Hashimoto & Yamagishi (2014)

Hashimoto, H.(橋本博文), & Yamagishi, T.(山岸俊男) (2014).
Preference-expectation reversal in the ratings of independent and interdependent individuals: A USA–Japan comparison.独立的/相互依存的個人の評定における選好-期待の逆転:日米比較
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Article first published online: 29 DEC 2014
doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12094
We predicted and supported the prediction that a ‘preference-expectation reversal’ would occur among Japanese but not among Americans. American and Japanese participants evaluated ideal-typical independent and interdependent persons on the negative–positive dimension, and estimated how others would evaluate these persons. They also indicated their preference for acting like each of the target persons; that is, which of the two target persons they would prefer to act like. Both the American and Japanese participants wanted to act like the typical independent person rather than the typical interdependent person. However, the Japanese participants expected that others would evaluate the interdependent person more positively than the independent person. This preference-expectation reversal was not observed among the American participants. Further analysis demonstrated that the American participants’ personal evaluations of the two targets were consistent with their preferences. The Japanese participants’ personal evaluation represented a compromise between their preferences and the expected responses of others. These results suggest that the culturally shared belief in Japan that interdependent persons would receive more positive evaluations than independent persons created an incentive for them to behave interdependently despite their preferences.