing a desire compared to experiencing acute desire. Also, the greater the desire conflicted with important goals the lower the momentary happiness. The present findings support a key basis of the Buddhist belief that having desires causes suffering, showing acute desire states on average to be more aversive than no desire states.
【Abstractの日本語訳】仏教の中心的な主張は、「欲望があると苦しみが生じる」というものである。この主張は、欲望がある状態の方が、欲望がない状態よりも一時的な嫌悪感を抱くという信念に基づいている、この信念の有効性についてはまだ包括的に検証されていない。この主張を実証的に検討するために、アメリカ・カナダ文化圏（N = 101名; 3224ケース）と日本文化圏（N = 237名; 8497ケース）の2つの経験サンプリング法による調査データを取得した。一時的な幸福について、欲望が強い状態と、欲望がない状態を比較した。さらに、個人的な目標との葛藤が極めて大きい欲望が、一時的な幸福感のさらなる低下と関連するかどうかを検証した。その結果として一貫して見られたパターンは、欲望がない状態の方が、激しい欲望がある状態よりも一時的の幸福感が大きいということであった。また、欲望が重要な目標と葛藤するほど、一時的な幸福感は低くなった。今回の結果は、「欲望があると苦しみが生じる」という仏教の考え方の重要な根拠を裏付けるものであり、平均して、激しい欲望を経験している状態は、欲望がない状態よりも嫌悪感が強いことを示している。
Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, & Watanabe, K. (2021). Caring about you: the motivational component of mentalizing, not the mental state attribution component, predicts religious belief in Japan. 心的状態の理解の正確性ではなく、理解しようとする傾向が、宗教的信念の個人差を説明する Religion, Brain & Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2021.1939767
Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between mentalizing and religious belief. However, mentalizing can be broken down into several components, and there are certain measures that correspond to such components. This study aimed to examine the relationship between mentalizing and religious belief using two representative measures, the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET). The results of two studies with Japanese samples showed that the EQ predicted increasing religious belief (study 1), as expected. However, the RMET was not a significant predictor of religious belief (studies 1 and 2). These findings suggest that mentalizing’s mental state attribution component (i.e., matching appropriate mental state words to facial expressions in the eye region) is not directly connected to religious belief. However, the motivational component (i.e., caring about what other people think and feel) is essential for believing in supernatural agents. This study’s limitations and directions for future studies are also discussed.
Yamagata, M.（山縣芽生）, Teraguchi, T.（寺口司）, & Miura, A.（三浦麻子） (in press). Effects of Pathogen-Avoidance Tendency on Infection-Prevention Behaviors and Exclusionary Attitudes toward Foreigners: A Longitudinal Study of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Japan. 感染忌避傾向が感染予防行動および外国人に対する排斥意識に及ぼす影響―日本におけるCOVID-19感染禍を対象とした縦断的研究 Japanese Psychological Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12377
This study investigated the changes in public behaviors and attitudes following the spread of COVID-19 in Japan. Using a longitudinal approach that analyzes the movement of an unpredictable and real infection threat to explain and predict human behavior during the pandemic—a novel approach in behavioral immune system research—a panel survey was conducted on Japanese citizens. The results of the survey, conducted in late January, mid-February, and early March 2020, indicated that the influence of the interaction between the changes in situational infection threat and individual differences in pathogen-avoidance tendency on infection-prevention behaviors and exclusionary attitudes toward foreigners was not significant. Moreover, frequent contact with foreigners had a mitigating effect on exclusionary attitudes. The study thus provided a valuable contribution to the application of behavioral immune-system responses to problems associated with infection threats. Moreover, consideration of the aspects of adaptive reaction and social learning allowed us to observe the process of adaptive strategies in novel environments under conditions of high ecological validity and to accurately understand the psychological response to infectious disease outbreaks.
Ogihara, Y (荻原祐二). (2021). I know the name well, but cannot read it correctly: Difficulties in reading recent Japanese names. その名前をよく知っているが、正しく読めない: 近年の日本人の名前を読むことの難しさ Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8, 151. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00810-0
Previous literature has mentioned the difficulty in reading recent Japanese names correctly. However, this difficulty has not been empirically demonstrated. Thus, it is unclear to what extent and how it is difficult. Therefore, this paper provides empirical evidence of the difficulty in reading Japanese names correctly. Data including names of babies born between 2004 and 2018 were analyzed. The results showed that common writings have many variations in reading, which makes it difficult (or almost impossible) to choose the correct reading among many options. For example, one of the common writings for boys, 大翔 had 18 variations in reading, and for girls, 結愛 had 14 variations in reading. These variations differed remarkably in pronunciation, length, and meaning. Empirically reporting this difficulty in reading Japanese names correctly contributes to a better understanding of naming practices not only in Japan but also in vast regions where Chinese characters are/were used.
