Murphy, S. L., Ozaki, Y.（尾崎由佳）, Friese, M., & Hofmann, W. (2021). Testing buddha: Is acute desire associated with lower momentary happiness? ブッダを検証する：激しい欲望は幸福感の一時的低下と関連するか Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-021-00362-9
A central Buddhist claim is that having desires causes suffering. While this tenet draws from the belief that an acute desire state is more momentarily aversive than a no-desire state, the efficacy of this belief has yet to be comprehensively examined. To empirically investigate this claim, we furnished data from two experience sampling studies across USA/Canadian (N = 101; 3224 observations) and Japanese cultures (N = 237; 8497 observations). We compared states of acute desire with states of no desire regarding momentary happiness. We then tested, in an additional step, whether acute desires at greater conflict with personal goals were associated with even lower levels of momentary happiness. Findings were consistent across studies, with participants experiencing greater momentary happiness when not experiencing a desire compared to experiencing acute desire. Also, the greater the desire conflicted with important goals the lower the momentary happiness. The present findings support a key basis of the Buddhist belief that having desires causes suffering, showing acute desire states on average to be more aversive than no desire states.
【Abstractの日本語訳】仏教の中心的な主張は、「欲望があると苦しみが生じる」というものである。この主張は、欲望がある状態の方が、欲望がない状態よりも一時的な嫌悪感を抱くという信念に基づいている、この信念の有効性についてはまだ包括的に検証されていない。この主張を実証的に検討するために、アメリカ・カナダ文化圏（N = 101名; 3224ケース）と日本文化圏（N = 237名; 8497ケース）の2つの経験サンプリング法による調査データを取得した。一時的な幸福について、欲望が強い状態と、欲望がない状態を比較した。さらに、個人的な目標との葛藤が極めて大きい欲望が、一時的な幸福感のさらなる低下と関連するかどうかを検証した。その結果として一貫して見られたパターンは、欲望がない状態の方が、激しい欲望がある状態よりも一時的の幸福感が大きいということであった。また、欲望が重要な目標と葛藤するほど、一時的な幸福感は低くなった。今回の結果は、「欲望があると苦しみが生じる」という仏教の考え方の重要な根拠を裏付けるものであり、平均して、激しい欲望を経験している状態は、欲望がない状態よりも嫌悪感が強いことを示している。
Ishii, T.（石井辰典）, & Watanabe, K. (2021). Caring about you: the motivational component of mentalizing, not the mental state attribution component, predicts religious belief in Japan. 心的状態の理解の正確性ではなく、理解しようとする傾向が、宗教的信念の個人差を説明する Religion, Brain & Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2021.1939767
Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between mentalizing and religious belief. However, mentalizing can be broken down into several components, and there are certain measures that correspond to such components. This study aimed to examine the relationship between mentalizing and religious belief using two representative measures, the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET). The results of two studies with Japanese samples showed that the EQ predicted increasing religious belief (study 1), as expected. However, the RMET was not a significant predictor of religious belief (studies 1 and 2). These findings suggest that mentalizing’s mental state attribution component (i.e., matching appropriate mental state words to facial expressions in the eye region) is not directly connected to religious belief. However, the motivational component (i.e., caring about what other people think and feel) is essential for believing in supernatural agents. This study’s limitations and directions for future studies are also discussed.
Yamagata, M.（山縣芽生）, Teraguchi, T.（寺口司）, & Miura, A.（三浦麻子） (in press). Effects of Pathogen-Avoidance Tendency on Infection-Prevention Behaviors and Exclusionary Attitudes toward Foreigners: A Longitudinal Study of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Japan. 感染忌避傾向が感染予防行動および外国人に対する排斥意識に及ぼす影響―日本におけるCOVID-19感染禍を対象とした縦断的研究 Japanese Psychological Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12377
This study investigated the changes in public behaviors and attitudes following the spread of COVID-19 in Japan. Using a longitudinal approach that analyzes the movement of an unpredictable and real infection threat to explain and predict human behavior during the pandemic—a novel approach in behavioral immune system research—a panel survey was conducted on Japanese citizens. The results of the survey, conducted in late January, mid-February, and early March 2020, indicated that the influence of the interaction between the changes in situational infection threat and individual differences in pathogen-avoidance tendency on infection-prevention behaviors and exclusionary attitudes toward foreigners was not significant. Moreover, frequent contact with foreigners had a mitigating effect on exclusionary attitudes. The study thus provided a valuable contribution to the application of behavioral immune-system responses to problems associated with infection threats. Moreover, consideration of the aspects of adaptive reaction and social learning allowed us to observe the process of adaptive strategies in novel environments under conditions of high ecological validity and to accurately understand the psychological response to infectious disease outbreaks.
Ogihara, Y (荻原祐二). (2021). I know the name well, but cannot read it correctly: Difficulties in reading recent Japanese names. その名前をよく知っているが、正しく読めない: 近年の日本人の名前を読むことの難しさ Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8, 151. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00810-0
Previous literature has mentioned the difficulty in reading recent Japanese names correctly. However, this difficulty has not been empirically demonstrated. Thus, it is unclear to what extent and how it is difficult. Therefore, this paper provides empirical evidence of the difficulty in reading Japanese names correctly. Data including names of babies born between 2004 and 2018 were analyzed. The results showed that common writings have many variations in reading, which makes it difficult (or almost impossible) to choose the correct reading among many options. For example, one of the common writings for boys, 大翔 had 18 variations in reading, and for girls, 結愛 had 14 variations in reading. These variations differed remarkably in pronunciation, length, and meaning. Empirically reporting this difficulty in reading Japanese names correctly contributes to a better understanding of naming practices not only in Japan but also in vast regions where Chinese characters are/were used.
Murayama, A.（村山綾） and Miura, A.（三浦麻子） (2021). Religiosity and Immanent Justice Reasoning: A Replication Study in Japan and the U.S.. 宗教性と内在的公正推論：日米における追試研究 Japanese Psychological Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12367
Previous studies have investigated the importance of religiosity in enhancing peopleʼs justice reasoning, yet the findings have been limited to the Western culture, where a majority of people believe in Christianity. In order to investigate the effect of cultural difference and of religiosity on immanent justice reasoning, we compared and contrasted the degree of engagement in immanent justice reasoning regarding someoneʼs misfortune among American Christians, Japanese Buddhists, and nonreligious participants in the two cultures. The analysis found that among Americans, those who believed in Christianity engaged in stronger immanent justice reasoning toward an unfortunate person with lower moral values than did participants without a particular faith. The Japanese, on the other hand, showed stronger immanent justice reasoning for people with lower moral values, regardless of their faith. In addition, when the person had low moral value, the Japanese tended to engage in such reasoning more strongly than did Americans. Our results showed that religious beliefs may contribute to strengthening engagement in immanent justice reasoning in the Western culture, but such a generalization may not be accurate in other cultures.
Kobayashi, T.（小林哲郎）, Miura, A.（三浦麻子）, Madrid-Morales, D., & Shimizu, H.（清水裕士） (2021). Why are politically active people avoided in countries with collectivistic culture? A cross-cultural experiment. なぜ集団主義文化の諸国では政治参加する人々が嫌われるのか？：文化比較実験 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology ,52(4), 388-405. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F00220221211008653
Although most democratic theories assume that political participation other than voting constitutes an essential input to the political process, little is known about the cultural universality of this assumption. Drawing on cultural psychology findings derived from the widely shared framework of collectivism versus individualism, the present study tests the hypothesis that political demonstrators in collectivistic countries are socially avoided because they are perceived to be a threat to harmonious interpersonal relationships. A cross-national experiment in eight countries (US, UK, France, Germany, Japan, China, South Korea, and India) and one region (Hong Kong) indicated that political demonstrators are socially avoided, and this tendency was significantly stronger in collectivistic countries. Moderated-mediation analyses suggested that the social avoidance of political demonstrators in collectivistic countries is mediated by the perception that they are a threat to harmonious interpersonal relationships. The cross-cultural validity of democratic theory is discussed.
