Ogihara (2016)

Ogihara, Y.(荻原祐二) (2016).
Age Differences in Self-Liking in Japan: The Developmental Trajectory of Self-Esteem from Elementary School to Old Age.
Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 7(1), 33-36.
doi: 10.5178/lebs.2016.48
The present research examined age differences in self-liking (an important component of self-esteem) across a broad range of the population in Japan, from elementary school students to the elderly. Previous research in the U.S. has shown that self-esteem levels in childhood are high, decline during adolescence, rise gradually in adulthood and drop in old age. However, it was unclear whether this pattern holds for other cultures. As self-esteem is significantly affected by culture, it is important to reveal its developmental trajectory not only in European American cultures, but also in other cultures. Therefore, the current research analyzed a large, highly representative cross-sectional dataset from Japan. Results showed that levels of self-liking were high for elementary school students, declined among middle school and high school students, and rose gradually among adults, replicating the developmental trajectory of self-esteem found in prior research.