Murayama, A.（村山綾） and Miura, A.（三浦麻子） (2021). Religiosity and Immanent Justice Reasoning: A Replication Study in Japan and the U.S.. 宗教性と内在的公正推論：日米における追試研究 Japanese Psychological Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12367
Previous studies have investigated the importance of religiosity in enhancing peopleʼs justice reasoning, yet the findings have been limited to the Western culture, where a majority of people believe in Christianity. In order to investigate the effect of cultural difference and of religiosity on immanent justice reasoning, we compared and contrasted the degree of engagement in immanent justice reasoning regarding someoneʼs misfortune among American Christians, Japanese Buddhists, and nonreligious participants in the two cultures. The analysis found that among Americans, those who believed in Christianity engaged in stronger immanent justice reasoning toward an unfortunate person with lower moral values than did participants without a particular faith. The Japanese, on the other hand, showed stronger immanent justice reasoning for people with lower moral values, regardless of their faith. In addition, when the person had low moral value, the Japanese tended to engage in such reasoning more strongly than did Americans. Our results showed that religious beliefs may contribute to strengthening engagement in immanent justice reasoning in the Western culture, but such a generalization may not be accurate in other cultures.
Kobayashi, T.（小林哲郎）, Miura, A.（三浦麻子）, Madrid-Morales, D., & Shimizu, H.（清水裕士） (2021). Why are politically active people avoided in countries with collectivistic culture? A cross-cultural experiment. なぜ集団主義文化の諸国では政治参加する人々が嫌われるのか？：文化比較実験 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology ,52(4), 388-405. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F00220221211008653
Although most democratic theories assume that political participation other than voting constitutes an essential input to the political process, little is known about the cultural universality of this assumption. Drawing on cultural psychology findings derived from the widely shared framework of collectivism versus individualism, the present study tests the hypothesis that political demonstrators in collectivistic countries are socially avoided because they are perceived to be a threat to harmonious interpersonal relationships. A cross-national experiment in eight countries (US, UK, France, Germany, Japan, China, South Korea, and India) and one region (Hong Kong) indicated that political demonstrators are socially avoided, and this tendency was significantly stronger in collectivistic countries. Moderated-mediation analyses suggested that the social avoidance of political demonstrators in collectivistic countries is mediated by the perception that they are a threat to harmonious interpersonal relationships. The cross-cultural validity of democratic theory is discussed.
Miyajima, T. (宮島健), & Murakami, F. (村上史朗) (2021). Self-Interested framed and prosocially framed messaging can equally promote COVID-19 prevention intention: A replication and extension of Jordan et al.’s study (2020) in the Japanese context 「自己利益」を強調したメッセージと「他者利益」を強調したメッセージは同程度にCOVID-19の感染予防行動意図を高める：Jordanらの研究（2020）の日本の文脈における再現と拡張 Frontiers in Psychology, 12: 1341 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.605059
How can we effectively promote the public’s prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection? Jordan et al. (2020) found with United States samples that emphasizing either self-interest or collective-interest of prevention behaviors could promote the public’s prevention intention. Moreover, prosocially framed messaging was more effective in motivating prevention intention than self-interested messaging. A dual consideration of both cultural psychology and the literature on personalized matching suggests the findings of Jordan et al. (2020) are counterintuitive, because persuasion is most effective when the frame of the message delivered and the recipient of the message are culturally congruent. In order to better understand the potential influence of culture, the current research aimed to replicate and extend Jordan et al. (2020) findings in the Japanese context. Specifically, we examined the question (1) whether the relative effectiveness of the prosocial appeal is culturally universal and robust, (2) which types of ‘others’ especially promote prevention intention, and (3) which psychological mechanisms can explain the impact of messaging on prevention intention. In Study 1 (N = 1,583), we confirmed that self-interested framed, prosocially framed, and the combination of both types of messaging were equally effective in motivating prevention intention. In Study 2 (N = 1,686), we found that family-framed messaging also had a promoting effect similar to that from self-interested and prosocial appeals. However, the relative advantage of prosocial appeals was not observed. Further, a psychological propensity relevant to sensitivity to social rejection did not moderate the impact of messaging on prevention intention in both studies. These results suggest that since engaging in the infection control itself was regarded as critical by citizens after public awareness of COVID-19 prevention has been sufficiently heightened, for whom we should act might not have mattered. Further, concerns for social rejection might have had less impact on the prevention intentions under these circumstances. These results suggest that the relative advantage of a prosocial appeal might not be either culturally universal or prominent in a collectivistic culture. Instead, they suggest that the advantages of such an appeal depends on the more dynamic influence of COVID-19 infection.
