Jackson, J. C., Halberstadt, J., Takezawa, M.(竹澤正哲), Liew, K., Smith, K., Apicella, C., & Gray, K. (2023). Generalized morality culturally evolves as an adaptive heuristic in large social networks. 汎化された道徳観は大きな社会的ネットワークにおける適応的ヒューリスティクスとして文化進化する Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000358
Why do people assume that a generous person should also be honest? Why do we even use words like “moral” and “immoral”? We explore these questions with a new model of how people perceive moral character. We propose that people vary in the extent to which they perceive moral character as “localized” (varying along many contextually embedded dimensions) versus “generalized” (varying along a single dimension from morally bad to morally good). This variation might be partly the product of cultural evolutionary adaptations to different kinds of social networks. As networks grow larger, perceptions of generalized morality are increasingly valuable for predicting cooperation during partner selection, especially in novel contexts. Our studies show that social network size correlates with perceptions of generalized morality in United States and international samples (Study 1) and that East African hunter–gatherers with greater exposure outside their local region perceive morality as more generalized compared to those who have remained in their local region (Study 2). We support the adaptive value of generalized morality in large and unfamiliar social networks with an agent-based model (Study 3), and in experiments where we manipulate partner unfamiliarity (Study 4). Our final study shows that perceptions of morality have become more generalized over the last 200 years of English-language history, which suggests that it may be coevolving with rising social complexity and anonymity in the English-speaking world (Study 5). We discuss the implications of this theory for the cultural evolution of political systems, religion, and taxonomical theories of morality.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2023). Chinese culture became more individualistic: Evidence from family structure, 1953-2017. 中国文化は個人主義化している：家族構造を対象とした検証（1953-2017） F1000Research, 12, 10. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.128448.3
Previous research has indicated that some aspects of Chinese culture became more individualistic. However, prior studies have suggested a decrease in individualism in other aspects of China. Thus, it was unclear whether China became more individualistic. Therefore, the current research investigated whether Chinese culture became more individualistic by examining historical changes in family structure. Specifically, I analyzed temporal shifts in the divorce rate and household size, which have been confirmed as valid representative indicators of individualism. Results showed that the divorce rate increased between 1978 and 2017 and household size decreased between 1953 and 2017, indicating a rise in individualism. Moreover, analyses suggested that the one-child policy was unlikely the sole and major factor in the decrease in household size. Additionally, the aggregated score of divorce rate and household size demonstrated a clear increase in individualism. Therefore, the present research provided further evidence of the rise in individualism in China.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基) (2023). Self-compassion promotes self-concept clarity and self-change in response to negative events. 困難時にセルフコンパッションを高めることで自己概念の明確性と自己変容が促される Journal of Personality. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12885
Objective: Negative events tend to reduce self-concept clarity, which could hinder self-change. Three studies (total n = 1603) including two preregistered tested whether inducing self-compassion in response to negative events promotes self-concept clarity and self-change. Methods: Participants engaged in either a self-compassionate or a control writing task regarding negative events. They responded to the scales of self-concept clarity and self-change before and after the manipulation. Self-change was assessed using two indicators: self-improvement regarding the negative aspects of the self (i.e., negativity transformation, Studies 1–3) and openness to self-change (Studies 2 and 3). In Study 3, self-esteem and affect were assessed to test alternative processes. Results: Across the studies, participants induced to be self-compassionate reported higher levels of self-concept clarity, negativity transformation (except in Study 1), and openness to self-change. Studies 2 and 3 found that self-concept clarity mediated the effect of self- compassion on openness to self-change. Study 3 indicated that this indirect effect remained significant, while the indirect effect of self-compassion on negativity transformation was nonsignificant when self-esteem and affect were considered. Conclusions: Overall, boosting self-compassion in response to negative events could help people retain self-concept clarity and, thus, be open to self-change. Self-compassion could also orient people to engage in negativity transformation.
Kuroda, K. (黒田起吏), Takahashi, M.(髙橋茉優), & Kameda, T.(亀田達也) (2023). Majority rule can help solve difficult tasks even when confident members opt out to serve individual interests. 自信のあるメンバーが自己利益を求めていなくなっても、多数決は困難な課題の解決に役立つ Sci Rep, 13(14836). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-42080-7
When sharing a common goal, confident and competent members are often motivated to contribute to the group, boosting its decision performance. However, it is unclear whether this process remains effective when members can opt in or out of group decisions and prioritize individual interests. Our laboratory experiment (n = 63) and cognitive modeling showed that at the individual level, confidence, competence, and a preference for risk motivated participants’ opt-out decisions. We then analyzed the group-level accuracy of majority decisions by creating many virtual groups of 25 members resampled from the 63 participants in the experiment. Whereas the majority decisions by voters who preferred to participate in group decision making were inferior to individual decisions by loners who opted out in an easy task, this was reversed in a difficult task. Bootstrap-simulation analyses decomposed these outcomes into the effects of a decrease in group size and a decrease in voters’ accuracy accruing from the opt-in/out mechanism, demonstrating how these effects interacted with task difficulty. Our results suggest that the majority rule still works to tackle challenging problems even when individual interests are emphasized over collective performance, playing a functional as well as a democratic role in consensus decision making under uncertainty.
Kuroda, K. (黒田起吏), Ogura, Y., Ogawa, A., Tamei, T., Ikeda, K., & Kameda, T (亀田達也). (2022). Behavioral and neuro-cognitive bases for emergence of norms and socially shared realities via dynamic interaction. 動的な相互作用を通じた規範と社会的な共有現実の創発を支える行動・神経認知的基盤 Communications Biology, 5(1), 1379. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-04329-1
In the digital era, new socially shared realities and norms emerge rapidly, whether they are beneficial or harmful to our societies. Although these are emerging properties from dynamic interaction, most research has centered on static situations where isolated individuals face extant norms. We investigated how perceptual norms emerge endogenously as shared realities through interaction, using behavioral and fMRI experiments coupled with computational modeling. Social interactions fostered convergence of perceptual responses among people, not only overtly but also at the covert psychophysical level that generates overt responses. Reciprocity played a critical role in increasing the stability (reliability) of the psychophysical function within each individual, modulated by neural activity in the mentalizing network during interaction. These results imply that bilateral influence promotes mutual cognitive anchoring of individual views, producing shared generative models at the collective level that enable endogenous agreement on totally new targets–one of the key functions of social norms.
Yang, F.(楊帆), & Oka, T(岡隆). (2022). The role of mindfulness and attachment security in facilitating resilience. マインドフルネスと愛着安定性のレジリエンスを促進することにおける役割 BMC Psychology, 10(1), 69. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-022-00772-1
Background In recent years, there has been growing interest in exploring ways to facilitate positive psychological dispositions, including resilience. The goal of the present study was to explore the possibility that trait mindfulness facilitates attachment security and thus enhances resilience. Methods We conducted two studies based on cross-sectional surveys. In Study 1, data of 207 students studying in Japan was collected. In Study 2, we used a different sample of 203 participants and different measurements to replicate the findings of Study 1. Results The results of Study 1 revealed that mindfulness positively predicted resilience, while attachment anxiety and avoidance were mediators between mindfulness and resilience. The results of Study 2 showed that mindfulness positively predicted resilience, and the mediating effect of attachment avoidance was significant, but the mediating effect of attachment anxiety was not significant. Conclusions It is possible to facilitate attachment security through cultivating trait mindfulness, and in this way, resilience could be enhanced. The effect of different components of mindfulness on attachment and resilience requires further studies.
Yang, F.(楊帆), & Oka, T(岡隆). (2023). Free from your experiences to grow: Belief in free will moderates the relationship between attachment avoidance and personal growth initiative. 経験を超えて成長する：自由意志信念は、愛着回避と自己成長主導性の関連を調整する BMC Psychology, 11(1), 243. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-023-01289-x
Background: Attachment theory proposes that attachment security facilitates personal growth. However, attachment security origins in relationship history, and thus, how people treat their experiences may influence the outcomes of attachment security. People differ in the degree in believing that human beings have free will, and belief in free will may influence the relationship between experiences and outcomes. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationships between attachment security, belief in free will, and personal growth initiative. Methods: We used the cross-sectional data of 346 Chinese college students for data analysis, including correlational analyses, regression, and moderation analyses. The nine-item Chinese version of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures Scale, the sixteen-item Chinese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II, and the seven-item Free Will subscale of the Chinese version of the Free Will and Determinism Plus Scale were utilized. Results: Results showed attachment avoidance and belief in free will, not attachment anxiety, was associated with personal growth initiative. Belief in free will moderated the association between attachment avoidance and personal growth initiative. When the centered score of belief in free will was higher than 0.64, attachment avoidance was no longer associated with personal growth initiative. 85.84% of our data were below this Johnson-Neyman significance region, and 14.16% were above. In other words, only those who scored higher than 0.64 on free will beliefs were able to pursue personal growth despite their high attachment avoidance. Conclusions: These findings suggest that when believing in free will, avoidantly attached people may believe in their ability to pursue personal growth and think their future has more possibilities, not influenced by other factors like social support, which they think they lack.
