Ozaki et al. (2017)

Ozaki, Y. (尾崎由佳), Goto, T. (後藤崇志), Kobayashi, M. (小林麻衣), & Hofmann, W. (2017). 
Counteractive control over temptations: Promoting resistance through enhanced perception of conflict and goal value. 
Self and Identity, 17.
プレプリント:https://osf.io/preprints/psyarxiv/hfhzv The present research explored people’s everyday practice of counteractive control. Experience sampling was used to test our prediction that strong temptations would promote self-control. Participants were 237 Japanese citizens with ages ranging from 18 to 69. Results indicated that perceived temptation prompted stronger resistance and restraint of behaviors, compared to those cases where no conflict was perceived. In addition, multilevel path analysis revealed the underlying process such that (a) a strong desire toward temptation intensified perception of conflict; (b) perceived conflict bolstered the value of goals that were in disagreement with the temptation; and (c) highly valued goals promoted self-control (i.e., stronger resistance and hence less yielding to temptation).