Miyajima, T. (宮島健), & Murakami, F. (村上史朗) (2021). Self-Interested framed and prosocially framed messaging can equally promote COVID-19 prevention intention: A replication and extension of Jordan et al.’s study (2020) in the Japanese context 「自己利益」を強調したメッセージと「他者利益」を強調したメッセージは同程度にCOVID-19の感染予防行動意図を高める：Jordanらの研究（2020）の日本の文脈における再現と拡張 Frontiers in Psychology, 12: 1341 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.605059
How can we effectively promote the public’s prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection? Jordan et al. (2020) found with United States samples that emphasizing either self-interest or collective-interest of prevention behaviors could promote the public’s prevention intention. Moreover, prosocially framed messaging was more effective in motivating prevention intention than self-interested messaging. A dual consideration of both cultural psychology and the literature on personalized matching suggests the findings of Jordan et al. (2020) are counterintuitive, because persuasion is most effective when the frame of the message delivered and the recipient of the message are culturally congruent. In order to better understand the potential influence of culture, the current research aimed to replicate and extend Jordan et al. (2020) findings in the Japanese context. Specifically, we examined the question (1) whether the relative effectiveness of the prosocial appeal is culturally universal and robust, (2) which types of ‘others’ especially promote prevention intention, and (3) which psychological mechanisms can explain the impact of messaging on prevention intention. In Study 1 (N = 1,583), we confirmed that self-interested framed, prosocially framed, and the combination of both types of messaging were equally effective in motivating prevention intention. In Study 2 (N = 1,686), we found that family-framed messaging also had a promoting effect similar to that from self-interested and prosocial appeals. However, the relative advantage of prosocial appeals was not observed. Further, a psychological propensity relevant to sensitivity to social rejection did not moderate the impact of messaging on prevention intention in both studies. These results suggest that since engaging in the infection control itself was regarded as critical by citizens after public awareness of COVID-19 prevention has been sufficiently heightened, for whom we should act might not have mattered. Further, concerns for social rejection might have had less impact on the prevention intentions under these circumstances. These results suggest that the relative advantage of a prosocial appeal might not be either culturally universal or prominent in a collectivistic culture. Instead, they suggest that the advantages of such an appeal depends on the more dynamic influence of COVID-19 infection.
Hackel, J., Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Okada, I.(岡田勇), Goto, A.(後藤晶), & Taudes, A. (2021). Asymmetric effects of social and economic incentives on cooperation in real effort based public goods games. 努力投入型公共財ゲームにおける社会的・経済的インセンティブの非対称な効果 PLOS ONE, 16(4), e0249217. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249217
Many practitioners as well as researchers explore promoting environmentally conscious behavior in the context of public goods systems. Numerous experimental studies revealed various types of incentives to increase cooperation on public goods. There is ample evidence that monetary and non-monetary incentives, such as donations, have a positive effect on cooperation in public goods games that exceeds fully rational and optimal economic decision making. Despite an accumulation of these studies, in the typical setting of these experiments participants decide on an allocation of resources to a public pool, but they never exert actual effort. However, in reality, we often observe that players’ real effort is required in these public goods game situations. Therefore, more analysis is needed to draw conclusions for a wider set of incentive possibilities in situations similar to yet deviating from resource allocation games. Here we construct a real effort public goods game in an online experiment and statistically analyze the effect different types of incentives have on cooperation. In our experiment, we examine combinations of monetary and social incentives in a setting aimed closer to practical realities, such as financial costs and real effort forming part of the decision to cooperate on a public good. In our real effort public goods game participants cooperate and defect on image-scoring tasks. We find that in our setting economic and social incentives produce an asymmetric effect. Interestingly economic incentives decreased the share of highly uncooperative participants, while social incentives raised the share of highly cooperative participants.
Okada, I.(岡田勇), Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Akiyama, E., & Toriumi, F. (2021). Cooperation in spatial public good games depends on the locality effects of game, adaptation, and punishment. 空間公共財ゲームにおける相互作用・懲罰・学習の局所効果 Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7642. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-86668-3
Despite intensive studies on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games, there have been few investigations into locality effects in interaction games, adaptation, and punishment. Here we analyze locality effects using an agent-based model of a regular graph. Our simulation shows that a situation containing a local game, local punishment, and global adaptation leads to the most robustly cooperative regime. Further, we show an interesting feature in local punishment. Previous studies showed that a local game and global adaptation are likely to generate cooperation. However, they did not consider punishment. We show that if local punishment is introduced in spatial public goods games, a situation satisfying either local game or local adaptation is likely to generate cooperation. We thus propose two principles. One is if interactions in games can be restricted locally, it is likely to generate cooperation independent of the interaction situations on punishment and adaptation. The other is if the games must be played globally, a cooperative regime requires both local punishment and local adaptation.
Meng, X., Ishii, T.(石井辰典), Sugimoto, K., Itakura, S., & Watanabe, K. (2021). Source Memory and Social Exchange in Young Children. 社会的交換における幼児のソースメモリ Cognitive Processing https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-021-01028-3
Reciprocal interactions require memories of social exchanges; however, little is known about how we remember social partner actions, especially during childhood when we start forming peer-to-peer relationships. This study examined if the expectation-violation effect, which has been observed in adults’ source memory, exists among 5–6-year-old children. Forty participants played a coin collection game where they either received or lost coins after being shown an individual with a smiling or angry expression. This set-up generated congruent (smiling-giver and angry-taker) versus incongruent (smiling-taker and angry-giver) conditions. In the subsequent tasks, the children were asked to recall which actions accompanied each individual. The children considered the person with incongruent conditions as being stranger that the person with congruent conditions, suggesting that the former violated the children’s emotion-based expectations. However, no heightened source memory was found for the incongruent condition. Instead, children seem to better recognise the action of angry individuals than smiling individuals, suggesting that angry facial expressions are more salient for children’s source memory in a social exchange.
Roskam, I., Aguiar, J., Akgun, E., … Furutani, K.(古谷嘉一郎), … Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), … Mikolajczak, M. (2021). Parental Burnout Around the Globe: a 42-Country Study. 世界の子育てバーンアウト: 42か国調査研究 Affective Science https://doi.org/10.1007/s42761-020-00028-4
子育てにおいて高レベルのストレスを感じると、親と子の両方に深刻な影響を与える子育て燃え尽き（バーンアウト）症候群になる可能性がある。しかし、親の燃え尽き症候群が文化によって異なるかどうか、また異なる場合、その理由はまだ明らかになっていない。本研究では、42カ国（17,409人の親、71％が母親、Mage = 39.20）における親の燃え尽き症候群の有病率を調べ、国によって親の燃え尽き症候群の有病率が大きく異なることを示した。文化的価値観の分析では、特に個人主義的な文化が親の燃え尽き症候群の有病率と平均値を顕著に高めていることが明らかになった。実際に、個人主義は、国ごとの経済的不平等や、子どもの数や年齢、子どもと過ごす時間など、これまでに検討されている個人特性や家族の特性よりも、親の燃え尽きに大きな影響を与えている。これらの結果は、欧米諸国の文化的価値観が、親に高いレベルのストレスを与えている可能性を示唆している。
Furutani, K., Kawamoto, T., Alimardani, M., Nakashima, K., (2020). Exhausted parents in Japan: Preliminary validation of the Japanese version of the Parental Burnout Assessment. 日本の疲弊している親たち: 子育てバーンアウト尺度日本語版の妥当性の予備的検討 New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2020, 33‐ 49. doi: 10.1002/cad.20371
International Investigation of Parental Burnout: https://www.burnoutparental.com/international-consortium
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2021). How to Read Uncommon Names in Present-Day Japan: A Guide for Non-Native Japanese Speakers. 現代の日本における個性的な名前の読み方: 日本語を母語としない話者への指針 Frontiers in Communication, 6: 631907. doi: 10.3389/fcomm.2021.631907
A previous study categorized uncommon names in present-day Japan. However, it was presented in Japanese mainly for native Japanese speakers and thus failed to explain shared knowledge about naming practices, making it difficult for non-native Japanese speakers to understand the study. It is important to share cultural practices not only within but also beyond the culture. Moreover, considering that Japanese names are difficult to read, reducing the risk of failing to read names correctly is helpful especially for non-native Japanese speakers. Therefore, by adding supplementary explanations, this paper systematically describes the characteristics and patterns of uncommon names in present-day Japan. Uncommon names largely take two forms: names with an uncommon reading of Chinese characters and names with uncommon Chinese characters. Regarding the reading, there are three types: 1-1) names that abbreviate the common reading of Chinese characters, 1-2) names that are pronounced as a foreign word, and 1-3) names that are pronounced based on the meaning/image of Chinese characters. Regarding the writing, there are two types: 2-1) names with Chinese characters used infrequently and 2-2) names with silent Chinese characters adding to the semantic meaning without contributing to the pronunciation. Further, a combination of these methods makes names more unique.