Meng, X., Ishii, T. (石井辰典), Nakawake, Y. (中分 遥), Sugimoto, K., Moriguchi, Y., Kanakogi, Y., & Watanabe, K. (2023). Children attribute higher social status to people who have extraordinary capacities. 子どもは超越的な能力と社会的優位性を結びつける Cognition, 239, 105576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2023.105576
Throughout history, individuals believed to have extraordinary capabilities were generally highly ranked in their communities; this suggests a universal “extraordinary-dominant expectation” in human minds, which may play a key role in religious thought, even in modern societies. This study shows that 5–6-year-old children, who begin to understand real-world causalities regarding how the body and mind of human beings work, predict that individuals who exhibit extraordinary capabilities have higher social status in interactions with individuals who exhibit ordinary capabilities. In Experiment 1, we showed children two individuals achieving goals using either humanly possible or impossible methods, the latter involving simple forms of violation of intuitive psychology (knowing without seeing), physics (flying), or biology (fire breathing). The children clearly judged the latter as surprising and unusual. More importantly, the children predicted that individuals showing extraordinary capabilities will gain contested resources and play a dominant role in interactions with ordinary individuals, indicating a higher social status. Further investigations suggested that the children specifically linked extraordinary capacities to social status, as they did not attribute dominance to individuals who apply surprising/unusual but possible methods (Experiment 2), and that they did not indiscriminately attribute positive characteristics to extraordinary capabilities despite a strong extraordinary-dominant expectation being replicated (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that extraordinary-dominant expectations can be observed in childhood across different intuitive knowledge domains, helping understand the cognitive mechanisms of religious thought and the cognitive foundations of hierarchical social systems.
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Hashimoto, T.(橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K.(唐沢かおり) (2023). Reducing negative attitudes toward older adults and increasing advocacy for policies to support older adults: Bayesian analysis approach. 高齢者への否定的態度と高齢者支援政策に対する重視度の改善：ベイズ分析によるアプローチ Acta Psychologica, 239, 103995. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2023.103995
As the world’s population is aging, it is necessary to create societies in which older adults and young people can live together comfortably. Reducing young people’s negative attitudes toward older adults is a pressing issue. Given the unique characteristics of older adults, which most people will eventually become, we focused on how long people believe it will be before they become older adults (i.e., the subjective time of becoming older). To examine our hypotheses, we performed a Bayesian analysis, which has attracted considerable attention in psychological research in recent years. In Studies 1 and 2, even after controlling for variables such as youth identity and aging anxiety, those with a longer subjective time of becoming older had more negative attitudes toward older adults and lower advocacy for policies to support older adults. In Study 3, we examined the effect of shortening the participants’ subjective time of becoming older by presenting an explanatory text on the stereotype embodiment theory and several related empirical findings. We observed decreased negative attitudes toward both the young-old and old-old groups and increased advocacy for policies to support older adults. In the supplemental experiment, the experimental manipulation used in Study 3 reduced participants’ aging anxiety. Future studies should elaborate on the negative attitudes toward a broad subgroup of older adults, and examine the perceived relative importance of policies to support older adults compared with policies in other areas.
Kamijo, Y., & Nakama, D. (仲間大輔) (2023). Designing division of labor with strategic uncertainty within organizations: Model analysis and a behavioral experiment. 社会的不確実性がある組織内の分業の設計： ゲーム理論モデル分析と行動実験 Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 32(2), 257-272. https://doi.org/10.1111/jems.12506
For managers who are responsible for designing the division of labor, there are prototypes such as the divisional and functional designs, but insufficient knowledge of what to consider when selecting them. To address this shortfall, we developed a multiple economic game model with a two-step structure to examine the strategic interdependence between the two prototypes. We analyzed the model from three different perspectives: a traditional analysis, an equilibrium analysis, and a behavioral analysis followed by a laboratory experiment. While the first analysis revealed that the functional design would outperform divisional design when individual decisions are exogenous, the game theoretic equilibrium analysis demonstrated that the two prototype designs have similar equilibria when individuals are rational. However, assuming that individuals made autonomous decisions with accessible information under given organizational structures, behavioral analysis derived predictions that the divisional design was more likely to produce favorable consequences than the functional design. This prediction was confirmed by the economic experiment in the laboratory. These results imply that the strategic uncertainty within organizations differs according to the designs and affects organizational consequences.
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Suzuki, M., Hata, Y., & Sakaki, T. (2023). The relationship between frailty and social participation: Focus on subjective health. フレイルと社会参加の関連：主観的健康度に着目して BMC Research Notes, 16, 123. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-023-06407-x
Active participation of the older adults in the society is crucial; however, frailty prevents social participation. Meanwhile, many older adults participate daily in social activities, even with frailty. This study aims to examine whether older adults with frailty have lower social participation than those without frailty in Japan. We also investigated whether older adults with frailty and higher subjective health participate in society to the same extent as the general older population. This study included 1,082 Japanese individuals aged 65 years and older participating in the online survey. Participants answered questions on social participation, frailty, subjective health, and demographics.
Participants in the robust group had higher social participation rates than those in the frailty and pre-frailty groups. Meanwhile, frail older participants with higher subjective health had similar social participation as the robust participants. Many older adults acquire frailty despite their individual effort. Meanwhile, improving subjective health may be effective, even with frailty. The relationship between subjective health, frailty, and social participation is primitive and further studies are needed.
Tanaka, H.（田中大貴）, Nishina, K.（仁科国之）, Shou, Q.（寿秋露）, Takahashi, H., Sakagami, M., Matsuda, T., Inoue-Murayama, M., Takagishi, H.（高岸治人） (2023). Association between arginine vasopressin receptor 1A ( AVPR1A) polymorphism and inequity aversion. アルギニン・バソプレシン受容体1A ( AVPR1A ) 多型と不公平感回避の関連性 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 290(2000), 20230378. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2023.0378
Although numerous studies have focused on brain functions related to inequity aversion, few have examined its genetic basis. Here, we show the association between estimated inequity aversion and polymorphisms in three genes associated with human sociality. Non-student adult participants took part in five economic game experiments on different days. Disadvantageous inequity aversion (DIA) and advantageous inequity aversion (AIA) were calculated from behavioural responses using Bayesian estimation. We investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR rs53576), arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A RS3) and opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1 rs1799971) and inequity aversion. Regarding AVPR1A RS3, participants with the SS genotype had higher AIA than those with the SL or LL genotypes, but no association was found for DIA. Moreover, we observed no aversion associations for OXTR rs53576 or OPRM1 rs1799971. The results suggest that AVPR1A plays an important role in aversion when one’s own gain is greater than that of others. Our findings may provide a solid theoretical basis for future studies on the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and inequity aversion.
Tanaka, H.（田中大貴）, Shou, Q.（寿秋露）, Kiyonari, T.（清成透子）, Matsuda, T., Sakagami, M., & Takagishi, H（高岸治人）. (2023). Right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regulates default prosociality preference. 右背外側前頭前野はデフォルトの向社会性選好を制御する Cerebral Cortex, 33(9), 5420-5425. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhac429
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has been shown to be associated with prosocial behavior. However, the direction of this relationship remains controversial. To resolve inconsistencies in the existing literature, we introduced the concept of default prosociality preference and hypothesized that this preference moderates the relationship between gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and prosocial behavior. This study analyzed the data of 168 participants obtained from voxel-based morphometry, 4 types of economic games, and 3 different measures of social value orientation that represent default prosociality preference. Here we show that, in individuals who were consistently classified as proself on the 3 social value orientation measures, gray matter volume in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was positively associated with prosocial behavior. However, in individuals who were consistently classified as prosocial, the direction of this association was vice versa. These results indicate that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regulates default prosociality preference.
Miyajima, T.(宮島 健), Nakawake, Y.(中分 遥), Meng, X., & Sudo, R.(須藤 竜之介) (2023). Ordinance influences individuals' perceptions towards prospects of social circumstance but not the status quo: An experimental field study on sexual minorities issues in Japan. 条例は社会状況の見通しに対する個人の知覚に影響を与えるが、現状には影響を与えない：日本における性的マイノリティ問題に関する実験的フィールドスタディ Asian Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12568
Scientific evidence shows that institutional decisions can change individuals’ private attitudes towards relevant issues. However, little is known about their effect on individuals’ perceptions of social norms. This intriguing question has gained the attention of scholars. Nonetheless, the findings are primarily observed only in samples of the Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, and Democratic countries, leading to doubts about their generalisability. This study experimentally tested residents’ (N = 411) reactions to the new Tokyo ordinance prohibiting discrimination against sexual minorities enacted on October 5, 2018, and tested whether it dispelled self–other discrepancies regarding tolerance towards sexual minorities (i.e., pluralistic ignorance). The results showed that exposure to information about enactment increased future perceptions of support and understanding of sexual minorities. By contrast, private attitudes, perceptions of current social norms, and willingness to speak out did not change. Willingness to speak out was indirectly enhanced through increased perceptions of gaining future support. Furthermore, Tokyo residents overestimated other residents’ negative attitudes towards sexual minorities. However, even when informed of the new ordinance, this self–other discrepancy in intolerance towards sexual minorities was not corrected. These findings suggest that institutional decisions can shape the perception of social norm change in the future beyond Western countries.
