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Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2023). Historical changes in baby names in China. 中国における新生児の名前の歴史的変化 F1000Research, 12, 601. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.131990.2
Based on previous research on names and naming practices, I propose three suggestions to Bao et al. (2021), which investigated historical changes in given names of Han Chinese in China between 1920 and 2005. Their study analyzed a one-shot cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and reported that unique names increased from 1920 to 2005. The authors concluded that China became more individualistic over time for the period. However, three questions have remained unanswered in Bao et al. (2021). First, were the samples of older birth cohorts truly representative? Second, did unique names increase only after the 1970s? Third, how are the historical changes in average name length interpreted? Answering these three questions would contribute to a further understanding of the historical changes in given names and their underlying psychological/cultural shifts in China.
1920年から2005年の中国における名前の歴史的な変化を検討したBao et al. (2021)に対して、名前と名づけの習慣に関する先行研究に基づき、3つの提案を行った。彼らの研究は、2005年に行われた単発の横断調査を分析し、1920年から2005年にかけて個性的な名前が増えていると報告していた。彼らはその結果から、中国が個人主義化していると結論付けていた。しかし、3つの点で不明確さが残っていた。第1に、昔の出生コホートのサンプルは本当に代表性が高いのか不明であった。第2に、1970年代以降においてのみ、個性的な名前が増えているのか明らかでなかった。第3に、名前の長さの歴史的な変化はどのように解釈されるのか不明であった。これらの疑問に答えることは、中国における名前の歴史的変化とその根底にある心理的・文化的変容を理解することに更なる貢献をもたらすであろう。
Hiraishi, K.（平石界）, Miura, A.（三浦麻子）, Higuchi, M.（樋口匡貴）, Fujishima, Y.（藤島喜嗣）, Nakamura, D., Suyama, M.（須山巨基） (2024). A systematic review of conference papers presented at two large Japanese psychology conferences in 2013 and 2018: did Japanese social psychologists selectively report p < 0.05 results without peer review? 日本の大規模な2つの心理学会で2013年と2018年に発表された学会発表に関する系統的レビュー：日本の社会心理学者は、査読がなくてもp < 0.05の結果を選択的に報告していたのか？ PeerJ, 12:e16763. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.16763
We conducted a systematic review of conference papers in social psychology at two large psychology conferences in Japan: the Japanese Psychological Association and the Japanese Society for Social Psychology. The conference papers were effectively not subjected to peer review; hence, they were suitable for testing if psychologists selectively reported statistically significant findings without pressure from journal editors and reviewers. We investigated the distributions of z-values converted from the p-values reported in the articles presented at the 2013 and 2018 conferences. The z-curve analyses suggest the existence of selective reporting by the authors in 2013. The expected discovery rate (EDR) was much lower than the observed discovery rate (ODR; 7% vs. 76%, respectively), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) did not include the ODR. However, this does not mean that the set of studies completely lacked evidential value. The expected replication rate (ERR) was 31%; this is significantly higher than 5%, which was expected under the null hypothesis of no effect. Changes were observed between 2013 and 2018. The ERR increased (31% to 44%), and the EDR almost doubled (7% to 13%). However, the estimation of the maximum false discovery rate (FDR; 68% in 2013 and 35% in 2018) suggested that a substantial proportion of the reported findings were false positives. Overall, while social psychologists in Japan engaged in selective reporting, this does not mean that the entire field was covered with false positives. In addition, slight signs of improvement were observed in how they reported their findings. Still, the evidential value of the target studies was weak, even in 2018, allowing for no optimism.
Kanemasa, Y. (金政祐司), Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), & Arai, T. (荒井崇史) (2024). Attachment anxiety and the dark triad increase stalking after breakups of romantic relationships through psychological maltreatment of romantic partners and reactions to breakups. 愛着不安ならびにダークトライアドが関係破綻後のストーキング加害を増大させるプロセス：パートナーへの心理的な暴力や関係破綻への反応による媒介効果 Aggressive Behavior, 50, e22133. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.22133
This study examined whether two personality traits, attachment anxiety, and the Dark Triad, longitudinally promote stalking behaviors after romantic breakups through psychological maltreatment of partners during relationships and maladjusted reactions to breakups. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study across four waves of assessment for 1 year of individuals in romantic relationships in Japan. They completed measures of attachment anxiety, the Dark Triad, need for control, and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration at Wave 1, and measures of maladjusted reactions to breakups (i.e., anger and rumination) and stalking behaviors at a wave after breakups. The final sample consisted of 356 participants who were involved in romantic relationships at Wave 1 and left by their partners during the survey period. Correlational analysis showed that the Dark Triad at Wave 1 was significantly positively associated with future stalking behaviors, but attachment anxiety was not. Structural equation modeling showed that attachment anxiety and the Dark Triad increased future stalking behaviors after breakups through psychological IPV perpetration during relationships. Additionally, attachment anxiety increased future stalking behaviors through higher levels of postbreakup anger and rumination. Conversely, we did not find any indirect effects of the Dark Triad on stalking behaviors through these reactions toward breakups. Overall, these results suggest that it is necessary to consider personality traits that could damage intimate relationships and to focus on the quality of romantic relationships to prevent stalking after romantic breakups. These results also indicate that emotion regulation may be useful in preventing stalking caused by attachment anxiety.