Hackel, J., Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Okada, I.(岡田勇), Goto, A.(後藤晶), & Taudes, A. (2021). Asymmetric effects of social and economic incentives on cooperation in real effort based public goods games. 努力投入型公共財ゲームにおける社会的・経済的インセンティブの非対称な効果 PLOS ONE, 16(4), e0249217. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249217
Many practitioners as well as researchers explore promoting environmentally conscious behavior in the context of public goods systems. Numerous experimental studies revealed various types of incentives to increase cooperation on public goods. There is ample evidence that monetary and non-monetary incentives, such as donations, have a positive effect on cooperation in public goods games that exceeds fully rational and optimal economic decision making. Despite an accumulation of these studies, in the typical setting of these experiments participants decide on an allocation of resources to a public pool, but they never exert actual effort. However, in reality, we often observe that players’ real effort is required in these public goods game situations. Therefore, more analysis is needed to draw conclusions for a wider set of incentive possibilities in situations similar to yet deviating from resource allocation games. Here we construct a real effort public goods game in an online experiment and statistically analyze the effect different types of incentives have on cooperation. In our experiment, we examine combinations of monetary and social incentives in a setting aimed closer to practical realities, such as financial costs and real effort forming part of the decision to cooperate on a public good. In our real effort public goods game participants cooperate and defect on image-scoring tasks. We find that in our setting economic and social incentives produce an asymmetric effect. Interestingly economic incentives decreased the share of highly uncooperative participants, while social incentives raised the share of highly cooperative participants.
Okada, I.(岡田勇), Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Akiyama, E., & Toriumi, F. (2021). Cooperation in spatial public good games depends on the locality effects of game, adaptation, and punishment. 空間公共財ゲームにおける相互作用・懲罰・学習の局所効果 Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7642. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-86668-3
Despite intensive studies on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games, there have been few investigations into locality effects in interaction games, adaptation, and punishment. Here we analyze locality effects using an agent-based model of a regular graph. Our simulation shows that a situation containing a local game, local punishment, and global adaptation leads to the most robustly cooperative regime. Further, we show an interesting feature in local punishment. Previous studies showed that a local game and global adaptation are likely to generate cooperation. However, they did not consider punishment. We show that if local punishment is introduced in spatial public goods games, a situation satisfying either local game or local adaptation is likely to generate cooperation. We thus propose two principles. One is if interactions in games can be restricted locally, it is likely to generate cooperation independent of the interaction situations on punishment and adaptation. The other is if the games must be played globally, a cooperative regime requires both local punishment and local adaptation.
Meng, X., Ishii, T.(石井辰典), Sugimoto, K., Itakura, S., & Watanabe, K. (2021). Source Memory and Social Exchange in Young Children. 社会的交換における幼児のソースメモリ Cognitive Processing https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-021-01028-3
Reciprocal interactions require memories of social exchanges; however, little is known about how we remember social partner actions, especially during childhood when we start forming peer-to-peer relationships. This study examined if the expectation-violation effect, which has been observed in adults’ source memory, exists among 5–6-year-old children. Forty participants played a coin collection game where they either received or lost coins after being shown an individual with a smiling or angry expression. This set-up generated congruent (smiling-giver and angry-taker) versus incongruent (smiling-taker and angry-giver) conditions. In the subsequent tasks, the children were asked to recall which actions accompanied each individual. The children considered the person with incongruent conditions as being stranger that the person with congruent conditions, suggesting that the former violated the children’s emotion-based expectations. However, no heightened source memory was found for the incongruent condition. Instead, children seem to better recognise the action of angry individuals than smiling individuals, suggesting that angry facial expressions are more salient for children’s source memory in a social exchange.