Inoue, Y.(井上裕香子), Himichi, T.(日道俊之), Mifune, N. (三船恒裕), & Saijo, T. (2021). People prefer joint outcome prosocial resource distribution towards future others 将来の他者に対しては、総和最大的な向社会的資源分配が選好される Scientific Reports, 11, 5373. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-84796-4
Today, developing and maintaining sustainable societies is becoming a notable social concern, and studies on altruism and prosociality toward future generations are increasing in importance. Although altruistic behaviors toward future generations have previously been observed in some experimental situations, it remains unknown whether prosocial preferences toward future others are based on equality or joint outcome orientations. In the present research, we exploratorily investigated preferences regarding resource distribution by manipulating the time points (i.e., present/future) of the participants and their imaginary partners. The results indicate that prosocial preference toward future others was as strong as that toward present others and seemed to be based on a joint outcome prosocial preference. Notably, when participants and their partners were at different time points, participants preferred to leave resources for the persons in the future. The findings indicate that the type of altruistic preference toward future others may differ from that toward present others, which is mainly equality.
近年、持続可能な社会の構築が大きな社会的課題となっており、その中で将来に対する利他性・向社会性の研究が行われてきています。いくつかの実験では、将来に対する向社会的行動が観察されているのですが、その行動がどのような選好に基づいているのか――具体的には、主要な向社会的選好といわれる平等志向と総和最大志向のうち、いずれに基づくのかは不明でした。 そこで本論文では、自他間の資源分配の選好を測定するSocial Value Orientation Triple Dominance Measure修正版 (Eek and Gärling, 2006)を用いて、自他の時点（現在／将来）を操作した際の人々の選好を測定・比較しました。その結果、現在の他者に対しては平等分配が多く選好されていたのに対し、将来の他者に対しては総和最大分配が多く選好されていました。このことから、将来に対する向社会性は主に総和最大志向に基づいており、主に平等志向に基づく現代の他者に対する向社会性とは異なる可能性が示唆されました。
Kimel, S. Y., Mischkowski, D., Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), & Niiya, Y. (新谷優）(2021).
Left out but "in control"? Culture variations in perceived control when excluded by a close other.
Social Psychological and Personality Science.
Research and theorizing suggest two competing—yet untested—hypotheses for how European Americans’ and Asians’ feeling of being “in control” might differ when excluded by a close other (e.g., a good friend). Drawing on different national contexts (i.e., United States, Japan), cultural groups (i.e., Japanese, Asian/Asian Americans, European Americans), and exclusion paradigms (i.e., relived, in vivo), four separate experiments (N = 2,662) examined feelings of control when excluded by a close- or distant-other. A meta-analysis across these experiments indicated that Asians and Asian Americans felt more in control than European Americans when the excluder was a close other. In contrast, no consistent pattern emerged when the excluder was a distant other. This research has implications for cultural variations in aggressiveness as well as health and well-being following exclusion’s threat to perceived control.
Maeda, K. (前田楓), Hashimoto, H. (橋本博文), Sato, K. (佐藤剛介) (2021). Japanese schoolteachers' attitudes and perceptions regarding inclusive education implementation: The interaction effect between help-seeking preference and collegial climate. インクルーシブ教育の実践に対する学校教員の態度と認識: 被援助志向性と同僚的風土の交互作用効果 Frontiers in Education, 5:587266. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.587266
While the special needs education system in Japan has shifted from a segregated approach to a more inclusive one, the actual implementation of this approach may be less than ideal. The implementation of inclusive education faces several challenges, such as difficulty in meeting individual needs and lack of medical support systems in general school settings. With this in mind, we conducted a web-based survey of Japanese schoolteachers to empirically examine their attitudes and perceptions regarding inclusive education. We also sought to determine the socio-environmental and individual factors that affect the attitudes and perceptions of Japanese elementary and junior high school teachers regarding the implementation of inclusive education. Survey results showed that schoolteachers regard the idea of inclusive education as desirable, but not feasible. However, we found that schoolteachers’ perceptions of the feasibility of inclusive education implementation were positively associated with their help-seeking preference if they perceived their climate as being sufficiently collegial. Based on these findings, we discuss the educational environment in which inclusive education could be successfully implemented.
Miyagawa, Y.（宮川裕基) & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一) (2020) Self-compassion helps people forgive transgressors: Cognitive pathways of interpersonal transgressions. セルフコンパッションは他者への許しに役立つ Self and Identity https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2020.1862904
This study examined the psychological processes through which self-compassion relates to forgiveness of interpersonal transgressors. Specifically, this study focused on the mediating roles of rumination about interpersonal transgressors and subjective temporal distance from interpersonal transgressions. After completing a measure of self-compassion, participants recalled a time when they were hurt by others. Then, they responded to measures including subjective temporal distance, rumination, and forgiveness. A path model showed that self-compassion was associated with greater subjective temporal distance, lower revenge, and lower avoidance through lower rumination. In addition, self-compassion positively predicted benevolence. Results implied that people with high self-compassion may be less likely to ruminate, which may help them feel greater temporal distance from past interpersonal transgressions and forgive transgressors.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (野村理朗) (2020). Awe liberates the feeling that “my body is mine‘.” 畏敬の念が「自分の身体は自分のもの」という感覚を解放する Cognition and Emotion, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2020.18627
Awe is an emotional response to perceptually vast stimuli that transcend one’s current frames of reference. Previous research indicated that awe promotes a smaller self, which led to the creation of a small-self hypothesis. Thus, we shed new light on this hypothesis in terms of sense of body ownership using a rubber hand illusion experiment; through it, we showed that awe evokes an increased sense of body ownership over the rubber hand and this effect was prominent among participants who experienced small self. Our findings suggest that awe might provoke a “liberation of the self” in terms of a sense of body ownership as awe has been thought to liberate existing schemas, hence informing the demonstrable implications of the psychological mechanisms of awe.
