Majima (2015)

Majima, Y. (眞嶋良全) (2015).
Belief in Pseudoscience, Cognitive Style and Science Literacy.
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(4), 552-559.
doi: 10.1002/acp.3136
Most studies of superstitious belief have focused on paranormal phenomena, but this study extended existing findings to non-paranormal pseudoscience by exploring links between belief and dual-process thought (cognitive ability and intuitive analytical thinking styles). In the present study, Japanese participants (N =264; 188 women, 76 men; mean age= 25.0; range=18–81) completed questionnaires on cognitive style and ability and level of beliefs and science literacy. Results showed that belief in paranormal and non-paranormal pseudoscience correlated positively; after controlling for demographic variables, level of science literacy and cognitive ability, both analytic and intuitive cognitive styles positively predicted paranormal belief. Belief in non-paranormal pseudoscience associated positively with analytic, but not intuitive style. These results follow the dual-process view of belief perseverance; however, analytic style affected beliefs oppositely from previous studies. This discrepancy might emerge from Western and Eastern cultural differences in reasoning.