Mizuno, K. (水野景子), & Shimizu, H. (清水裕士) (2023). Measuring social value orientation by model-based scoring. モデルベーストスコアリングによる社会的価値志向性 (SVO) の測定 Behaviormetrika. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41237-023-00211-4
This study proposes a method of measuring social value orientation using model-based scoring and a task suitable for such scoring. We evaluated this method by means of parameter recovery simulation (Study 1), and we examined its retest reliability (Study 2) and its predictive validity (Study 3). The results indicate that the proposed method has low bias and sufficient predictive validity. While the improvement in predictive validity of altruism was negligible and comparable to previous scoring methods in terms of confidence intervals, the measurement of equality using the proposed model and task combination produced a moderate correlation that was not observed with other methods. Although SVO is a concept used primarily in psychology, the model assumed in this study is mathematically equivalent to a well-known economics model. We, therefore, suggest that this method may lead to cross-disciplinary research.
Ishihara, T., Hashimoto, S., Tamba, N., Hyodo, K., Matsuda, T., & Takagishi, H.（高岸治人） (2024). The links between physical activity and prosocial behavior: an fNIRS hyperscanning study. 身体活動と向社会的行動の関連：fNIRSハイパースキャンニング研究 Cerebral Cortex, bhad509. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhad509
The prevalence of physically inactive lifestyles in modern society raises concerns about the potential association with poor brain health, particularly in the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is crucial for human prosocial behavior. Here, we explored the relationship between physical activity and prosocial behavior, focusing on potential neural markers, including intra-brain functional connectivity and inter-brain synchrony in the lateral prefrontal cortex. Forty participants, each paired with a stranger, completed two experimental conditions in a randomized order: (i) face-to-face and (ii) face stimulus (eye-to-eye contact with a face stimulus of a fictitious person displayed on the screen). Following each condition, participants played economic games with either their partner or an assumed person displayed on the screen. Neural activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex was recorded by functional near-infrared spectroscopy hyperscanning. Sparse multiset canonical correlation analysis showed that a physically inactive lifestyle was covaried with poorer reciprocity, greater trust, shorter decision-making time, and weaker intra-brain connectivity in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and poorer inter-brain synchrony in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex. These associations were observed exclusively in the face-to-face condition. Our findings suggest that a physically inactive lifestyle may alter human prosocial behavior by impairing adaptable prosocial decision-making in response to social factors through altered intra-brain functional connectivity and inter-brain synchrony.
Hiraoka, D. (平岡大樹), Kawanami, A., Sakurai, K., & Mori, C. (2024). Within-individual relationships between mother-to-infant bonding and postpartum depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study. 母子ボンディング感情と産後うつ症状との個人内関連性 Psychological Medicine, Advance online publication, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291723003707
Although the importance of the dynamic intra-individual relationship between mother-to-infant bonding and postpartum depressive symptoms has been widely recognized, the complex interplay between them is not well understood. Furthermore, the potential role of prenatal depressive symptoms and infant temperament in this relationship remains unclear. This study aims to examine the bidirectional influence of mother-to-infant bonding on postpartum depressive symptoms within individuals and to elucidate whether prenatal depressive symptoms and infant temperament would influence deviations from stable individual states.
Longitudinal data were collected from 433 women in early pregnancy. Of these, 360 participants completed the main questionnaires measuring impaired mother-to-infant bonding and postpartum depressive symptoms at least once during the postpartum period. Data were collected at early and late pregnancy and several postpartum time points: shortly after birth and at one, four, ten, and 18 months postpartum. We also assessed prenatal depressive symptoms and infant temperament. A random-intercept cross-lagged panel model was used.
Within-individual variability in mother-to-infant bonding, especially anger and rejection, significantly predicted subsequent postpartum depressive symptoms. However, the inverse relationship was not significant. Additionally, prenatal depressive symptoms and difficult infant temperament were associated with greater within-individual variability in impaired mother-to-infant bonding and postpartum depressive symptoms.
The present study demonstrated that the within-individual relationship between mother-to-infant bonding and postpartum depressive symptoms is likely non-bidirectional. The significance of the findings is underscored by the potential for interventions aimed at improving mother-to-infant bonding to alleviate postpartum depressive symptoms, suggesting avenues for future research and practice.
