Ida et al. (2015)

Ida, T., Takemura, K.(竹村幸祐), & Sato, M. (2015).
Inner conflict between nuclear power generation and electricity rates: A Japanese case study.
Energy Economics, 48, 61-69.
doi: 10.1016/j.eneco.2014.11.019 
Since the March 11 earthquake, Japanese households have been facing a trade-off problem between decreasing dependency on nuclear power generation and avoiding an increase in electricity rates. We analyze this inner conflict quantitatively, adopting two economic–psychological approaches: First, we note that the trade-off causes cognitive dissonance after making a choice that results in a wider desirability gap between the chosen and rejected alternatives. Second, the consumer surplus improves by 11.2% with a no-choice option for suspending judgment in the presence of cognitive dissonance. Third, individual characteristics such as gender and annual household income are significantly correlated with both cognitive dissonance and a preference for the no-choice option.