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Nakata, S.(中田星矢) & Takezawa, M.(竹澤正哲) (2023). Conditions under which faithful cultural transmission through teaching promotes cumulative cultural evolution. 教育による忠実な文化伝達が累積的文化進化を促進する条件 Scientific Reports, 13, 20986. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-47018-7
It has been argued that teaching promotes the accurate transmission of cultural traits and eventually leads to cumulative cultural evolution (CCE). However, previous studies have questioned this argument. In this study, we modified the action sequences model into a network exploring model with reinforcement learning to examine the conditions under which teaching promotes CCE. Our model incorporates a time trade-off between innovation and teaching. Simulations revealed that the positive influence of teaching on CCE depends on task difficulty. When the task was too difficult and advanced, such that it could not be accomplished through individual learning within a limited time, spending more time on teaching—even at the expense of time for innovation—contributed to CCE. On the contrary, the easier the task, the more time was spent on innovation than on teaching, which contributed to the improvement of performance. These findings suggest that teaching becomes more valuable as cultures become more complex. Therefore, humanity must have co-evolved a complex cumulative culture and teaching that supports cultural fidelity.
Nozaki, Y. (野崎優樹) & Kobayashi, R. (小林亮太) (2023). Instrumental motives in emotion regulation of one’s own and others' anger: Testing cross-cultural similarities and differences between European Americans and Japanese. 自他の怒り情動調整における道具的動機：ヨーロッパ系アメリカ人と日本人を対象とした文化間共通点と相違点の検証 Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220221231212176
Instrumental motives, such as increasing negative emotions to facilitate performance, are one of the primary motives in regulating one’s own emotions (i.e., intrinsic emotion regulation) and others’ emotions (i.e., extrinsic emotion regulation). However, most instrumental emotion regulation research has been conducted in Western countries, even though desired emotions, such as anger, could vary across Western and Eastern cultures. This research investigates cross-cultural similarities and differences between European Americans and Japanese in instrumental motives for regulating one’s own (Study 1) and others’ anger (Study 2). To this end, the two preregistered studies used the context of playing an aggressive or nonaggressive computer game, a common methodology used in previous research on instrumental anger regulation. The results showed that both European Americans and Japanese significantly preferred angry stimuli for themselves and their partners before playing an aggressive game over a nonaggressive one. We also found that European Americans preferred anger stimuli significantly more than Japanese, although these cultural differences were neither large nor robust. Furthermore, individual differences in the perceived utility of anger were positively associated with a preference for angry stimuli, whereas cultural self-construals were not significantly associated with a preference for angry stimuli among either European Americans or Japanese. This research provides novel evidence for the cross-cultural similarity of instrumental anger regulation in both intrinsic and extrinsic emotion regulation between European Americans and Japanese.
Yang, F.(楊帆), Sawada, N.(澤田奈々実), & Oshio, A.(小塩真司) (2023). Development and validation of the Japanese version of the Langer Mindfulness Scale. The Langer Mindfulness Scale日本語版の開発 Japanese Psychological Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12490
Measures for meditative mindfulness have been developed and validated. However, relatively little attention is paid to a socio-cognitive definition of mindfulness, also known as Langerian mindfulness. Socio-cognitive mindfulness is an indispensable perspective for studying mindfulness within a social context. In this paper, we online conducted one pilot and two studies, with a total of 831 Japanese participants, to develop and validate the Japanese version of the Langer Mindfulness Scale (LMS-J). In the pilot study, we confirm the dimensionality via exploratory factor analysis. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analysis and test-retest reliability based on a four-week interval were performed. In Study 2, convergent and discriminant validity was tested by examining the relationships between Langerian mindfulness and meditative mindfulness, Big Five personality traits, and life satisfaction. Overall, results suggest that the factor structure of the LMS-J is like its original version, and the LMS-J is a reliable and valid measure. Therefore, the LMS-J can be used to measure Langerian mindfulness in the Japanese population, especially for research in individual development within a social context.
Miyagawa, Y. (宮川裕基), Kanemasa, Y. (金政祐司), & Taniguchi, J. (谷口淳一). (2023). A compassionate and worthy self: latent profiles of self-compassion and self-esteem in relation to intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. 思いやりと価値のある自分：セルフコンパッションと自尊心の潜在プロファイル分析 Current Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-023-05428-w
Three studies (total n = 3576) employed latent profile analyses to identify how self-compassion and self-esteem are configured within individuals. Furthermore, these studies examined profile differences in intra-and interpersonal functioning. Self-compassion and self-esteem were assessed across the studies. In Study 1, participants recalled negative events and responded the scales of state self-compassion and self-improvement. In Study 2, participants completed a measure of basic psychological need satisfaction. In Study 3, participants completed the scales of social isolation and the quality of romantic relationships. Across the three studies, latent profile analyses indicated that individuals were classified into one of three latent profiles: Low Compassionate and Worthy Style (low self-compassion and self-esteem), Moderate Compassionate and Worthy Style (moderate self-compassion and self-esteem), or High Compassionate and Worthy Style (high self-compassion and self-esteem). These analyses did not reveal the groups of individuals who displayed high self-compassion and low self-esteem simultaneously, or vice versa. Furthermore, individuals with High Compassionate and Worthy Style reported higher levels of self-compassionate reactions toward distressing events, self-improvement orientation (Study 1), satisfaction with basic psychological needs (Study 2), and relationship satisfaction (Study 3). They also indicated lower levels of feeling lonely and ostracized, and fewer frequencies of psychological intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization (Study 3). Overall, these results suggest that self-compassion and self-esteem operate unitedly rather than separately within individuals to support positive intra-and interpersonal functioning. Thus, given the interactive network of self-compassion and self-esteem, interventions to boost self-compassion might also promote self-esteem.
