Nakata, S. , Masumi, A., & Toya, G. (2024).

Nakata, S. (中田星矢), Masumi, A., & Toya, G. (2024). 
Formalising prestige bias: Differences between models with first-order and second-order cues.
名声バイアスの定式化: 一次手がかりモデルと二次手がかりモデルにおける文化進化の違い
Evolutionary Human Sciences. Published online 2024:1-28.

Knowledge and behaviour are transmitted from one individual to another through social learning and eventually disseminated across the population. People often learn useful behaviours socially through selective bias rather than random selection of targets. Prestige bias, or the tendency to selectively imitate prestigious individuals, has been considered an important factor in influencing human behaviour. Although its importance in human society and culture has been recognised, the formulation of prestige bias is less developed than that of other social learning biases. To examine the effects of prestige bias on cultural evolution theoretically, it is imperative to formulate prestige and investigate its basic properties. We reviewed two definitions: one based on first-order cues, such as the demonstrator’s appearance and job title, and the other based on second-order cues, such as people’s behaviour towards the demonstrator (e.g. people increasingly pay attention to prestigious individuals). This study builds a computational model of prestige bias based on these two definitions and compares the cultural evolutionary dynamics they generate. Our models demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between the two types of formalisation, because they can have different influences on cultural evolution.