Goto et al. (2013)

Goto, T. (後藤崇志) & Kusumi, T. (楠見 孝) (2013).
How can reward contribute to efficient self-control? Reinforcement of task-defined responses diminishes ego-depletion.
Motivation and Emotion, 37(4), 726-732.
We examined whether reinforcement learning of habitual actions diminishes ego depletion after a cognitive control task. Participants performed the Stroop task after a card selection task, in which one group was reinforced to respond to colors in the Stroop task (Stroop-color group) while another group was reinforced to respond to colors not in the Stroop task (non-Stroop-color group). We measured ego depletion in terms of decrement in endurance on an isometric handgrip task after the Stroop task. The Stroop-color group exhibited less decrease in their isometric handgrip endurance compared to the non-Stroop-color group. These results suggest that the former needed less effort for cognitive control during conflict processing, as reinforcement learning make task-defined response habitual. This finding provides a new perspective on the role of reward in cognitive control.