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Suzuki, M., Hata, Y., & Sakaki, T. (2023). Older adults are healthier than many people expect: Reducing anti-old attitudes. 多くの人々が思うより高齢者は健康である：反高齢者的態度の軽減 Educational Gerontology, 49(12), 1116-1127. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601277.2023.2214764
There are widespread anti-old attitudes held by younger people. Older adults are generally perceived as closely associated with illnesses. Thus, younger people with a higher degree of germ aversion (i.e. aversion to disease transmission) are thought to view the older population more negatively. In Study 1, we conducted an online survey (N = 981) and found that, even after controlling for the related variables such as fear of death, those with higher germ aversion had more anti-old attitudes. In Study 2, we conducted an online experiment (N = 689). Participants in the experimental group read an explanatory text which showed that older adults in general are healthier than people perceive and those in the control group read an irrelevant explanatory text. Results showed that anti-old attitudes were weaker in the experimental group than in the control group; this effect lasted at least one week. In Study 3, we conducted an online experiment similar to Study 2 (N = 997). In the experimental group, anti-old attitudes toward both the young-old (aged 65–74 years) and old-old (aged 75 years and over) were reduced. Further, advocates for policies to support older adults increased in the experimental group. The experimental manipulation in this study has the advantage that it can be conducted with a large number of participants in a simple procedure. Our findings would be useful in gerontological research aimed at improving anti-old attitudes and creating a society, in which older adults can live comfortably.
Takebe, M. (竹部成崇), Tsumura, K. (津村健太), & Nakashima, K. (中島健一郎) (2023). Resource scarcity priming and face perception: A preregistered conceptual replication of Study 1 of Rodeheffer et al.(2012) in Japan. 資源不足プライミングと顔知覚－日本におけるRodeheffer et al. (2012)のStudy1の事前登録済概念的追試－ Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cresp.2023.100169
Rodeheffer et al. (2012) showed that when people perceive resource scarcity, they are more likely to judge racially ambiguous people as out-group members. In their first experiment, 71 White participants viewed a slideshow depicting either resource scarcity or abundance; subsequently, they judged 20 biracial faces created by averaging a White and a Black face. We conducted this experiment’s preregistered conceptual replication study in Japan. Specifically, after observing a slideshow depicting either resource scarcity or abundance, East Asian participants judged 20 biracial faces produced by averaging an East and a South Asian face. The statistical power to detect a small effect (d = 0.2) was 0.79 (N = 769). Although the pattern was the same as Rodeheffer et al.’s (2012) research, the priming effect was insignificant (d = 0.1). The reasons for this null result as well as future research directions are discussed.
Rodeheffer et al. (2012)は、人は資源不足を知覚すると、人種的に曖昧な人を外集団成員であると判断しやすくなることを示した。彼らは研究1で、71名の白人参加者に資源不足あるいは資源充足を描写するスライドショーを見せた。その後、1人の白人と1人の黒人の顔を平均化することで作成したバイレイシャルな顔を、合計20個、1つずつ呈示し、それぞれについて、白人と黒人のどちらとみなす方がより的確か判断させた。我々は事前登録をした上で、この実験の概念的追試研究を日本で行った。具体的には、東アジア人参加者に資源不足あるいは資源充足を描写するスライドショーを見せ、その後、1人の東アジア人と1人の南アジア人の顔を平均化することで作成した20のバイレイシャルな顔を判断してもらった。サンプルサイズは769であり、d=0.2の効果を検出する検定力は0.79であった。結果のパターンは元研究と同じであったが、プライミング効果は非有意であった（d=0.1）。非有意となった理由、そして今後の研究の方向性について議論された。
Shimizu, Y.(清水佑輔), Takahashi, T., Sato, K., Ogawa, S., Cho, D., Takahashi, Y., Yamashiro, D., Li, Y., Hinakura, K., Iizuka, A., Furuya, T., & Suzuki, H. (2023). Perceptions of older adults and generativity among older citizens in Japan: A descriptive cross-sectional study. 日本人高齢者における高齢者イメージと世代継承性に関する横断調査 Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives, 14(5), 427-432. https://doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2023.0063
Objectives: As the population ages worldwide, including in Japan, there is a growing expectation for older adults to remain active participants in society. The act of sharing one’s experiences and knowledge with younger generations through social engagement not only enriches the lives of older individuals, but also holds significant value for our society. In this study, we examined both positive and negative perceptions of older adults and investigated the correlation between these perceptions and generativity among older citizens. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of life satisfaction on these factors. Methods: We conducted a survey of 100 older adults in Japan (mean age, 71.68 years) and utilized multiple regression analyses, using positive and negative perceptions of older adults, life satisfaction, and demographic factors as independent variables. The sub-categories of generativity—namely, generative action, concern, and accomplishment—were used as dependent variables. Results: Participants who held a more positive perception of older adults demonstrated a higher level of generative actions and concerns. Additionally, participants who reported higher levels of life satisfaction also exhibited more generative actions, concerns, and accomplishments. Conversely, those who held a more negative perception of older adults were found to have higher levels of generative actions. Conclusion: Enhancing positive perceptions of older adults among them can boost the sub-categories of generativity. This study, which was conducted from an exploratory perspective, has several limitations, including a potential sampling bias. A more comprehensive examination of the relationship between perceptions of older adults and generativity is anticipated in future research.