Greater effects of mutual cooperation and defection on subsequent cooperation in direct reciprocity games than generalized reciprocity games: Behavioral experiments and analysis using multilevel models. 一般互恵ゲームよりも直接互恵ゲームにおいてより強く見られる相互協力及び非協力が次回の協力に及ぼす影響：行動実験とマルチレベルモデル解析 PLoS ONE, 15(11), e0242607. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242607
Reciprocity toward a partner’s cooperation is a fundamental behavioral strategy underlying human cooperation not only in interactions with familiar persons but also with strangers. However, a strategy that takes into account not only one’s partner’s previous action but also one’s own previous action—such as a win-stay lose-shift strategy or variants of reinforcement learning—has also been considered an advantageous strategy. This study investigated empirically how behavioral models can be used to explain the variances in cooperative behavior among people. To do this, we considered games involving either direct reciprocity (an iterated prisoner’s dilemma) or generalized reciprocity (a gift-giving game). Multilevel models incorporating inter-individual behavioral differences were fitted to experimental data using Bayesian inference. The results indicate that for these two types of games, a model that considers both one’s own and one’s partner’s previous actions fits the empirical data better than the other models. In the direct reciprocity game, mutual cooperation or defection—rather than relying solely on one’s partner’s previous actions—affected the increase or decrease, respectively, in subsequent cooperation. Whereas in the generalized reciprocity game, a weaker effect of mutual cooperation or defection on subsequent cooperation was observed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). Baby names in Japan, 2004–2018: common writings and their readings. 日本における新生児の名前, 2004-2018: 一般的な表記とその読み BMC Research Notes, 13, 553. doi: 10.1186/s13104-020-05409-3
Objectives: To conduct empirical research on Japanese names, actual name data including both writings and readings are necessary. However, there was no database available that met these conditions. Therefore, in the present article, I provided raw data of approximately 8000 names of Japanese babies born between 2004 and 2018. Data description: The data include common writings of baby names and their readings generated from annual surveys on baby names conducted by a Japanese private company. The data have advantages: (1) they include both writings and readings of baby names, (2) they were collected under the same conditions over 15 years, (3) their sample sizes are relatively large, and (4) they are open to the public. In contrast, the data have limitations: their samples are neither highly representative nor very large. Overall, this article will be useful for empirical research on Japanese names and people in general (especially for medical and educational service workers).
Ueshima, A. (上島淳史), Mercier, H, & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (2021). Social deliberation systematically shifts resource allocation decisions by focusing on the fate of the least well-off. 資源分配について話し合うことは恵まれない⼈への配慮を⾼める Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 92, 104067. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2020.104067
How much inequality should be tolerated? How should the poorest be treated? Though sometimes conflated, concerns about inequality and the fate of the poorest involve different allocation principles with different sociopolitical implications. We tested whether deliberation—the core of democracy—influences reasoning about distributive principles. 322 participants faced allocation decisions for others between egalitarian (low variance in allocation), utilitarian (high total amount), and maximin (maximizing the welfare of the poorest) options. After their initial decisions, participants either reflected upon similar decisions solely or discussed them in pairs before facing the same choices again individually. Social, but not solitary, deliberation led to more maximin and fewer egalitarian choices, and this change lasted at least 5 months after the experiment. Conversation analyses of approximately 7500 utterances suggest that some participants initially made egalitarian choices heuristically, when in fact they mostly cared about the poorest, and dialogue promoted more internally coherent maximin preferences.
Maeda, K. (前田楓), & Hashimoto, H. (橋本博文) (2020). Time pressure and in-group favoritism in a minimal group paradigm. タイムプレッシャーが最小条件集団パラダイムにおける集団内協力行動に及ぼす効果 Frontiers in Psychology, 11:603117. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.603117
Based on the group heuristic model and the model of intuitive cooperation, we hypothesized that in-group favoritism would be conspicuously shown through an intuitive process. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a minimal group paradigm, which is traditionally used in social psychological studies, and manipulated decision time in a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game to compare the cooperative contribution level toward in-group and out-group members under three conditions: intuitive, empathic deliberation, and rational deliberation. Our findings confirmed that in-group favoritism was clearly shown in the intuitive condition only, suggesting that the intuitive cooperation model may only be valid in the context of social exchange with in-group members. Additional analysis also showed that in-group favoritism disappeared for participants who had been forced into empathic or rational deliberation for decision making. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
Ito, T. (伊藤健彦) (2020) The influence of networks of general trust on willingness to communicate in English for Japanese people. 一般的信頼のネットワークが日本人の英語Willingness to Communicateに与える影響 Scientific Reports 10, 19939. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77108-9
This study investigates the effect of a network of general trust on the willingness to communicate in English among Japanese people. Previous studies have shown that general trust positively affects the willingness to communicate in English for Japanese people. However, the network structure of general trust and its effects have not yet been revealed. The present study conducted a network analysis with 761 Japanese university students and 601 Japanese social survey participants, for 1362 participants total. Four variables regarding general trust positively affected the willingness to communicate in English for all participants, whereas one variable had a negative effect if each network was estimated for only university students or social survey participants. Centrality indices, such as node strength, closeness, and expected influence, revealed the centrality of several variables in the network of all participants. Bootstrapping methods showed the trustworthiness of the estimated edges and centrality indices. Contrary to the regression analysis, the network analysis can help us understand the profound effect of general trust on the willingness to communicate in a second language, which will prove useful for intervention studies.
Nakayama, M.（中山真孝）, & Uchida, Y.（内田由紀子） (2020). Meaning of awe in Japanese (con) text: Beyond fear and respect. 日本語におけるAweの意味：恐れと敬いとの弁別性 Psychologia. 62(1) https://doi.org/10.2117/psysoc.2020-B004
Awe is theorized as an emotion appraised by perceived vastness and need for accommodation. This theoretical framework was developed with a review of spatially and temporally distributed literature mostly in the American and European cultural context, and is assumed to be culturally universal. However, awe as described by Japanese literature, was not explicitly included in the original theorization. We tested whether this framework generalized to the Japanese context by analyzing how Japanese awe-related words (e.g., “畏敬/ikei”) are used in Japanese text. A topic model was used to extract topics in contexts as an index of meaning. Results show that (1) the meaning of awe was statistically dissociable from similar but distinct meanings of fear and respect, and (2) the dissociating topics included transcendent entities such as god, spirits/ghosts, and powerful beings. Japanese meaning of awe includes vastness (i.e., transcendence) that goes beyond typical respect (i.e., power distance) requiring an accommodation of one’s mental framework.
Nakayama, M.（中山真孝）, Nozaki, Y.（野崎優樹）, Taylor, P. M., Keltner, D., & Uchida, Y.（内田由紀子） (2020). Individual and cultural differences in predispositions to feel positive and negative aspects of awe. 特性的ポジティブAweと特性的ネガティブAweの個人差と文化差 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022120959821
Psychological research on awe has largely focused on its positive dimensions, both in terms of the experiential state of awe and individual trait-based predispositions to awe experience. Little is known, however, about awe’s negative-valence dimensions, such as individual tendencies to experience awe as threatening. To gain a broader understanding of awe, the current study investigates individual predispositions to feel negative aspects of awe (i.e., threat) and positive aspects of awe (e.g., beauty) and examines how these two tendencies are interrelated. Additionally, this study uses both Japanese and US samples to explore whether predispositions to feel awe vary across cultures. Two studies (total N = 1245) suggests that in both Japanese and US samples, predispositions to feel positive and negative aspects of awe were separable. However, there were cultural differences: North Americans were more predisposed to feel positive aspects than Japanese, and the predispositions to feel positive and negative aspects were positively correlated for Japanese, but not North Americans. This contributes to a better understanding of how the valence of awe may be influenced by culturally-mediated patterns of affect.
Hamada, D., Nakayama, M（中山真孝）. & Saiki, J. (2020) Wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making in a survival situation with complex information integration.
Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 5, 48.
The wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making are important tools for integrating information between individuals, which can exceed the capacity of individual judgments. They are based on different forms of information integration. The wisdom of crowds refers to the aggregation of many independent judgments without deliberation and consensus, while collective decision-making is aggregation with deliberation and consensus. Recent research has shown that collective decision-making outperforms the wisdom of crowds. Additionally, many studies have shown that metacognitive knowledge of subjective confidence is useful for improving aggregation performance. However, because most of these studies have employed relatively simple problems; for example, involving general knowledge and estimating values and quantities of objects, it remains unclear whether their findings can be generalized to real-life situations involving complex information integration. This study explores the performance and process of the wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making by applying the wisdom of crowds with weighted confidence to a survival situation task commonly used in studies of collective decision-making.
The wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making outperformed individual judgment. However, collective decision-making did not outperform the wisdom of crowds. Contrary to previous studies, weighted confidence showed no advantage from comparison between confidence-weighted and non-weighted aggregations; a simulation analysis varying in group size and sensitivity of confidence weighting revealed interaction between group size and sensitivity of confidence weighting. This reveals that it is because of small group size and not the peculiarity of the survival task that results in no advantage of weighted confidence.
The study’s findings suggest that the wisdom of crowds could be applicable to complex problem-solving tasks, and interaction between group size and sensitivity of confidence weighting is important for confidence-weighted aggregation effects.
The growth and prevalence of the Internet has resulted in an unprecedented system for gathering a large number of individual opinions. This system allows us to aggregate independent information and communicate face-to-face in online chat rooms. Correctly understanding and utilizing the wisdom of crowds, which aggregates information without consensus, and collective decision-making, which aggregates information with consensus, are urgent modern tasks to improve problem-solving efficiency, both in tasks with correct answers in open-ended tasks dependent on expert knowledge. Unlike most previous studies, which have addressed relatively simple problems, this study investigates the performance and process of the wisdom of crowds through a survival situation task involving complex information integration, and additionally compares with weighted subjective confidence and collective decision-making. The findings demonstrate the effective performance of the wisdom of crowds and collective decision-making and an effect of weighted confidence in interaction between group size and sensitivity of confidence weighting. This suggests that the wisdom of crowds can be applied and generalized to complex real-life situations. Weighted confidence based on large group size is compatible with a system that can collect a large number of opinions. Thus, this study expands the potential application of the wisdom of crowds to real-life problems involving complex information integration.
Hiraoka, D.（平岡大樹）, Nishitani, S., Shima, K., Kasaba, R., Fujisawa, T. X.,（藤澤隆史）& Tomoda, A. (2021) Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin gene is associated with gray matter volume and trait empathy in mothers オキシトシン遺伝子メチル化と母親の共感性・灰白質体積の関連 Psychoneuroendocrinology, 123 doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.105026
Mother’s empathy is an important ability for parenting behavior. Many studies have confirmed that oxytocin affects empathy, but the epigenetic background of oxytocin in maternal empathy has not yet been examined. This study examined the relationship between the oxytocin gene methylation and empathy in mothers of children in early childhood. Additionally, in order to understand a comprehensive mechanism, we also investigated changes in gray matter volume as a function of oxytocin gene methylation and empathy. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index was used to assess cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy of the 57 mothers who participated in this study. Genetic data were collected via saliva samples and analyzed to quantify DNA methylation of oxytocin gene. Gray matter volumes were investigated by means of voxel-based morphometry across the whole brain. A positive correlation was found between oxytocin gene methylation and Personal Distress, an aspect of affective empathy. Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between oxytocin gene methylation and the volume of the right inferior temporal gyrus. In a relationship with oxytocin gene methylation and empathy, the indirect effect of the inferior temporal gyrus gray matter volumes was not significant. Our findings provide empirical evidence for an epigenetic mechanism linking the oxytocin gene, structural variation of brain, and empathy in mothers. Taken together, the current imaging epigenetic findings shed new light on the understanding of the epigenetic basis of oxytocin and parental empathy.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). Unique names in China: Insights from research in Japan—Commentary: Increasing need for uniqueness in contemporary China: Empirical evidence. 中国における個性的な名前: 日本の研究からの洞察—コメント論文: 現代中国における個性欲求の増加: 実証的証拠 Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 2136. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02136
By comparing naming practices between China and Japan, I propose three suggestions on Cai et al.’s (2018) Study 2, which examined historical changes in baby names in China. Their study found that the average daily frequencies of Chinese characters used in baby names decreased between 1950 and 2009. The authors concluded that unique names increased for this period and suggested a rise in the need for uniqueness and individualism in China. However, there are three questions that have remained unanswered. First, did the Chinese characters that were used in names indeed become more unique over time? Second, did the number of Chinese characters in names increase over time? Third, did the reading (pronunciation) of names become more unique over time? Answering these three questions would further increase the validity and impacts of the article and contribute to a better understanding of cultural changes in China.
Hiraoka, D.(平岡大樹), Ooishi, Y., Mugitani, R., & Nomura, M.(野村理朗) (2020). Relationship between oxytocin and maternal approach behaviors to infants’ vocalizations. 母親の唾液オキシトシンと乳児音声手掛かりに対する接近行動との関連 Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology,4 doi: 10.1016/j.cpnec.2020.100010
Infants communicate their emotions to caregivers mainly through vocalizations. Research has shown that maternal oxytocin levels relate to adaptive parenting; however, little empirical research exists regarding the effects of endogenous oxytocin levels on maternal responses to infant vocalizations. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between mothers’ salivary oxytocin levels, subjective feelings, and behavioral response to infants’ emotional vocalizations. Additionally, we examined the relationship between psychological traits and maternal behavioral responses to infant vocalizations. In this study, 39 mothers were asked to stand on a balance board while listening to infant vocalization stimuli, to measure movements of their center of pressure, an index of approach-avoidance behavior. Sixty infant vocalizations (laughter, crying, and neutral) were presented for six seconds each. Afterwards, participants were asked to rate their subjective responses to each stimulus (not aroused – aroused, displeased – pleased, not urgent – urgent, and healthy – sick). Maternal oxytocin levels were negatively correlated with anterior movement of the center of pressure in response to infants’ crying and babbling vocalizations, though no relationship was found between maternal approach-avoidance behavior toward infant laughter and oxytocin levels. This study indicated that maternal approach behavior toward infant vocalizations varies as a function of maternal endogenous oxytocin and the type of infant vocalization.
Nawata, K.(縄田 健悟), Yamaguchi, H.(山口 裕幸), & Aoshima, M. (2020). Team Implicit Coordination Based on Transactive Memory Systems 対人交流記憶システムに基づくチームの暗黙の協調 Team Performance Management DOI: 10.1108/TPM-03-2020-0024
This study aims to examine how daily communication and transactive memory systems (TMSs) promote implicit team coordination, meaning when team members cooperate smoothly without engaging in explicit communication, in organizations. In TMSs, members share knowledge of who-knows-what with one another.
A survey was conducted with 216 teams consisting of 1,545 people in three organizations. The relationships among daily communication, TMSs and implicit coordination in the survey data and in team performance were analyzed using multi-level structural equation modeling.
Results confirmed a significant influence process model in which “daily communication → TMS → implicit coordination → team performance” at the team level. Therefore, as hypothesized, implicit coordination is positively related to team performance and daily communication has a positive relationship with implicit coordination through mediation by TMSs.
