Hashimoto et al. (2014)

Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), Mifune, N.(三船恒裕), & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2014).
To be perceived as altruistic: Strategic considerations that support fair behavior in the dictator game.
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 5(2), 17-20.
We successfully replicated Dana, Cain, and Dawes’ study (2006) using a dictator game with an exit option with a Japanese sample. The exit option allowed the dictator to leave the recipient with nothing by paying a small fee, while also ensuring that the recipient never noticed that the dictator game was being played. If the dictator was motivated by fairness, or even self-interest, there would be no reason to choose the exit option. However, our study, as well as the original study, demonstrated that approximately 40% of participants chose the exit option. Based on these results, we argue that the altruistic behavior exhibited during the standard dictator game represents a default strategy for reputation management.