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), & Inaba, M. (稲葉美里) (2023). Trivial giving as a signal of trustworthiness. 信頼性のシグナルとしての些細な贈与 Evolution and Human Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2023.04.001
Trivial giving—the small-stakes giving that does not produce any further benefit, such as sharing food with neighbors and exchanging gifts with friends—has been widely observed in societies ranging from hunter-gatherers to modern communities. However, previous studies have not examined the adaptive value of trivial giving. The present study proposes that trivial giving functions as a signal of an actor’s cooperative traits or intentions (i.e., trustworthiness). To test this hypothesis, we designed a modified version of the prisoner’s dilemma game experiment with two types of payoff matrics: trivial giving trials featured by a benefit/cost (b/c) ratio of 1 and cooperation trials featured by a b/c ratio of 3. The experiment (N = 82; University students) demonstrated that participants engage in trivial giving when there are future opportunities to cooperate with their partners, that is, when there is a need to signal their trustworthiness. Moreover, the alternative possibility that trivial giving in the experimental condition is a product of the spillover effect from nontrivial cooperation was rejected. Therefore, the present study suggests that seemingly useless trivial giving, widespread in human society, functions as a signal of trustworthiness.
Miyagawa, Y.(宮川裕基), & Neff, K.D. (2023). How self-compassion operates within individuals: An examination of latent profiles of state self-compassion in the U.S. and Japan. Mindfulness. セルフ・コンパッションは個人内でどのように作用するのか：日米における状態セルフ・コンパッションの潜在プロフィールの検討 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-023-02143-2
Self-compassion is theorized to be a state of mind representing the balance of compassionate self-responding (CS; kindness, common humanity and mindfulness) and uncompassionate self-responding (UCS; self-judgment, isolation and over-identification) in times of distress. However, there is an on-going debate about this conceptualization, with some arguing that CS and UCS operate separately and independently. A variation on this view is that the operation of self-compassion differs by culture: In Eastern dialectic cultures like China and Japan, individuals are thought to experience CS and UCS simultaneously but not in Western non-dialectic cultures like the U.S. Our research investigated this issue by examining how state self-compassion operates within individuals in both the U.S. and Japan. We conducted latent profile analyses of state self-compassion both before (n = 855) and after (n = 455) a self-compassion mood induction designed to increase CS. In both cultures, individuals were classified into one of three latent profiles only: Low State Self-Compassion (low CS and high UCS), Moderate State Self-Compassion (moderate CS and UCS), and High State Self-Compassion (high CS and low UCS). We did not find any individuals with a profile characterized by simultaneously high levels of CS and UCS. This was true even after a self-compassion mood induction, although the distribution of people in the three profiles changed reflecting a simultaneous increase in CS and decrease in UCS. Results suggest that CS and UCS operate holistically and not independently within individuals in both dialectical and nondialectical cultures. This study is not pre-registered.
Atherton, G., Morimoto, Y.（森本裕子）, Nakashima, S.F.（中嶋智史）, & Cross, L. (2023). Does the Study of Culture Enrich Our Understanding of Autism? A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Life on the Spectrum in Japan and the West. 文化研究は自閉症への理解を深めるか？日本と西洋における自閉スペクトラムの生活についての文化比較 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 00220221231169945. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220221231169945
Autism spectrum condition is a neurodevelopmental condition in which people are characterized by their social differences. As such, autistic behaviors are often identified as deviating from what is considered normal or neurotypical ways of interacting with the world as dictated by a particular culture. This theoretical article explores a cultural model of disability concerning autism spectrum condition and how Western ideals of “normality” dominate autism-related discourses. To illustrate this point, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA]) descriptors are discussed concerning Western and, in contrast, Japanese cultural practices. Cross-cultural research from several domains reveals the subjectivity inherent to what is considered “normal” across cultures. In addition, research into the prevalence and lived experiences of autistic people and their families in Japan reveals the complexity of understanding neurodevelopmental conditions in non-Western countries. The article discusses autism in the context of culture and suggests further areas for cross-cultural research that can further build on the cultural model of disability.
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔) (2023). The effects of seeing an older person who violated or observed prescriptive stereotypes on ageism. 高齢者への規範的ステレオタイプに反する/遵守する高齢者について知ることがエイジズムに及ぼす影響 International Journal of Gerontology, 17(2), 144-145. https://doi.org/10.6890/IJGE.202304_17(2).0013
People generally exhibit ageism toward older adults that adversely affects the older adults’ health status. The prescriptive stereotypes held by younger individuals, such as succession (i.e., older adults should not accumulate wealth and pass it on to the younger generation), consumption (i.e., older adults should not receive more social security than they need), and identity (i.e., older adults should behave in an age-appropriate manner without trying to look young), account for the ageism. Moreover, if younger people see an older person violating such stereotypes, their ageism toward them will increase. We conducted an online experiment with young Japanese participants (N = 931). Each participant read one of the six vignettes about an older person who violated/observed the succession/consumption/identity aspect of prescriptive stereotypes. Results reveal that except for a single case involving the succession stereotype, other participants who read the vignettes of an older person violating prescriptive stereotypes did not exhibit more ageism than those who read the vignettes of an older person who observed the stereotypes. However, this result might be due to the inadequate sample size, and further research is required.
Park, J. (パクジュナ）, Joshanloo, M., & Utsugi, A. (2023). Acculturation attitudes and adaptation among South Korean residents in Japan: The mediating role of coping strategies. 日本の韓国人ニューカマーにおける文化受容態度と適応： 対処戦略の媒介的役割 International Journal of Intercultural Relations. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2023.101799
Acculturation processes and intergroup experiences of minority groups have been little studied in East Asian societies, including Japan. The number of migrants in Japanese society is steadily increasing, suggesting that the country is a new immigration destination in the 21st century. Therefore, further research on the acculturation processes of immigrants in Japan is warranted. This study examined the relationships among acculturation attitudes, coping strategies, and psychological adjustment in a sample of South Korean newcomers living in Japan. The results of this study support the integration hypothesis, which states that balanced acculturation attitudes that favor engagement in both the host and home cultures lead to higher levels of psychological and sociocultural adaptation. Assimilation attitudes did not contribute significantly to adaptation. Different coping strategies employed by individuals during interethnic discrimination mediated the links between individual acculturation attitudes and the two aspects of adaptation. By linking acculturation attitudes and relevant social behaviors, this study sheds light on the role of coping strategies as mediators of the relationships between acculturation attitudes and psychological and sociocultural adjustment in ethnic minority groups.
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Takeuchi, M.(竹内真純), Karasawa, K(唐沢かおり). (2023). Anti-old and anti-youth attitudes among older adults: Focusing on middle-aged and old age identity. 高齢者が抱く、高齢者および若者への否定的態度：中年アイデンティティや高齢者アイデンティティに着目して The Journal of Social Psychology, 163(2), 248-255. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2022.2061893
There is currently a lack of comprehensive scholarly information concerning the attitudes older people hold toward both older adults and the young. Using the social identity theory framework, this study investigated older identity issues including middle-aged identity and old age identity. We conducted an online survey of Japanese older participants (N = 301) and then implemented a Bayesian structural equation modeling to examine whether age and gender predicted middle-aged/old age identity in addition to whether middle-aged/old age identity predicted anti-old/anti-youth attitudes. Results showed the more strongly participants identified with being middle-aged the more positive their attitudes were toward old/young people, while they showed no significant relationship between old age identity and the attitudes. Regarding participant ages, the results found no significant relationship with middle-aged identity but a positive relationship with old age identity. These findings will contribute to psychological research aimed at reducing anti-old/anti-youth attitudes among older adults.
Kusumi, T.（楠見孝）, Miura, A.（三浦麻子）, Ogura, K.（小倉加奈代）, & Nishikawa, K.（西川一二） (2023). Attitudes toward possible food radiation contamination following the Fukushima nuclear accident: A nine-year, ten-wave panel survey. 福島第一原発事故による食品放射線リスクへの態度：9年10波パネル調査による検討 Journal of Risk Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2023.2181856
After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we examined changes in risk perception regarding the radiation contamination of food and information-seeking behavior among residents of three regions progressively more distant from the disaster area, the Tokyo Metropolitan area to the Kansai area. We conducted a ten-wave panel survey and obtained data from 1,752 citizens six months to nine years after the accident. The results indicate that anxiety related to radioactive contamination, active information-seeking behavior, and avoidance of foods from affected areas decreased with time. Active information-seeking behavior and radiation-related knowledge were higher in the disaster-affected prefectures than in other areas. Conversely, avoidance of foods from affected areas was lower in affected prefectures than in the Kansai area. The credibility of government information increased from a considerably low level but did not reach the midpoint level. Multiple regression analysis, cross-lagged analysis, and structural equation modeling indicated that avoidance of foods from affected areas was promoted by anxiety related to radioactive contamination (experiential thinking/System 1) and inhibited by critical thinking attitudes (analytical thinking/System 2). Finally, we discussed the significance of risk literacy, which integrates risk-related knowledge, scientific literacy, media literacy, and critical thinking.
