Ishii, & Eisen (2016)

Ishii, K. (石井敬子), & Eisen, C. (カリス・アイゼン) (2016).
Measuring and Understanding Emotions in East Asia.
In H. Meiselman (Ed.), Emotion Measurement (Pp. 629-644). Woodhead Publishing. 
ISBN: 9780081005088
Emotions are understood as psychological processes in an innate and automatic system, leading people to behave adaptively in an environment, which helps them survive. However, people’s subjective experiences of emotions are not just a direct reflection of this system; rather, these are the result of how people interpret physiological responses based on implicit beliefs and norms regarding interpersonal relationships in society. These findings are documented in cumulative studies in cultural psychology. Over the last two decades, cultural psychologists have explored the relationship between culture and the mind and have reported that psychological processes, including daily emotional experiences, vary across cultures (eg, Mesquita & Frijda, 1992; Suh, Diener, Oishi, & Triandis, 1998). In this chapter, we describe the theoretical framework of emotions from a cross-cultural perspective and review a selection of related findings on the cultural dependence of emotions. We also address the core question of this book—how to measure emotions, focusing on online responses and the situational approach—as well as give advice on how to measure emotions in East Asia and propose future directions.