Kawamoto et al. (2013)

Kawamoto, T.(川本大史), Nittono, H., & Ura, M.(浦光博) (2013). 
Cognitive, affective, and motivational changes during ostracism: An ERP, EMG, and EEG study using a computerized Cyberball task.
Neuroscience Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 304674, 11 pages. 
doi: 10.1155/2013/304674
Individuals are known to be highly sensitive to signs of ostracism, such as being ignored or excluded, however, the cognitive, affective, and motivational processes underlying ostracism have remained unclear. We investigated temporal changes in these psychological states resulting from being ostracized by a computer. Using event-related brain potentials (ERP), the facial electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalogram (EEG), we focused on the P3b amplitude, corrugator supercilii activity, and frontal EEG asymmetry, which reflect attention directed at stimuli, negative affect, and approach/withdrawal motivation, respectively. Results of the P3b and corrugator supercilii activity replicated findings of previous studies on being ostracized by humans. The mean amplitude of the P3b wave decreased, and facial EMG activity increased over time. In addition, frontal EEG asymmetry changed from relative left frontal activation, suggestive of approach motivation to relative right frontal activation, indicative of withdrawal motivation. These findings suggest that ostracism by a computer-generated opponent is an aversive experience that in time, changes the psychological status of ostracized people, similar to ostracism byhuman. Our findings also imply that frontal EEG asymmetry is a useful index for investigating ostracism. Results of this study suggest that ostracism has well developed neurobiological foundations.