Horita Y.（堀田結孝） (2023). Paranoid thinking and perceived competitive intention. パラノイア思考と競争的意図 PeerJ, 11:e15003 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.15003
Paranoid thinking, that others are hostile, can be seen even in the general population. Paranoia is considered the expectation that others are competitors who aim to maximize the differences in payoffs rather than maximize their own payoffs. This study examined whether paranoia reflects the irrational belief that others have a competitive intention and is associated with avoiding perceived competition. We recruited 884 US residents via the Internet and conducted a modified Dictator Game, in which monetary allocation was carried out between the Dictator and the Recipient. The Dictator chooses either fair or competitive allocation while selecting the competitive allocation is irrelevant to increasing the Dictator’s payoffs. The Recipient decides whether to accept the Dictator’s decision or receive sure but low rewards. We found that Recipients with high-level paranoid thinking expected their opponent to select competitive allocation more than those with low levels, even when selecting it was costly for Dictators. Paranoid thinking was not associated with selecting sure rewards or competitive allocations. The results suggest that paranoia reflects the belief that others have a competitive intention but is not related to avoidance behavior against perceived threats and unilateral attacks.
Morii, D., Miura, A.（三浦麻子）, & Komori, M. (2023). The impact of television on-air time on hand hygiene compliance behaviors during COVID-19 outbreak. 新型コロナウイルス感染禍における手指消毒遵守に及ぼすテレビ報道時間の効果 American Journal of Infection Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2023.03.001
There is limited data to support the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hand hygiene compliance among hospital visitors.
We monitored hand hygiene compliance among university hospital visitors in Osaka, Japan by direct observation, from December 2019 to March 2022. During this time, we measured the amount of coverage time dedicated to COVID-19 related news on the local public television channel and the number of confirmed cases and deaths.
Over 148 days, 111,071 visitors hand hygiene compliance was monitored. The baseline compliance was 5.3% (213 of 4026) in December 2019. From late January 2020, compliance rose significantly to almost 70% in August 2020. It remained at a level of 70% to 75% until October 2021, after which, the compliance slowly declined to the mid-60% range. The number of newly confirmed cases and deaths were not related to the change in compliance, but the association between the on-air time of COVID-19-related news and compliance was statistically significant.
Hand hygiene compliance dramatically increased following the COVID-19 pandemic. The role of television in increasing hand hygiene compliance was significant.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2023). Popular names are given less frequently to babies in individualistic countries: Further validation of unique names as an indicator of individualism. 個人主義的な国では人気のある名前が新生児に与えられる頻度が低い：個性的な名前が個人主義傾向を示す指標として妥当かに関する更なる検証 Current Research in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 100094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crbeha.2022.100094
A prior study showed that popular names are given less frequently to babies in individualistic countries in European, Anglo-American (North American), and Oceanian cultures. However, the samples of the previous study were limited, and it did not examine other cultures, leaving it unclear whether the relationship is still found even when other cultures are included. It is important to confirm validity of indices cross-culturally. Thus, the present study included two unexamined cultures in the analyses: East Asian culture and Latin American culture. Following the previous study, I calculated the rates of popular baby names in Japan and Puerto Rico, and examined how the addition of these two regions affected the results. Analyses showed that the negative relationships between the rates of popular names and individualism scores were still salient. Therefore, this study further confirmed the validity of unique names as an indicator of individualism in more diverse cultural contexts. / ヨーロッパ・北アメリカ・オセアニア文化圏における個人主義的な国では、人気のある名前が新生児に与えられる頻度が低いことを、先行研究は示していた。しかし、先行研究のサンプルは限定されており、他の文化を含めてもその関係が見られるか不明であった。指標の妥当性を文化横断的に検証することが重要である。よって本研究では、これまで検討されていなかった東アジア文化（日本）とラテンアメリカ文化（プエルトリコ）を含めて分析を行った。先行研究に従い、日本とプエルトリコにおける人気のある新生児の名前の割合を算出し、その2つの地域を含めることで結果がどのように変わるのかを検討した。分析の結果、人気のある名前の割合と個人主義得点には、負の関連が依然として見られた。そのため本研究は、名前指標が個人主義指標として妥当であることを、より文化的に多様な文脈において再確認したと言える。
Buchanan, E. M., Lewis, S. C., Paris, B., Forscher, P. S., Pavlacic, J. M., Beshears, J. E., Drexler, S. M., Gourdon-Kanhukamwe, A., Mallik, P. R., Silan, M. A. A., Miller, J. K., IJzerman, H., Moshontz, H., Beaudry, J. L., Suchow, J. W., Chartier, C. R., Coles, N. A., Sharifian, M., Todsen, A. L., … Primbs, M. A. (2023). The Psychological Science Accelerator’s COVID-19 rapid-response dataset. The Psychological Science AcceleratorによるCOVID-19に対する行動・感情反応についての研究データセット Scientific Data, 10(1), 87. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-022-01811-7
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Psychological Science Accelerator coordinated three large-scale psychological studies to examine the effects of loss-gain framing, cognitive reappraisals, and autonomy framing manipulations on behavioral intentions and affective measures. The data collected (April to October 2020) included specific measures for each experimental study, a general questionnaire examining health prevention behaviors and COVID-19 experience, geographical and cultural context characterization, and demographic information for each participant. Each participant started the study with the same general questions and then was randomized to complete either one longer experiment or two shorter experiments. Data were provided by 73,223 participants with varying completion rates. Participants completed the survey from 111 geopolitical regions in 44 unique languages/dialects. The anonymized dataset described here is provided in both raw and processed formats to facilitate re-use and further analyses. The dataset offers secondary analytic opportunities to explore coping, framing, and self-determination across a diverse, global sample obtained at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be merged with other time-sampled or geographic data.
＊調査票の日本語訳および日本データの収集を井隼経子（福岡工業大学）・石井辰典（日本女子大学）・国里愛彦（専修大学）・角南直幸（Erasmus University Rotterdam）・山田祐樹（九州大学）が担当しました（氏名は姓のアルファベット順）。この活動に際し、日本心理学会の「新型コロナウイルス感染拡大に関連した実践活動及び研究」の助成を受けました。
Suzuki, T.（鈴木貴久）, Yamamoto, H.（山本仁志）, Ogawa, Y.（小川祐樹）& Umetani, R.（梅谷凌平） (2023). Effects of media on preventive behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic. コロナ禍における予防行動に対するメディアの効果 Humanities and Social Science Communications 10, 58. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-023-01554-9
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required implementation of a variety of measures. In addition to pharmaceutical measures, such as vaccines, changing individuals’ nonpharmaceutical preventive behaviour is essential to prevent the spread of infection. In uncertain situations, such as a pandemic, media sources are important for guiding individuals’ decision-making behaviour. In this study, we examined the effects of media use on preventive behaviour during COVID-19. Earlier studies have shown that social networking service (SNS) browsing promotes preventive behaviour. However, those studies only assessed a single point during the early stages of the pandemic; therefore, the effects on ongoing preventive behaviour are unclear. Thus, a two-wave panel survey was conducted in 2020 and 2021 for an exploratory analysis of changes in the effects of media on individuals’ preventive behaviour over time. The results show that the effect of SNS browsing on preventing going out was confirmed only during the early stage of the pandemic and was not observed 1 year later. It is also shown that those who shifted from self-restraint to going out within 1 year were not affected by the type of media use, but by cognitive factors. As the situation changes during a pandemic, analyses that consider time-series changes are essential for gaining insights about the effects of media on the promotion and maintenance of continuous prevention behaviours.
Inoue, Y.（井上裕香子）, Mifune, N.（三船恒裕）, & Saijo, T. (2023). Positive reputation for altruism toward future generations regardless of the cost for current others. 現世代他者へのコストを伴う場合でも、将来世代への利他行動は良い評判を得る Frontiers in Psychology, 13: 895619. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.895619
Recently, altruism toward future generations (future altruism) has become a hot research topic. Although future altruism has been observed in several previous experiments, it is not yet clear when and why people are more likely to engage in future altruism. Drawing upon the empirical literature of reputation and cooperation, we predicted that future altruism brings reputational disadvantages. Accordingly, we investigated whether future altruism was evaluated positively or negatively by others in the current generation in two vignette studies (total N = 1,237). Contrary to our initial prediction, we found that future altruism was positively evaluated even when it decreased the payoff of the members of the current generation. The difference in the evaluation of future altruism, as opposed to unsustainable current-generation focused behavior, was most pronounced when people do not know how a future altruist allocates rewards among individuals in the current generation. However, the positive evaluation of future altruism did not stem from the expectation that future altruists would also be altruistic toward the current generation. These results indicated that reputational benefits (i.e., positive reputation from others in the current generation) promote future altruism.
