Hitokoto & Uchida (2014)

Hitokoto, H., & Uchida, Y. (内田由紀子) (2014).
Interdependent Happiness: Theoretical Importance and Measurement Validity.
Journal of Happiness Studies, 1-29.
doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9505-8
We proposed the concept of “interdependent happiness,” which is interdependently pursued and attained. A nine-item Interdependent Happiness Scale (IHS) was developed to measure the happiness of individuals who are relationally oriented, quiescent and ordinary. Interdependent happiness correlated with both subjective well-being (SWB) and interdependent self-construal among Japanese students (Study 1); their SWB was more likely to be explained by IHS than the SWB of American students (Study 2); and IHS explained the SWB of working adults in the US, Germany, Japan, and Korea (Study 3) and Japanese adults and elders from collectivist regions of the country (Study 4). Cultural and cross-cultural psychological perspectives were incorporated to shed new light on collective happiness