Umetani, R (梅谷凌平)., Yamamoto, H (山本仁志)., Goto, A (後藤晶)., Okada, I (岡田勇)., & Akiyama, E. (2023). Individuals reciprocate negative actions revealing negative upstream reciprocity. ネガティブな行動をとると負のアップストリーム互恵性が生じる Plos one, 18(7), e0288019. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0288019
Indirect reciprocity is widely recognized as a mechanism for explaining cooperation and can be divided into two sub-concepts: downstream and upstream reciprocity. Downstream reciprocity is supported by reputation; if someone sees you helping someone else, the person who sees this will think higher of you, and you will be more likely to be helped. Upstream reciprocity is helping someone because you are being helped by somebody else, which often happens in everyday life and experimental games. This paper focuses on the behavior of “take” and examines negative upstream reciprocity using an upstream reciprocity framework. The term “take” is defined as “to steal rather than give resources to others.” “If something is taken from you, do you take from others?” is an important extension for indirect reciprocity research; subsequently, this paper discusses experiments conducted on whether negative upstream reciprocity is chained and what causes it. The results demonstrated differences between positive and negative upstream reciprocity. In analyzing the data of nearly 600 participants to determine the extent to which negative upstream reciprocity is observed and the causes of negative upstream reciprocity, the study found that If individual A takes resources from individual B, then B is more likely to take resources from a third-party, individual C. Notably, some causes of positive upstream reciprocity were found to have no effect or the opposite effect on negative upstream reciprocity. The results also demonstrate that the first person to take can cause a chain reaction. This paper demonstrates the importance of the first person not taking from someone else and suggests the need to consider various behavioral options for future research on cooperation.
Yang, F.（楊帆）, Hagiwara, C.（萩原千晶）, Kotani, T., Hirao, J., & Oshio, A（小塩真司）.(2023). Comparing self-esteem and self-compassion: An analysis within the Big Five personality traits framework. 自尊感情とセルフコンパッションの比較：ビッグファイブを枠組みとして Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1302197. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1302197
Self-esteem and self-compassion are two ways to relate to oneself. However, little is known about the similarities and differences between these two constructs. The current study used cross-sectional data from a Japanese sample to explore their relationship from a Big Five perspective. Results showed that differences between self-esteem and self-compassion appeared mainly in openness, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Specifically, self-esteem was uniquely associated with openness, and self-compassion was uniquely associated with agreeableness. Moreover, the negative correlation between self-compassion and neuroticism was larger than that between self-esteem and neuroticism. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Hierarchical structures emerge from the cultural transmission: An iterated learning experiment using a non-linguistic task. 文化伝達を通した階層構造の創発：非言語課題を用いた繰り返し学習実験 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, 6, 1221329. https://doi.org/10.3389/frai.2023.1221329
Human language is characterized by complex structural features, such as the hierarchical combination of words to form sentences. Although other animals use communication systems, empirical evidence of hierarchical structures is rare. Computational studies of language evolution have suggested that cultural transmission plays a key role in the emergence of structural features in human languages, including hierarchy. While the previous study demonstrated the emergence of hierarchical structures in non-linguistic systems, we argue that their laboratory study may have overestimated the role of cultural transmission because of a lack of appropriate controls and analyses. To directly test the effect of cultural transmission, we conducted an experiment with no cultural transmission as a control (individual condition) in addition to replicating the previous transmission experiment (transmission condition). Our study has added a quantitative analysis of the hierarchical depth. We found that sequences became more structured as the number of generations increased; however, those produced under the transmission condition were more structured than those under the individual condition. These findings suggest that cultural transmission plays an important role in the emergence of hierarchical structures, which cannot be explained by increased learnability alone. The emergence of complex structural properties in human culture, such as language, technology, and music, may have resulted from information transmission processes between different individuals. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of the crucial role of cultural transmission in the emergence of hierarchical structures in non-linguistic communication systems. Our results contribute to the ongoing debate on the origins of human language and the emergence of complex cultural artifacts. The results of this study have implications for the study of cultural evolution and the role of transmission in shaping the emergence of structural features across diverse domains.
Nakata, S.(中田星矢) & Takezawa, M.(竹澤正哲) (2023). Conditions under which faithful cultural transmission through teaching promotes cumulative cultural evolution. 教育による忠実な文化伝達が累積的文化進化を促進する条件 Scientific Reports, 13, 20986. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-47018-7
It has been argued that teaching promotes the accurate transmission of cultural traits and eventually leads to cumulative cultural evolution (CCE). However, previous studies have questioned this argument. In this study, we modified the action sequences model into a network exploring model with reinforcement learning to examine the conditions under which teaching promotes CCE. Our model incorporates a time trade-off between innovation and teaching. Simulations revealed that the positive influence of teaching on CCE depends on task difficulty. When the task was too difficult and advanced, such that it could not be accomplished through individual learning within a limited time, spending more time on teaching—even at the expense of time for innovation—contributed to CCE. On the contrary, the easier the task, the more time was spent on innovation than on teaching, which contributed to the improvement of performance. These findings suggest that teaching becomes more valuable as cultures become more complex. Therefore, humanity must have co-evolved a complex cumulative culture and teaching that supports cultural fidelity.