Schug, J.（シューグ・ジョアンナ）, Takagishi, H.（高岸治人）, Benech, C., & Okada, H. (2016). The development of theory of mind and positive and negative reciprocity in preschool children. 未就学児における互恵性と心の理論の発達 Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00888
This study examined the relation between the acquisition of false-beliefs theory of mind and reciprocity in preschoolers. Preschool-aged children completed a task assessing the understanding of false beliefs, and played an Ultimatum Game (UG) with another child in a face-to-face setting. Negative reciprocity was assessed by examining the rejection of unfair offers made by another child in the UG, while positive reciprocity by examining allocations made by participants in a Dictator Game (DG) following the UG. The results indicated that children who had passed a task assessing first-order false beliefs were more likely to make generous offers in a DG following a fair offer made by their partner in a proceeding UG, but that the false beliefs theory of mind was unrelated to the rejection of unfair offers in the UG.