そこで本研究では、ISDG(Kamijo et al., 2017) という将来世代への利他行動を測定する経済ゲームを用い、意思決定者を評価させる場面想定法課題をオンラインで実施した。具体的には、意思決定者が将来世代に利他的な選択をすると、評価者である参加者を含めた「現世代全体」の利益が減る状況で、将来世代に利他的な選択をした意思決定者と現世代の利益を最大化する選択をした意思決定者それぞれを参加者に評価させた。その結果、将来世代に利他的な意思決定者の方がより高く評価された。ただし、意思決定者が「現世代全体」の利益をその後どう世代内で分配したかという情報を追加すると、将来世代への意思決定が評価に及ぼす効果が小さくなった。
Nagaya, K.(長谷 和久), & Shimizu, H. (2023). Effects of graphical presentation of benefits on cognitive judgments induced by affect heuristic: Focusing on the acceptance of genetically modified foods. 感情ヒューリスティック判断における便益情報の図的提示の効果: 遺伝子組み換え品種の受容に着目して Appetite, 182, 106450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2023.106450
Genetically modified (GM) foods have been assumed to be seen through intuitive and affective routes (i.e., affect heuristics) rather than analytical and deliberative routes. We examined the impact of the graphical presentation of benefits derived from GM or conventionally bred foods on the acceptance of these varieties. In the two experiments (n = 266 for study 1 and n = 402 for study 2), no differences emerged in the estimation of farmers’ benefits resulting from the introduction of improved varieties by the type of improvement. However, there were statistically significant differences in the magnitude of risk and the degree of acceptance of the improved varieties. Therefore, despite presenting identical benefits as a graphical figure, GM foods were consistently evaluated as providing higher risk and were less frequently accepted than conventionally bred foods. These results suggest that while the graphical presentation of benefits may promote comprehension of some advantages of the introduction of GM varieties, this may not lead to acceptance from the consumer’s point of view. Based on the current findings, as well as previous studies on trust in risk managers, we discuss the specific factors that might promote acceptance of GM products.
Ge, F., Syropoulos, S., Gensler, J., Leidner, B., Loughnan, S., Chang, J-H., Harada, C. (原田知佳), Mari, S., Paladino, M. P., Shi, J., Yeung, V. W. L., Kuo, C. Y., & Tsuchiya, K. (土屋耕治) (2022).
Constructivist Self-Construal: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.
Cross-Cultural Research, 56 (1), 29-61.
Building on independent versus interdependent self-construal theory, three studies provide initial empirical evidence for a third way of construing the self: the constructivist self-construal. People with a constructivist view perceive the self as constantly changing (impermanence), as a collection of distinct phenomena from moment to moment (discontinuity), as lacking an essence (disentification), and as psychologically overlapping with other people and things in the universe (boundlessness/boundaries). In Study 1, we piloted a new Constructivist Self-Construal Scale and established preliminary evidence for the discriminant validity of the scale. Studies 2 and 3 found that across seven countries with diverse cultural backgrounds, the self was consistently cognitively represented on the four dimensions of constructivist self. People from collectivistic cultures where Buddhist philosophy is more prevalent tended to endorse the dimensions of the constructivist self-construal to a greater degree than people from other cultures. Implications regarding the development of the constructivist self-construal and future research recommendations are discussed.
相互独立的自己観と相互依存的自己観に対する第三の自己観 (構成論の考え方で自己を捉える構成主義的自己観) に関する実証的研究を行った。構成主義的な見方をする人は，自己を常に変化するもの (impermanence)，瞬間から瞬間まで異なる現象の集まり (discontinuity)，本質を持たないもの (disentification)，心理的に宇宙の他の人や物と重なるもの (boundlessness / boundaries) として認識する。研究1では，新しい構成主義的自己観尺度を試験的に作成し，その尺度の妥当性を検証した。研究2と3では，多様な文化的背景を持つ7カ国において，自己は一貫して構成主義的自己の4つの次元で認知表現されていることを明らかにした。また，仏教思想が浸透している集団主義的な文化圏の人々は，他の文化圏の人々よりも構成主義的な自己の次元をより強く支持する傾向があった。構成主義的自己観の発展に関するインプリケーションと今後の研究への提言が議論された。
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Suzuki, M., Hata, Y., & Sakaki, T. (2022). Influence of perceived ageism on older adults: Focus on attitudes toward young people and life satisfaction. 高齢者がエイジズムを感じることの影響：若者への態度と生活満足度に着目して Advances in Gerontology, 12(4), 370-374. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2079057022040142
The world’s population is aging, and intergenerational conflicts between older adults and young people are becoming more serious. This study focused on ageism as a cause of intergenerational conflicts and older adults’ diminished mental health status. We conducted an online survey of older Japanese participants (n = 1.096). Our results indicated that older adults who perceived more ageism directed toward them (1) had more negative attitudes toward young people and (2) had lower life satisfaction, which persisted even after controlling for variables such as old age identity and depressive tendencies. Accordingly, we suggest that ageism may reinforce intergenerational conflicts between older adults and young people and compromise older adults’ mental health status. The findings of this study can aid gerontological and psychological research aimed at reducing ageism.
Nakanishi, D. (中西大輔), Yokota, K. (横田晋大), & Igawa, J. (井川純一) (2022). Can scientific literacy reduce purchase avoidance of Fukushima products? Environment Systems and Decisions. 科学的リテラシーは福島県産品の買い控えを減少させるか? Environment Systems and Decisions. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-022-09883-x
This study aimed to explore the effect of scientific literacy on the tendency towards purchase avoidance of foods made in Fukushima due to harmful rumours associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A web survey was sent to 880 Japanese monitors to determine their attitudes towards the damage caused by untrue rumours, food risks, and media literacy, and to verify whether respondents’ knowledge about radioactive material reduced their intention to purchase products made in Fukushima Prefecture. A factor analysis of all the items of the two literacy scales (i.e. food and media) and food faddism scales revealed three factors: food risk literacy, media literacy, and health care. Multiple regression analysis to investigate the effect of each factor on the intention to purchase, controlling for some demographic variables, revealed that food risk literacy and media literacy promoted purchase avoidance, while knowledge of radioactive material reduced purchase avoidance of Fukushima products.
・フードファディズム傾向の大部分の項目は食品リスクリテラシーと同一の因子 (食品リテラシー因子) に高い負荷を示した。
Murakami M., Hiraishi K.（平石界）, Yamagata M.（山縣芽生）, Nakanishi D.（中西大輔）, Miura A.（三浦麻子） (2022). Belief in just deserts regarding individuals infected with COVID-19 in Japan and its associations with demographic factors and infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics: a cross-sectional study. 「感染は自業自得」と考える人の特徴は何か：日本の横断研究 PeerJ 10:e14545 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.14545
Prejudice related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a social issue worldwide. A possible psychological factor that promotes prejudice is the belief in just deserts (BJD) regarding individuals infected with COVID-19 (i.e., the belief that the infected individual deserves to be infected). The BJD is based on the belief in immanent justice. It is reportedly higher in Japan than in other countries. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the BJD among Japanese individuals and clarify its associations with demographic factors or infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics. To this end, we conducted an online questionnaire survey in Japan from August 7–8, 2020, with 1,207 respondents aged 20–69 years. We performed screening to exclude inappropriate responses. We investigated the association between the BJD and demographic factors such as gender and age. We also investigated the association between the BJD and infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics, including risk perception of COVID-19 infection and human rights restrictions (i.e., the degree of agreement with government restrictions on individuals’ behavior during emergencies). Among the surveyed items, human rights restrictions showed a strong association with BJD, followed by risk perception of COVID-19 infection. Men had a slightly higher BJD than women. Our study is significant in that it is the first to investigate the items associated with the BJD, thereby providing foundational information for revising individual perceptions of justice related to COVID-19 and solving prejudice-related issues.
Ikeda, K. (池田謙一)(2023) Contemporary Japanese Politics & Anxiety Over Governance. 現代日本政治と統治の不安 London: Routledge. http://www.routledge.com/9781032159331
Chapters start by revealing the declining impacts of social capital on politics, the shrinking range of political parties from which to choose, and the mixing of Asian values with liberal democratic values. Then, by conceptualizing and empirically examining anxiety over governance, i.e., the perception of excessive risk for future governance, Ikeda explores the links of anxiety to Japanese political behavior. While the high regard for democratic politics lowers anxiety among the Japanese, the changes in Japanese political behavior/environment and culture contribute to a generally high level of anxiety, which also had a significant negative impact on the evaluation of countermeasures against COVID-19.
