Shimizu, M., Niiya, Y.（新谷優）, & Shigemasu, E.（繁桝江里） (2016). Achievement goals and improvement following failure: moderating roles of self-compassion and contingency of self-worth. 失敗後の達成目標と向上：自己への慈しみと自己価値の随伴性の仲介効果 Self and Identity, 15(1), 107-115. doi: 10.1080/15298868.2015.1084371
We examined whether mastery goals promote greater score improvement on a cognitive test than performance goals and whether self-compassion and contingency of self-worth moderated the effect. Participants received either mastery or performance goals manipulation, failed on a difficult test, and took the test again after receiving the correct answers. Those with mastery goals showed a greater score improvement than those with performance goals, although post-failure state self-esteem did not differ between the two conditions. Moreover, the goals had a greater effect among (a) those with low rather than high self-compassion and (b) those with high rather than low competition contingency of self-worth. The findings suggest that by framing the task as a challenge rather than a threat, mastery goals encourage people to learn from failure more so than performance goals, especially when under high ego-threat.