Murayama et al. (2015)

Murayama, A.(村山綾, Ryan, C. S., Shimizu, H.(清水裕士), Kurebayashi, K., & Miura, A.(三浦麻子) (2015).
Cultural Differences in Perceptions of Intragroup Conflict and Preferred Conflict-Management Behavior: A Scenario Experiment.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 88-100.
doi: 10.1177/0022022114551051
This study focused on cultural differences in perceived relationship and task conflict within groups and preferences for active and agreeable conflict-management behavior. Task conflict (low vs. high) and relationship conflict (low vs. high) were manipulated within subjects in a 2 x 2 x 2 (culture) mixed design. Japanese (n = 100) and American (n = 121) undergraduate students rated each scenario with respect to task conflict, relationship conflict, and preferred conflict-management behavior. Results showed that task and relationship conflict were mistaken for each other in both cultures; however, Americans misattributed strong task conflict to relationship conflict more than Japanese. Cultural differences in preferred conflict-management also emerged. Japanese preferred active conflict-management more than Americans in the strong (vs. weak) task conflict situation when relationship conflict was low (vs. high), whereas Americans preferred active conflict management more than Japanese when relationship conflict was high—regardless of task conflict. Finally, Americans preferred agreeable conflict-management behavior more than Japanese when both types of conflict were low.