For more details, please see; https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/974690 NEWS RELEASE 16-DEC-2022
Hayashi, Y（林洋一郎）., & Sasaki, H. (2022). Effect of leaders' regulatory‐fit messages on followers' motivation. リーダーの制御適合メッセージがフォロワーのモチベーションに与える効果 Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 52(7), 496-510. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12874
The regulatory fit between regulatory focus and framing of leaders’ messages to motivate their followers was examined in this study. Toward this end, an exploratory survey was conducted to develop messages germane to regulatory focus. These messages were employed in the following two experimental studies. Study 1 tested the regulatory-fit hypotheses from the perspective of leaders, who selected positively or negatively framed messages for promotion- and prevention-focused scenarios. The results revealed that leaders were more likely to choose positively framed messages when conveying promotion-focused messages and negatively framed messages when conveying prevention-focused messages. While leaders high in promotion focus and transformational leadership tended to choose positive framing, those high in prevention and authoritarian leadership were inclined to prefer negative framing. The effect of regulatory fit from followers’ perspective was examined in Study 2 to determine whether regulatory-fit messages increased followers’ motivation. The results revealed that participants in the regulatory-fit condition exhibited higher motivation only in the promotion and positive-framing condition. The implications of the findings for regulatory-fit theory and leadership research are discussed.
Nozaki, Y.（野崎優樹） & Mikolajczak, M. (2022). Effectiveness of extrinsic emotion regulation strategies in text-based online communication. オンラインテキストコミュニケーションにおける他者の情動を調整する方略の有効性 Emotion. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0001186
In daily life, others play a key role in helping regulate an individual’s emotions. Such emotion regulation occurs not only in face-to-face communication but also in text-based online communication. To date, much research has examined strategies for alleviating one’s own negative emotions (intrinsic emotion regulation) based on the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998, 2015a). However, little is known about the effectiveness of the full range of strategies for alleviating others’ negative emotions (extrinsic emotion regulation) derived from this model. This research aims to fill this gap. In study 1, participants wrote response letters to bogus pen pals who had recently experienced negative emotional events. Independent coders rated the effectiveness of these response letters in alleviating pen pal’s negative emotions. In study 2, participants communicated with each other on an online forum by posting about distressing events and messages that attempted to alleviate another person’s negative emotions. When participants received a reply to their posts, they rated its effectiveness in alleviating their negative emotions. The results of both studies consistently showed that strategies classified as reappraisal and empathic responding effectively alleviated others’ negative emotions. Moreover, emotional intensity moderated the effectiveness of some extrinsic emotion regulation strategies. Specifically, problem-solving and reappraisal showed positive effects on the alleviation of relatively less intense negative emotions. However, these effects were neither positive nor negative in regulating relatively intense negative emotions. The present study offers novel insights into other-focused emotion regulation research by clarifying similarities and differences between intrinsic and extrinsic emotion regulation.
情動調整において、他者は重要な役割を担っています。本研究では、情動調整のプロセスモデル（Gross, 1998, 2015a）に基づき、他者のネガティブ情動を調整する方略を分類しました。そして、オンラインテキストコミュニケーションにおける各方略の有効性を検討しました。2つの研究で一貫して、情動調整方略のうち「再評価」と「共感的応答」が相手のネガティブ情動を緩和する上で効果的に働くことが示されました。さらに、研究2では、相手のネガティブ情動の強度が、いくつかの情動調整方略の有効性を調整することが示されました。具体的には、「問題解決」と「再評価」は、比較的強度の低いネガティブ情動の緩和に対して正の効果を示すものの、この効果は比較的強いネガティブ情動の調整においては見られませんでした。本研究は、「自己の情動の調整」と「他者の情動の調整」の類似点と相違点を明らかにすることで、情動調整理論の発展に寄与するものです。
Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), Maeda, K. (前田楓), & Sato, K.(佐藤剛介) (2022). Future-oriented thinking promotes positive attitudes toward the “Help Mark” in Japan. 未来志向のメッセージはヘルプマークに対する肯定的な理解を促す Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, 3:967033. https://doi.org/10.3389/fresc.2022.967033
The “Help Mark,” created in Japan, is worn by people who need help in public settings. It is designed to induce help from others for those in need of help because of their hidden disabilities or health conditions. Several attempts have been made to publicize the meaning and implications of this wearable sign through various media. However, it is difficult to assert whether there is sufficient awareness regarding this sign in the Japanese society. The purpose of this study was to examine the type of messages that are more effective in promoting the “Help Mark” system (Study 1). Additionally, based on the data obtained in Study 1, we presented a newly designed poster to promote the “Help Mark” sign and attempted to empirically examine the effect of this poster (Study 2). The results suggest that a message that reflects that the “Help Mark” is for “everyone,” based on future-oriented thinking, is more effective. Furthermore, it was indicated that people who saw the poster containing a message implying that the “Help Mark” is “for everyone” reported increased positive attitudes toward the “Help Mark” system. These results indicate that encouraging future-oriented thinking may lead to positive attitudes regarding the “Help Mark” system.
Shimizu, Y.（清水佑輔）, Suzuki, M., Hata, Y., & Sakaki, T. (2023). Negative attitudes of healthy older adults toward unhealthy older adults: Focus on the subjective health. 健康な高齢者が不健康な高齢者に対して抱くネガティブな態度：主観的健康度に着目して Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 105, 104850. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2022.104850
Negative attitudes toward older adults, especially those with declining physical function and/or advanced dementia (i.e., unhealthy older adults), are serious. It is important to identify psychological factors associated with such negative attitudes toward unhealthy older adults. In this study, we focused on subjective health (subjective perception of one’s own health status). We tested the hypothesis that healthy older adults with lower subjective health have more negative attitudes toward unhealthy older adults. We also examined whether this association is still pronounced after controlling for the participants’ physical health status and demographics. In this study, an online survey was conducted among Japanese older adults who were not certified as needing long-term care (N = 1,082, aged 65–88). To control for the participants’ physical health status, we focus on frailty. We conducted a factor analysis and multiple regression analysis on negative attitudes toward unhealthy older adults. As a result, healthy older participants with lower subjective health perceived unhealthy older adults negatively, and this association was still pronounced even after controlling for the participants’ frailty score and demographics. Based on our findings, it is suggested that increasing the subjective health of older adults may help them view each other more positively. Therefore, it is important to devise gerontological and psychological interventions to improve older adults’ subjective health. This study has limitations, such as the fact that we conducted only an online survey. Previous studies on how older adults perceive the social group of older adults are scarce, and further studies are expected.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基) (2022). Self-compassion manipulation regulates affect and aggressive inclinations in the context of social rejection. 社会的排斥場面において、セルフコンパッションを高めることが情動および攻撃性の制御を促す Personality and Individual Differences. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111954
Three studies (combined N = 1035) tested whether inducing a self-compassionate state of mind would help people regulate affect and aggressive inclinations toward rejecters. State self-compassion, negative affect, and pin counts in the voodoo doll task were assessed across all the studies, positive affect was assessed in Studies 2 and 3, and calm affect and revenge intention were assessed in Study 3. Compared with those in the control condition, participants in the self-compassion condition reported higher levels of state self-compassion (Studies 1 to 3), positive affect (Studies 2 and 3), and calm affect (Study 3), and lower levels of negative affect (Studies 1 to 3) and revenge intention (Study 3). A mini meta-analysis showed that participants in the self-compassion condition selected fewer pins to stab into a voodoo doll. Mediation analyses further suggested that negative affect and calm affect played mediator roles in the association between self-compassion manipulation and aggressive inclinations.
Hirashima, T.(平島太郎), & Igarashi, T(五十嵐祐). (2022). Is Mentalizing Essential to Predict Human Network Size? Reexamining the Social Brain Hypothesis From a Social Network Perspective. メンタライジングはヒト社会的ネットワークサイズの基盤となるか？ 社会的ネットワークの視点に基づく社会脳仮説の検証 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 13(2), 50–56. https://doi.org/10.5178/lebs.2022.99
One central question in social science and evolutionary anthropology is how humans can form and maintain large social networks. The social brain hypothesis argues that humans use their mentalizing ability to read others’ minds for the development of dyadic relationships in layered social networks. However, previous empirical studies have not directly examined the association between mentalizing and the size of the active network located at the outermost layer. By introducing a social network perspective, we predicted that individuals use their mentalizing ability not only to form and maintain dyadic relationships but also to belong to multiple communities, which indirectly expands the active network size. We collected data from undergraduates in Japan (N = 175) to examine how mentalizing is linked to the size of online social networks. Mentalizing was positively associated with the number of dyads but not with the number of communities and the active network size. These findings suggest that the social brain hypothesis has limited validity, and there is a need for more careful explanations surrounding the psychological and structural underpinnings of large human social networks.
