Nakazato et al.(2015)

Nakazato, N.(中里直樹), Nakashima, K.(中島健一郎), & Morinaga, Y.(森永康子) (2015).
The importance of freedom in the East and the West over time: A meta-analytic study of predictors of well-being.
Social Indications Research, 1-18.
doi: 10.1007/s11205-015-1180-6
We examined whether sense of freedom is an important predictor of well-being, as compared to other typical predictors, across different periods in modern times (1981–2011), and in the East and the West. We applied a meta-analytical approach to the results of a series of multiple regression analyses conducted on six individual waves of Japanese data sets and five individual waves of American data sets from the World Values Survey. The final sample comprised 6389 Japanese and 6176 American respondents during all study periods. The main findings were that sense of freedom was one of the strongest predictors of life satisfaction (a) among several predictors (i.e., health condition, household income, marital status), (b) consistently across waves, and (c) in both Japan and the United States, as typical collectivistic Eastern and individualistic Western countries. We conclude that the greater importance of sense of freedom in ensuring well-being than other typical predictors is applicable to individuals across time and cultures.