This study demonstrated the evidence of the relation between implicit coordination, TMS, team performance in organizational settings by using multi-level structural equation modeling.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2020). The developmental trajectory of self-esteem across the life span in Japan: Age differences in scores on the Rosenberg self-esteem scale from adolescence to old age. 日本における自尊心の発達的軌跡: 青年期から老年期におけるローゼンバーグの自尊心尺度得点の年齢差 Frontiers in Public Health, 8: 132. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00132
We examined age differences in global self-esteem in Japan from adolescents aged 16 to the elderly aged 88. Previous research has shown that levels of self-liking (one component of self-esteem) are high for elementary school students, low among middle and high school students, but then continues to become higher among adults by the 60s. However, it did not measure both aspects of self-esteem (self-competence and self-liking) or examine the elderly over the age of 70. To fully understand the developmental trajectory of self-esteem in Japan, we analyzed six independent cross-sectional surveys. These surveys administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which measured both self-competence and self-liking, on a large and diverse sample (N = 6,113) that included the elderly in the 70s and 80s. Results indicated that, consistent with previous research, for both self-competence and self-liking, the average level of self-esteem was low in adolescence, but continued to become higher from adulthood to old age. However, a drop of self-esteem was not found over the age of 50, which was inconsistent with prior research in European American cultures. Our research demonstrated that the developmental trajectory of self-esteem may differ across cultures.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). Regional differences in individualism in Japan: Scoring based on family structure. 日本における個人主義傾向の地域差：家族構造に基づく得点化 Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 1677. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01677
The present article reported regional (prefecture-level) differences in individualism in Japan based on family structure in 2005, 2010 and 2015. Previous research calculated 2005 prefecture-level scores of individualism-collectivism in Japan by analyzing five validated indicators of individualism-collectivism (divorce rate, percentage of people living alone, percentage of elderly people aged over 65 living alone, percentage of nuclear family households, and percentage of three-generation households). However, only the scores for 2005 had been presented. The scores and their regional differences may have changed over time. Therefore, the current article calculated individualism scores for 2010 and 2015 following previous research. Analyses showed that the scores were stable over time, indicating that regional differences in individualism were maintained for this period. This report is useful for understanding regional differences in psychological phenomena and validating new indicators at the regional level.
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Suzuki, T.(鈴木貴久), & Umetani, R.(梅谷凌平) (2020). Justified defection is neither justified nor unjustified in indirect reciprocity. 間接互恵における「正当化される裏切り」は正当化も不当化もされない PLOS ONE, 15(6), e0235137. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0235137
Indirect reciprocity is one of the major mechanisms in the evolution of human cooperation. In indirect reciprocity, social norms with which individuals distinguish good people from bad people play essential roles. Despite extensive studies on the evolution of cooperation in indirect reciprocity, little is known about which social norms people actually adopt. Here we reveal what kind of norms are adopted by people in indirect reciprocal situations in daily life by using scenario-based experiments. The results showed that people evaluated “justified defection” as neither good nor bad and withheld their evaluation. Theoretically, social norms that evaluate justified defection as good are required for cooperation to be stable. However, the norm that people actually adopted deviates from the theoretical predictions. Our results indicate the necessity to reconsider the justification of “justified defection” in the evolution of cooperation.
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2020). Altruism does not always lead to a good reputation: A normative explanation. 利他行動は常には良い評判に繋がらない：規範的説明 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 90. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2020.104021
Individuals who engage in altruistic behaviors generally acquire a good reputation. However, recent studies have suggested that altruists are not always welcomed by others. We examined the possibility that norm-deviant altruism leads to unfavorable evaluations; distributing quite large amounts of one’s resources could be less favored because the behavior deviates from social norms. In four studies, participants rated their feelings (i.e., liking and respect) toward a person who distributed his/her resources to others. We found that altruistic behavior that deviates from social norms was less favorably regarded than modestly altruistic behavior (Study 1–4), specifically in a culture with low tolerance for norm deviation (Japan; Study 3) and especially when the degree of the deviance was high (Study 2). These findings suggest that altruistic behavior is less favored when the behavior deviates from social norms and norm deviation is evaluated negatively.
Kawamura, Y. (河村悠太), Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), & Kusumi, T. (楠見孝) (2020). Effects of cost and benefit of prosocial behavior on reputation. 社会的行動のコストとベネフィットが評判に及ぼす影響 Social Psychological and Personality Science. doi: 10.1177/1948550620929163
Prosocial behavior consists of a cost to the actor and a benefit of others. Previous studies have shown that prosocial actors generally receive positive social evaluations from observers. However, it is unknown how each component of prosocial behavior (i.e., cost and benefit) influences the two dimensions of person perception (i.e., warmth and competence). Thus, three studies investigated the independent effects of cost and benefit on the perceived warmth and competence of the actor. In Study 1, participants read a series of vignettes about a protagonist incurring a cost to benefit another individual and rated the warmth and competence of each protagonist. Although benefit enhanced both perceived warmth and competence, cost enhanced only perceived warmth. Studies 2a and 2b separately manipulated costs and benefits of prosocial behaviors in vignettes and confirmed the results of Study 1. Thus, this study demonstrated the independent effects of cost and benefit on person perception.
Asano, R. (浅野良輔), Igarashi, T. (五十嵐祐), & Tsukamoto, S. (塚本早織) (2020). The Hedonic and Eudaimonic Motives for Activities: Measurement invariance and psychometric properties in an adult Japanese sample. 日本の成人サンプルにおけるHEMA尺度の測定不変性と心理測定学的特性 Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1220. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01220
Hedonic pleasure orientation (seeking enjoyment), hedonic relaxation orientation (seeking comfort), and eudaimonic orientation (seeking meaning) are major ways that people pursue well-being. We investigated the measurement invariance and psychometric properties of the Hedonic and Eudamonic Motives for Activities (HEMA) scale in a Japanese adult sample (N = 1,892). The Japanese HEMA scale demonstrated measurement invariance at the configural, metric, scalar, and strict levels across gender and age groups. Latent mean differences of the scale across these demographic groups were less than small. The scale showed high internal consistency and six-week test-retest reliability and reasonable correlations with life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, psychological well-being, and interdependent happiness. In sum, these findings suggest that the Japanese HEMA scale is useful to capture hedonic and eudaimonic conceptions of well-being as orientations. It is hoped that our findings will stimulate further research on well-being using the HEMA scale.
Takano, R. (高野了太), & Nomura, M. (野村理朗) (2020). Neural Representations of Awe: Distinguishing Common and Distinct Neural Mechanisms. 畏敬の念の神経表象：神経メカニズムの共通性と差異を区別する Emotion, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/emo0000771
Awe is an emotional response to perceptually vast stimuli that transcend one’s current frames of reference. The psychological form and function of awe differ between two types: positive-awe, which arises from perceptually aesthetic experiences (e.g., the beauty of nature, spiritual experiences, or the virtue of a leader), and threat-awe, which is triggered by threatening stimuli (e.g., natural disasters, wrathful god, or a leader’s coercive charisma). Here, using functional MRI, we investigated common and distinct neural responses to experiences of positive- and threat-awe, elicited by watching awe-inspiring videos. We found that both awe experiences deactivated the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in contrast to control conditions (positive-awe vs. amusement; threat-awe vs. fear), which suggest that awe experiences generally involve the “schema liberation” process since the left MTG plays a critical role in matching existing schema to events. In addition, positive-awe was associated with increased functional connectivity between the MTG and the anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, which are associated with the aesthetic reward process, and the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is involved in the self-other representation. Threat-awe was associated with increased functional connectivity between the MTG and amygdala, which detects and processes threat stimuli, as well as between the amygdala and SMG. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying the complex psychological processes of awe vary as a function of the type of awe. The implications of these results regarding our understanding of the neural basis of awe and the future directions of human social cognition research are discussed.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2020). The pattern of age differences in self-esteem is similar between males and females in Japan: Gender differences in developmental trajectories of self-esteem from childhood to old age. 日本における自尊心の年齢差のパターンは男女間で類似している: 児童期から老年期の自尊心の発達的軌跡の性差 Cogent Psychology, 7: 1756147 doi: 10.1080/23311908.2020.1756147
The current research examined gender differences in age difference patterns of self-esteem in Japan. Previous research has shown that self-esteem is high in childhood, decreases in adolescence, and increases gradually in adulthood and old age in Japan. However, gender differences in the pattern of age differences in self-esteem had not been investigated sufficiently. Gender differences are important for understanding human psychology and behavior. Therefore, I analyzed two cross-sectional datasets from large (Study 1: N = 15,965, Study 2: N = 5,258) and diverse samples ranging from elementary school students to older adults in their 60s. Results showed that the patterns of age differences in self-esteem are consistent between males and females. Thus, regarding the global evaluation of the self, males and females show a similar pattern over the life course.
