Hayashi, Y., & Sasaki, H. (2022).

Hayashi, Y(林洋一郎)., & Sasaki, H. (2022). 
Effect of leaders' regulatory‐fit messages on followers' motivation. 
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 52(7), 496-510. 

The regulatory fit between regulatory focus and framing of leaders’ messages to motivate their followers was examined in this study. Toward this end, an exploratory survey was conducted to develop messages germane to regulatory focus. These messages were employed in the following two experimental studies. Study 1 tested the regulatory-fit hypotheses from the perspective of leaders, who selected positively or negatively framed messages for promotion- and prevention-focused scenarios. The results revealed that leaders were more likely to choose positively framed messages when conveying promotion-focused messages and negatively framed messages when conveying prevention-focused messages. While leaders high in promotion focus and transformational leadership tended to choose positive framing, those high in prevention and authoritarian leadership were inclined to prefer negative framing. The effect of regulatory fit from followers’ perspective was examined in Study 2 to determine whether regulatory-fit messages increased followers’ motivation. The results revealed that participants in the regulatory-fit condition exhibited higher motivation only in the promotion and positive-framing condition. The implications of the findings for regulatory-fit theory and leadership research are discussed.