Yang, F. (楊帆), & Oshio, A (小塩真司). (2023). A secure mind is a clear mind: The relationship between attachment security, mindfulness, and self-concept clarity. 安定した心は明確な心: 愛着安定性、マインドフルネスと自己概念の明確性との関連 Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-023-05250-4
Attachment is associated with self-concept clarity. However, few studies have provided insights into its underlying mechanism. The way people treat their own experiences is vital in forming self-concept clarity. Mindfulness, a nonjudgmental way to notice moment-to-moment experiences, is a key feature of attachment security. Thus, we conducted two studies to explore the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between attachment security and self-concept clarity. Study 1 involved a cross-sectional online survey of 234 participants. In Study 1, an indirect effect emerged between attachment anxiety and self-concept clarity through describing, nonjudging, and acting with awareness. In Study 2, we recruited 195 participants online and randomly assigned them to either the attachment security priming or attachment anxiety priming condition. Participants assigned to the attachment security priming (vs. attachment anxiety priming) condition scored higher on self-concept clarity, acting with awareness, and present-moment awareness. The Bayesian t-test yielded strong evidence for between-group (attachment security vs. anxiety priming conditions) differences in attachment anxiety, moderate evidence for self-concept clarity, and strong evidence for acting with awareness. The results of the Bayesian t-test also suggested there was no evidence for between-group differences in attachment avoidance, anecdotal evidence for present-moment attention, and no evidence for nonjudging. Moreover, acting with awareness mediated the link between priming conditions and self-concept clarity. These findings suggest that anxiously attached people may lack awareness of their own behaviors, leading to lower self-concept clarity.
Jackson, J. C., Halberstadt, J., Takezawa, M.(竹澤正哲), Liew, K., Smith, K., Apicella, C., & Gray, K. (2023). Generalized morality culturally evolves as an adaptive heuristic in large social networks. 汎化された道徳観は大きな社会的ネットワークにおける適応的ヒューリスティクスとして文化進化する Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000358
Why do people assume that a generous person should also be honest? Why do we even use words like “moral” and “immoral”? We explore these questions with a new model of how people perceive moral character. We propose that people vary in the extent to which they perceive moral character as “localized” (varying along many contextually embedded dimensions) versus “generalized” (varying along a single dimension from morally bad to morally good). This variation might be partly the product of cultural evolutionary adaptations to different kinds of social networks. As networks grow larger, perceptions of generalized morality are increasingly valuable for predicting cooperation during partner selection, especially in novel contexts. Our studies show that social network size correlates with perceptions of generalized morality in United States and international samples (Study 1) and that East African hunter–gatherers with greater exposure outside their local region perceive morality as more generalized compared to those who have remained in their local region (Study 2). We support the adaptive value of generalized morality in large and unfamiliar social networks with an agent-based model (Study 3), and in experiments where we manipulate partner unfamiliarity (Study 4). Our final study shows that perceptions of morality have become more generalized over the last 200 years of English-language history, which suggests that it may be coevolving with rising social complexity and anonymity in the English-speaking world (Study 5). We discuss the implications of this theory for the cultural evolution of political systems, religion, and taxonomical theories of morality.
Ogihara, Y. (荻原祐二) (2023). Chinese culture became more individualistic: Evidence from family structure, 1953-2017. 中国文化は個人主義化している：家族構造を対象とした検証（1953-2017） F1000Research, 12, 10. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.128448.3
Previous research has indicated that some aspects of Chinese culture became more individualistic. However, prior studies have suggested a decrease in individualism in other aspects of China. Thus, it was unclear whether China became more individualistic. Therefore, the current research investigated whether Chinese culture became more individualistic by examining historical changes in family structure. Specifically, I analyzed temporal shifts in the divorce rate and household size, which have been confirmed as valid representative indicators of individualism. Results showed that the divorce rate increased between 1978 and 2017 and household size decreased between 1953 and 2017, indicating a rise in individualism. Moreover, analyses suggested that the one-child policy was unlikely the sole and major factor in the decrease in household size. Additionally, the aggregated score of divorce rate and household size demonstrated a clear increase in individualism. Therefore, the present research provided further evidence of the rise in individualism in China.