Saito, T., Sudo, R. (須藤竜之介), & Takano, Y. (2020). The gaze bias effect in toddlers: Preliminary evidence for the developmental study of visual decision‐making. 幼児の視線カスケード現象の予備的検討 Developmental Science (Early View) doi: 10.1111/desc.12969
Several studies have investigated the interactive relationship between attention and decision‐making, which is known as the gaze bias effect. Although the generalizability of the gaze bias effect has recently been observed among young and older adults, it remains unknown in which developmental period individuals start to exhibit this relationship. This question was addressed in the current study by recruiting 58 toddlers aged 2–4 years. Participants were asked to do a two‐alternative forced‐choice task in which they chose one of two soft toys they preferred while their eye movements were recorded. Results demonstrated that toddlers exhibited gaze bias regardless of age. We also found that the number of gaze shifts during the task increased according to age. These results suggest that the interactive relationship between attention and decision is acquired by the age of two. The implications of the increased number of gaze shifts for visual decision‐making are discussed.
Nozaki, Y.(野崎優樹), & Mikolajczak, M. (2020). Extrinsic emotion regulation. 他者の情動の調整 Emotion, 20(1), 10-15. doi: 10.1037/emo0000636
To date, the field of emotion regulation (ER) has largely focused on intrinsic ER (i.e., regulation of one’s own emotions) and has only recently started to investigate extrinsic ER (i.e., regulation of another person’s emotions). This article selectively reviews current findings in order to answer the following questions: (a) What is extrinsic ER, and how can it be distinguished from related constructs such as emotion contagion, empathy, prosocial behavior, and social support? (b) How can we best model the processes through which extrinsic ER occurs as well as individual differences in extrinsic ER ability? The answers show that although extrinsic ER has much in common with intrinsic ER, the 2 cannot be equated. Research is therefore needed on the extrinsic side of ER.
Emotion regulationの特集号（担当編集委員：Kateri McRae and James J. Gross）への掲載論文です。近年多くの注目を集める「他者の情動の調整 (extrinsic emotion regulation) に関して，概念の定義および心的メカニズムのモデルをまとめました。
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一). (2019). Self-compassion and time perception of past negative events. セルフコンパッションと過去のネガティブな出来事に関する時間の捉え方. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-019-01293-6
This study examined relationships among self-compassion, subjective distance, and time perception related to past negative events. Self-compassion involves a broad, mindful understanding of suffering without getting entangled in suffering. Therefore, self-compassion might enable people to feel subjectively distant from past adverse events and help them develop adaptive emotional reactions and time perception (i.e., meaning-making about time) concerning the events.
Two hundred eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to a negative (n = 139) or a positive (n = 143) event condition. After completing measures of self-compassion and self-esteem, they recalled either a negative or a positive event and estimated how far away they subjectively felt from that event. They also indicated the elapsed time from the event and responded to items assessing their emotional reactions and meaning-making about time.
Self-compassion was associated with greater subjective distance from negative events, r = −.23, p = .005. Moreover, greater subjective distance mediated the relations of self-compassion to lower negative emotional reactions, B = − 0.147, 95% CI [− 0.292, − 0.034], and lower tendency to think that time was wasted on negative events, B = − 0.053, 95% CI [− 0.146, − 0.008]. Importantly, self-compassion was not related to subjective distance from positive events, r = .11, p = .182.
Results imply that people with high self-compassion would likely feel subjectively distant from past adverse events, which might help prevent negative meaning-making about time and negative emotional reactions concerning the events.
Yamamoto, H.(山本仁志), Okada, I.(岡田勇), Taguchi, T., & Muto, M. (2019). Effect of voluntary participation on an alternating and a simultaneous prisoner's dilemma. 自発的参加を導入した逐次手番・同時手番繰返し囚人のジレンマの研究 Physical Review E, 100(3), 032304. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.100.032304
We studied the evolution of cooperation in the framework of evolutionary game theory, implementing voluntary participation in the prisoner’s dilemma. Although previous studies have tried to overcome the dilemma by introducing voluntary participation called a “loner,” the question of which strategies among various strategies including voluntary participation are adaptive under competitive circumstances is still an unsolved puzzle. Here we have developed a model that consists of all possible strategies using a one-period memory of past actions. This model enables us to analyze a “melting pot” of strategies, wherein several strategies interact and compete with each other. Our results revealed that one strategy, in which one escapes if a partner defects or cooperates if a partner becomes a loner, dominates and maintains cooperation in an alternating prisoner’s dilemma game. However, the so-called “win-stay, lose-shift” strategy dominates in a simultaneous prisoner’s dilemma game. Our simulations clearly show that voluntary participation in the prisoner’s dilemma game works in the alternating situation rather than the simultaneous one.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), Niiya, Y. (新谷優), & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一). (2019). When life gives you lemons, make lemonade: Self-compassion increases adaptive beliefs about failure. セルフコンパッションは失敗に関する適応的な信念を促進する Journal of Happiness Studies. doi:10.1007/s10902-019-00172-0
Two studies were conducted to examine how self-compassion relates to beliefs about failure. Study 1 (N = 252) showed that, after controlling for self-esteem, trait self-compassion correlated positively with the belief that failures are learning opportunities and part of life, and negatively with the belief that failures are aversive and something that must be avoided. In Study 2, participants (N = 124) first recalled their weaknesses, then wrote either (a) a compassionate message toward themselves (self-compassion condition), (b) a description of their strengths (self-reflection condition), or (c) a list of Japanese prefectures (control condition), and completed measures of state self-compassion and beliefs about failure. Self-compassion manipulation increased positive responses to the self (comprising self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness components of the Self-Compassion Scale) relative to control, which in turn, predicted a stronger belief that failures are learning opportunities. Self-reflection manipulation also predicted this adaptive belief by increasing the positive responses relative to control and, more importantly, it also increased negative responses to the self (comprising self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification components of the Self-Compassion Scale), which, in turn, predicted the beliefs that failures are aversive and must be avoided. In sum, this research confirms that people high in self-compassion hold adaptive beliefs about failures; it also suggests that one could promote adaptive beliefs by increasing the positive responses to the self and decrease maladaptive beliefs by decreasing the negative responses to the self.
Yokota, K. (横田晋大), Tsuboi, S. (坪井翔), Mifune, N. (三船恒裕), & Sugiura, H. (杉浦仁美) (2019). A conceptual replication of the male warrior hypothesis using the outgroup threat priming method 外集団脅威プライミングを用いた男性戦士仮説の概念的追試 Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 10(1), 1-3. doi: 10.5178/lebs.2019.67
A conceptual replication of Yuki and Yokota’s (2009) study to test the validity of the male warrior hypothesis was conducted. They reported that ingroup bias was triggered by the perceptual cue of outgroup threat, based on the use of a priming method in a minimal group situation among men only. In this study, the stimulus of outgroup threat priming and the measurement of ingroup bias were modified to test the effect of outgroup threat priming on ingroup bias. The results revealed failure to replicate and thus no bias generated by priming among men.
Mifune, N. (三船恒裕), Inamasu, K. (稲増一憲), Kohama, S., Ohtsubo, Y. (大坪庸介), & Tago, A. (2019). Social dominance orientation as an obstacle to intergroup apology 社会的支配志向性が集団間謝罪の障壁となる PLoS ONE, 14(1), e0211379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211379
Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) has engaged the interest of social and personality psy- chologists as it has deep implications for the psychology of intergroup conflict, particularly regarding factors such as prejudice and discrimination, as well as international conflict reso- lution. Nevertheless, few studies have directly assessed how SDO relates to intergroup rec- onciliation. This study (effective N = 819) measured participants’ SDO along with their attitudes toward various governmental apologies to test the hypothesis that SDO is associ- ated with unwillingness to issue intergroup apologies. The results showed that SDO was negatively correlated with supportive attitudes toward government-issued international apol- ogies. This negative correlation remained intact after controlling for the effects of political conservatism and militarism.