社会科学や進化人類学の中心的な問いの一つは、ヒトがどのようにして大規模な社会的ネットワークを形成・維持するかということである。社会脳仮説は、ヒトが「他者の心を読む」メンタライジングを用い、多数の他者との社会関係を構築することで大きな社会集団を維持すると主張する。しかし、これまでの実証研究では、メンタライジングと最外層のアクティブネットワークのサイズとの関連は直接的には検討されていない。本研究は、社会ネットワークの視点から、個人がメンタライジングを、ダイアドの形成・維持だけでなく、複数のコミュニティへの所属に用いることで、間接的にアクティブネットワークのサイズを拡大させると予測した。日本人大学生（N = 175）を対象に調査を実施し、LINEの利用状況をもとにネットワークサイズを測定し、メンタライジングとの関連を検討した。その結果、メンタライジングはダイアド数とは正の相関を示したが、所属コミュニティ数およびアクティブネットワークのサイズとは無相関であった。これらの結果は、社会脳仮説の妥当性に限界があることを示唆しており、大規模な人間の社会的ネットワークの心理的・構造的基盤について、より慎重な説明が必要であることを示唆している。
Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), Ohashi, T. & Yamaguchi, S.(山口勧) (2022). Solicitation matters: Cultural differences in solicited and unsolicited support provision. 援助要請の明確さが重要：要請が明確な場合と不明確な場合における援助提供の文化的差異 Frontiers in Psychology 13:953260. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.953260
Two studies aimed to examine cultural differences in social support provision, with or without solicitation, in Japan and the United States (US). In Study 1, we replicated a previous study with Japanese university students. We found that the Japanese participants did not provide social support when it was not solicited, as compared with when it was solicited. Furthermore, in Study 2, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding a hypothetical stressful situation experienced by a close other and to indicate their willingness to provide support. We confirmed our hypothesis that Japanese participants hesitate to provide unsolicited support to close others (such as family members or close friends), even when they recognize that the close others are in need, whereas the American participants do not hesitate to provide such support. Contrastingly, regarding solicited support, the Japanese and Americans were equally ready to provide support, as hypothesized. The cultural difference in social support resides in the provision of unsolicited support. These results suggest that differences in culturally appropriate responses to needy people are responsible for the difference in the provision of unsolicited vs. solicited social support.
Dorison, C., Lerner, J., … Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, … & Coles, N. A. (2022). In COVID-19 Health Messaging, Loss Framing Increases Anxiety with Little-to-No Concomitant Benefits: Experimental Evidence from 84 Countries COVID-19に関する健康情報を損失フレーミングで送っても、不安を増大させるばかりで利点はない：84ヶ国での実験的証拠 Affective Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42761-022-00128-3
The COVID-19 pandemic (and its aftermath) highlights a critical need to communicate health information effectively to the global public. Given that subtle differences in information framing can have meaningful effects on behavior, behavioral science research highlights a pressing question: Is it more effective to frame COVID-19 health messages in terms of potential losses (e.g., “If you do not practice these steps, you can endanger yourself and others”) or potential gains (e.g., “If you practice these steps, you can protect yourself and others”)? Collecting data in 48 languages from 15,929 participants in 84 countries, we experimentally tested the effects of message framing on COVID-19-related judgments, intentions, and feelings. Loss- (vs. gain-) framed messages increased self-reported anxiety among participants cross-nationally with little-to-no impact on policy attitudes, behavioral intentions, or information seeking relevant to pandemic risks. These results were consistent across 84 countries, three variations of the message framing wording, and 560 data processing and analytic choices. Thus, results provide an empirical answer to a global communication question and highlight the emotional toll of loss-framed messages. Critically, this work demonstrates the importance of considering unintended affective consequences when evaluating nudge-style interventions.
この研究では、COVID-19に関する健康メッセージを、”損失” を強調するフレームで送る場合（例：もし△△をしなかったら、自分や他者を危険に晒すことになります）と、”獲得” を強調するフレームで送る場合（例：もし△△をしたら、自分や他者を守ることになります）で、思考・感情・行動に与える影響が異なるかを検討しています。その結果、損失フレーミングは獲得フレーミングに比べて強く不安を喚起することが、様々な国と地域を超えて確認されました。それ以外（行動意図、政策への態度など）へのフレーミングの影響は、国・地域によるばらつきも大きく、一貫した効果は認められませんでした。つまり損失フレーミングは不安を増大させるばかりで、特に行動を変えることはなさそうだということです。 ＊調査票の日本語訳および日本データの収集を井隼経子（福岡工業大学）・石井辰典（日本女子大学）・国里愛彦（専修大学）・角南直幸（Delaware Data Innovation Lab）・山田祐樹（九州大学）が担当しました（氏名は姓のアルファベット順）。この活動に際し、日本心理学会の「新型コロナウイルス感染拡大に関連した実践活動及び研究」の助成を受けました。
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Okada, I.(岡田勇), Uchida, S., & Sasaki, T. (2022). Exploring norms indispensable for both emergence and maintenance of cooperation in indirect reciprocity. 間接互恵において協力の進化と協力の維持に必須な規範の探索 Frontiers in Physics, 10(September), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphy.2022.1019422
Indirect reciprocity is one of the major mechanisms of the evolution of human cooperation. In indirect reciprocity, social norms with which individuals distinguish good people from bad people play essential roles. On the one hand, previous studies have suggested the various different norms which are evolutionarily stable against the invasion of free riders. However, these approaches could not reveal what norms would be selected in the process of evolution of cooperation because they are based on the premise that a single norm is shared in a society. On the other hand, recent studies have tackled the mechanisms of the coevolution of norms and cooperation. However, the norms which are necessary for emergence or sustenance of cooperation have not been revealed. Here, we show some indispensable norms for emergence and sustenance of cooperation using a norm knockout method which has been developed to analyze a function of each norm in the environment of coexistence of many norms. The results revealed that norms known as “shunning” and “image scoring” are indispensable in the emergence of cooperation but they are not required after a cooperative society is achieved. Furthermore, “simple standing” is a unique norm which is necessary to maintain cooperation. We call the former as a pioneer norm and the latter as a keystone norm. The results indicate importance to focus on the dynamics of evolution because the role of indispensable norms has been overlooked by the static analysis of evolutionarily stable norms.
Kowal, M., Sorokowski, P., … Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, … & Zumárraga-Espinosa, M. (2022). Predictors of enhancing human physical attractiveness: Data from 93 countries. 身体的魅力を高める行動の規定因は何か？93の国・地域での調査 Evolution and Human Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2022.08.003
People across the world and throughout history have gone to great lengths to enhance their physical appearance. Evolutionary psychologists and ethologists have largely attempted to explain this phenomenon via mating preferences and strategies. Here, we test one of the most popular evolutionary hypotheses for beauty-enhancing behaviors, drawn from mating market and parasite stress perspectives, in a large cross-cultural sample. We also test hypotheses drawn from other influential and non-mutually exclusive theoretical frameworks, from biosocial role theory to a cultural media perspective. Survey data from 93,158 human participants across 93 countries provide evidence that behaviors such as applying makeup or using other cosmetics, hair grooming, clothing style, caring for body hygiene, and exercising or following a specific diet for the specific purpose of improving ones physical attractiveness, are universal. Indeed, 99% of participants reported spending >10 min a day performing beauty-enhancing behaviors. The results largely support evolutionary hypotheses: more time was spent enhancing beauty by women (almost 4 h a day, on average) than by men (3.6 h a day), by the youngest participants (and contrary to predictions, also the oldest), by those with a relatively more severe history of infectious diseases, and by participants currently dating compared to those in established relationships. The strongest predictor of attractiveness-enhancing behaviors was social media usage. Other predictors, in order of effect size, included adhering to traditional gender roles, residing in countries with less gender equality, considering oneself as highly attractive or, conversely, highly unattractive, TV watching time, higher socioeconomic status, right-wing political beliefs, a lower level of education, and personal individualistic attitudes. This study provides novel insight into universal beauty-enhancing behaviors by unifying evolutionary theory with several other complementary perspectives.