Meng, X., Ishii, T.(石井辰典), Sugimoto, K., Song, R., Moriguchi, Y., & Watanabe, K. (2019) Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile 敵対者の微笑み：5-6歳児は "微笑んだいじわる" の顔をよく記憶する Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,188 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2019.104672
Remembering whether a person is cooperative is essential in social interactions. It has been shown that adults have better memory of a person who showed an incongruence between emotional expression and expected behavior (e.g., smiling while stealing). To examine whether children would show similar emotional incongruity effects, we examined 70 children between 5 and 6 years of age. They obtained coins that could be exchanged later for rewards (stickers) by answering quiz questions. Then, they participated in the coin-collecting game wherein individual persons with smiling or angry expressions appeared one at a time on a computer monitor. These same individuals then either gave coins to or took them away from the children, leading to congruent (smiling giver and angry taker) and incongruent (smiling taker and angry giver) conditions. After the game, children had to choose between two faces to indicate which one previously appeared in the game. Participants recognized faces better under the incongruent conditions. In particular, the smiling taker was recognized significantly better than the angry taker, whereas no difference was observed for the smiling and angry givers. Evidently, 5-to-6-year-old-children remember better individuals whose facial expression or appearance is incongruent with their expected behavior.
Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン), & Ishii, K. (石井敬子) (2019). Cultural variation in reactions to a group member’s vicarious choice and the role of rejection avoidance. ある集団成員による代理的な選択に対する反応の文化的差異とそれにおける排除回避傾向の役割 Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1311. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01311
Extending the literature on culture and the personal or interpersonal construction of choices, this research investigates consequences of an ingroup member’s vicarious decision for the entire group and the mechanism behind cultural variation. In Study 1, Japanese people showed, compared to Germans, greater acceptance of vicarious choice and evaluated the ingroup member who had chosen on their behalf more positively. Using mediation analyses and priming methods, Studies 2 and 3 identified rejection avoidance to partly explain culturally diverse reactions to vicarious choices. These findings suggest that the mechanism behind cultural differences in choice is related to variation in strength of the motivation to maintain social approval.
Kuroda, K. (黒田起吏), & Kameda, T. (亀田達也) (2019). You watch my back, I'll watch yours: Emergence of collective risk monitoring through tacit coordination in human social foraging. 困ったときはお互い様：集団リスク状況における暗黙の協調行動の創発 Evolution and Human Behavior, 40(5), 427-435. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2019.05.004
Predation risk is a significant concern when social animals including humans engage in foraging. When people search for resources together, individuals often find themselves in a producer–scrounger game, in which some individuals bear the cost of risk monitoring while others can free ride on those efforts. A theoretically rational strategy is to mix foraging and risk monitoring randomly with the same probability across all members, but such uncoordinated action often yields inefficiencies of under- or over-supply of risk monitoring in a group. Here, we examined whether people could spontaneously develop a coordinated risk-monitoring system, alternating vigilance and foraging in a pair. Given that human cooperation is vulnerable to fear of exploitation and emotional arousal under risk, we hypothesized that such sources of anxiety would be potential disruptors to coordination. In a laboratory experiment, two participants worked on a “treasure hunt” task simultaneously, in which they chose between low or high vigilance against predators during foraging without verbal communication. If one chose high vigilance with personal cost, it yielded a spillover benefit to the other. Besides behavioral choices, each participant’s physiological arousal (skin conductance response) and cognitive effort (tonic pupil dilation) were measured during the task. Results showed that some pairs were actually able to develop a role-alternating system over time through tacit coordination, but coordinated action was also vulnerable to anxiety and mistrust among participants. Overall, these results imply that, besides the mutual behavioral control that often characterizes repeated interaction, cognitive control of emotional arousal may be a critical psychological factor for the emergence of coordinated cooperation.
Igarashi, T. （五十嵐祐） (2019) Development of the Japanese version of the three-item loneliness scale. 日本語版孤独感尺度（3項目）の開発 BMC Psychology, 7:20 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-019-0285-0
Loneliness is a major risk factor for mental and physical health worldwide. The Three-Item Loneliness Scale (TIL Scale; Hughes et al., 2004) has been widely applied to measure loneliness in a simplified format, but no validated Japanese version has been developed. This study adapted the TIL Scale into Japanese and tested its reliability and validity. [Methods] The original English version of the TIL Scale was translated into Japanese, and the expressions of the Japanese version were confirmed by a back translation procedure. The translated scale was then administered to Japanese respondents recruited from an online research panel (N = 1020) and an online crowdsourcing service (N = 500). To analyze the data containing polytomous responses to the items in the scale, this study used categorical Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Generalized Partial Credit Model based on the Item Response Theory. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale, this study examined factorial validity, reliability, information curves, and the associations of the scale score with demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and living arrangements), the scores of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (R-UCLA), the Big Five scale of personality traits, and the sizes of personal networks. [Results] The translated TIL Scale showed essential unidimensionality and characteristics to differentiate among respondents at different levels of loneliness. The scale score was related positively with the scores of R-UCLA and neuroticism and negatively with the scores of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, and the sizes of overall and support networks. Those who were unmarried and alone recorded a higher score on the scale than those who were married and living with someone. Age showed a negative correlation with the scale score only in Sample 1, in which the equal allocation procedure was introduced for the age stratum. [Conclusions] The results indicate that the Japanese version of the TIL Scale demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for the assessment of loneliness.
本研究では、Hughes et al. (2004) の孤独感尺度短縮版（3項目）の邦訳版を作成し、オンラインのサンプルから収集したデータを用いて、項目応答理論に基づいて項目の特性を分析したのち、UCLA孤独感尺度やBig Five、個人の属性との基準関連妥当性を検討しています。従来の研究では、20項目のUCLA孤独感尺度が多く用いられてきましたが、本研究の知見は、3項目の短縮版が一定の識別力と妥当性を有することを示すものであり、さまざまな領域での応用が期待されます。
Nawata, K. (縄田健悟) (2019). A glorious warrior in war: Cross-cultural evidence of honor culture, social rewards for warriors, and intergroup conflict 戦争における栄光の戦士：名誉の文化，戦士への社会的報酬，集団間紛争の比較文化的論拠 Group Processes & Intergroup Relations doi: 10.1177/1368430219838615
Previous research has shown that honor culture and honor ideology enhance interpersonal and intergroup aggressiveness at the individual level. This study aimed to examine collective-level relationships among honor culture, social rewards for warriors, and intergroup conflict. To demonstrate these relationships, I used the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, which contains data on 186 mainly preindustrial societies from all over the world. The analysis demonstrated that honor culture, which values males’ toughness and aggression, has a positive relationship with frequency of intergroup conflicts. In addition, social rewards (praise, prestige, and status) for warriors mediated the relationship between honor culture and frequency of intergroup conflict. These results imply that the collective-level processes of honor culture enhance intergroup conflicts through the social reputations of warriors who participate in war.
これまでの研究は、名誉文化と名誉イデオロギーが個人レベルでの対人間・集団間の攻撃性を高めることを明らかにしてきた。 本研究の目的は，名誉文化，戦士への社会的報酬，集団間紛争に関する集合レベルの関係を検証することである。 本研究ではStandard Cross-Cultural Sampleという人類学分野のデータセットを利用して分析した。ここには主に前産業社会の世界186データが含まれている。 分析の結果，男性のタフさと攻撃性を重視する名誉文化は集団間紛争の頻度と正の関係にあることが示された。 さらに、戦士への社会的報酬（賞賛、特権、地位）は，名誉文化と集団間紛争の頻度との関係を媒介した。 以上の結果は、集合レベルの名誉文化のプロセスが，戦争に参加する戦士の社会的評判を通じて集団間紛争を激化する可能性を示唆している。