de Lissa, P., Watanabe, K., Gu, L., Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, Nakamura, K., Kimura, T., Sagasaki, A., & Caldara, R. (2022). Race categorization in noise. ノイズの中での顔識別課題と人種効果 i-Perception, 13(4), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/20416695221119530
People are typically faster to categorize the race of a face if it belongs to a race different from their own. This Other Race Categorization Advantage (ORCA) is thought to reflect an enhanced sensitivity to the visual race signals of other race faces, leading to faster response times. The current study investigated this sensitivity in a cross-cultural sample of Swiss and Japanese observers with a race categorization task using faces that had been parametrically degraded of visual structure, with normalized luminance and contrast. While Swiss observers exhibited an increasingly strong ORCA in both reaction time and accuracy as the face images were visually degraded up to 20% structural coherence, the Japanese observers manifested this pattern most distinctly when the faces were fully structurally-intact. Critically, for both observer groups, there was a clear accuracy effect at the 20% structural coherence level, indicating that the enhanced sensitivity to other race visual signals persists in significantly degraded stimuli. These results suggest that different cultural groups may rely on and extract distinct types of visual race signals during categorization, which may depend on the available visual information. Nevertheless, heavily degraded stimuli specifically favor the perception of other race faces, indicating that the visual system is tuned by experience and is sensitive to the detection of unfamiliar signals.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基) & Kanemasa, Y. (金政祐司) (2022). Insecure attachment and psychological intimate partner violence perpetration: Low self-compassion and compassionate goals as mediators. 不安定なアタッチメントと親密なパートナーへの心理的暴力加害―セルフ・コンパッションと思いやり目標を媒介要因として― Journal of Family Violence. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-022-00436-z
Purpose In this pre-registered research, we tested how attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were related to psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Specifically, we examined the mediating roles of self-compassion and compassionate goals in these associations. Method Available data were collected online from 513 participants (241 men, 272 women) who were currently in a dating relationship in Japan. These participants completed a measure of general romantic attachment styles and, then, brought their current dating partners to mind. Subsequently, they completed measures of compassionate goals, self-compassion, and psychological IPV perpetration and victimization in their current dating relationships. Results We tested the saturated mediation model in which we treated attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance as predictors, self-compassion and compassionate goals as parallel mediators, and psychological IPV perpetration as an outcome variable. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that low self-compassion mediated the positive associations between attachment anxiety and psychological IPV perpetration, point estimate = 0.006, 95% CI [0.003, 0.010], and between attachment avoidance and psychological IPV perpetration, point estimate = 0.004, 95% CI [0.002, 0.008]. Furthermore, low compassionate goals mediated the positive association between attachment avoidance and psychological IPV perpetration, point estimate = 0.018, 95% CI [0.010, 0.026]. These indirect effects remained significant even when the influence of psychological IPV victimization and covariates, such as participants’ sex and relationship characteristics, were considered in the model. Conclusions Our findings imply that insecure attachment styles may orient people to be less compassionate toward themselves and their relationship partners and, thus, engage in psychological IPV perpetration.
Nishimura T(西村太志), Souma T(相馬敏彦), Kito M(鬼頭美江), Taniguchi J(谷口淳一), Kanemasa Y(金政祐司), Yamada J(山田順子) and Miyagawa Y(宮川裕基) (2022) Collaboration among psychological researchers, the government, and non- profit organizations for “Konkatsu” (marriage hunting) in Japan. 日本における「婚活」支援に関する心理学者と行政等の協働 Frontiers in Psychology, 13:982102. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.982102
In contemporary Japanese society, it is difficult to find a marriage partner, and therefore, “Konkatsu”, the search for a marriage partner, has become a socially accepted activity in Japan. In response to this social challenge, in addition to private companies, governments and non-profit organizations are supporting individuals in their search for a marriage partner. This paper reviews statistical information related to marriage hunting published in Japan. In addition, some of the authors’ collaborative activities and academic publications based on these activities are reviewed. Subsequently, the paper discusses and highlights the importance of helping individuals have confidence in their physical attractiveness.
Ogawa, K (小川一美) & Hall, J. A. (2022). Development of the Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II (TONCK-II). 非言語的手がかりに関する知識テスト-II (Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II ; TONCK-II) の開発 Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 46(4), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-022-00414-5
The Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK; Rosip and Hall in J Nonverbal Behav 28(4): 267–286, 2004) was developed to measure explicit knowledge of nonverbal cue meanings and usages. The objective of this research was to develop the TONCK-II, which is a shortened version of the TONCK to address the weaknesses of TONCK and to facilitate use. In Study 1, we partially revised the items of the TONCK scale to increase its appropriateness and reduce the number of items based on discrimination parameters and difficulty parameters. Through Study 1, 2, and 3, the reliabilities of TONCK-II were confirmed from the ω coefficient. The correlations with participants’ motivation to accurately decode others’ nonverbal cues as well as their self-assessment of ability to accurately decode such cues were not significant or correlated only weakly. Moreover, TONCK-II showed only a weak positive correlation with cognitive intelligence in Study 3. That is, the discriminant validity of TONCK-II was supported. Convergent validity was demonstrated in Study 2 by a significant positive correlation with GEMOK-Features (Schlegel and Scherer in Cogn Emot 32(8): 1514–1530, 2018), a test that measures accurate semantic knowledge about the experience and expression of emotions, and by the relation to the original TONCK in Study 3. In relation to demographic variables, women had significantly higher TONCK-II scores than men, especially in the younger generation, but other demographic variables showed no strong correlation with TONCK-II. Finally, based on the results, the characteristics and future directions regarding TONCK-II and research issues of knowledge about nonverbal communication were discussed.
本研究では，RosipとHall (2004)が非言語的手がかりの意味や利用に関する顕在的知識を測定するために作成したTest of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK)の短所を改善し，利用可能性を高めた短縮版のテスト（Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II; TONCK-II) を開発した。3つの研究から，TONCK-IIの信頼性と妥当性を検証し，非言語的手がかりに関する知識と人口統計学的変数との関連についても検討した。
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Hashimoto, T.(橋本剛明), & Karasawa, K.(唐沢かおり) (2022). Relationship between disease avoidance and attitudes toward older people. 感染嫌悪と高齢者への態度の関連 Advances in Gerontology, 12(3), 242-246. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2079057022030110
Negative attitudes toward older people persist, leading to the neglect and marginalization of older adults’ will. The social group of older people is often perceived as being overly associated with disease, and disease avoidance is related to negative attitudes. Meanwhile, people with higher disease avoidance tend to avoid others, not just older adults. Therefore, whether disease avoidance and attitudes toward older people have a significant relationship should be examined, even after controlling for attitudes toward general others (i.e., younger people) and other personality determinants of social interactions (i.e., extroversion, general trust). We conducted an online survey of Japanese participants (n = 962). The results showed that the relationship between higher disease avoidance and ageist attitudes was significant, even after controlling for the above variables. Psychological interventions that weaken the cognitive link between older adults and disease would effectively reduce ageism. The limitations and future directions of this study are discussed.
Jonason, P.K., Czerwiński, S.K., Tobaldo, F. Ramos-Diaz, J., Adamovic, M., Adams, B.G., Ardi, R., Bălțătescu, S., Cha, Y.S., Chobthamkit, P., El-Astal, S., Gundolf, K., Jukić, T., Knezović, E., Liik, K., Maltby, J., Mamuti, A., Milfont, T.L., Moreta-Herrera, R., Park, J.（パクジュナ）, Piotrowski, J., Samekin, A., Tiliouine, H., Tomšik, R., Umeh, C., van den Bos, K., Vauclair, C-M., Włodarczyk, A., Yahiiaiev, I., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., & Sedikides, C. (2022). Milieu effects on the Dark Triad traits and their sex differences in 49 countries. 49ヶ国の「ダークトライアド」の特性に対する環境効果とその性差 Personality and Individual Differences, 197, 111796 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111796
Most research on the development of personality traits like the Dark Triad (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) focuses on local effects like parenting style or attachment, but people live in a larger society that may set the stage for any local effects. Here we paired nation-level data on the traits from 49 nations with several milieu indicators (e.g., life expectancy, homicide rates) from three timepoints (and change among them) where the average participant (≈ 22yo) would have been a child (≈ 6yo), a pre-teen (≈ 11yo), and a teenager (≈ 16yo). Congruent with previous research, variance in narcissism was far more sensitive to variance in milieu conditions in general and across all three time points than variance in Machiavellianism or psychopathy. The milieu conditions differentiated the traits somewhat with income and education revealing negative correlations with narcissism, positive correlations with Machiavellianism, and null correlations with psychopathy. Sex differences in Machiavellianism and narcissism were correlated with homicide rates across the three timepoints. The evidence that changes in milieu conditions in ones’ past predicts the traits was erratic, but larger sex differences in the traits were associated with decreased life expectancies and homicide rates between childhood and pre-teens.
Maeda, K. (前田楓), Kumai, Y. (熊井優日), & Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文) (2022) Potential influence of decision time on punishment behavior and its evaluation. 罰行動とその評価に対する意思決定時間の効果 Frontiers in Psychology, 13:794953. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.794953
Previous studies on whether punishers are rewarded by reputational gains have yielded conflicting results. Some studies have argued that punitive behaviors potentially result in a positive evaluation, while others have found the opposite. This study aims to clarify the conditions that lead to the positive evaluation of costly punishment. Study 1 utilized one-round and repeated public goods game (PGG) situations and manipulated decision time for participants’ punitive behavior toward the non-cooperative person in the situation. We also asked participants to report their impression evaluations of punitive behavior toward non-cooperative people. Moreover, utilizing the second- and third-party punishment games, Study 2 manipulated the decision time of participants’ punitive behavior toward the self-interested person and asked them to evaluate the punitive behavior. The results showed that those who punished intuitively were not likely to be evaluated positively. However, punishers were rewarded when the decision to punish was made after deliberation or made by those who were not direct victims. These findings extend previous research on the evaluation of punitive behavior and reveal that deliberative punishment is evaluated positively occasionally.