Takagi et al. (2015)

Takagi, D.(高木大資), Ikeda, K.(池田謙一), Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Harihara, M., & Kawachi, I. (2015). 
The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. 
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.
The present study examined associations of neighbourhood crime with residents’ social ties and civic participation using multilevel models. We hypothesized that crime is indirectly associated with residents’ low civic participation by negatively relating to their acquaintanceship ties because of fear of neighbours. By contrast, we predicted that crime is indirectly related to frequent civic participation by positively associating with more intimate friendship ties as a response to combat external threats. Additionally, we hypothesized that high crime rates in the neighbourhood increases the importance of generalized trust towards others. Therefore, we examined the interaction effects of neighbourhood crime and trust on social ties and participation. The study is based on a postal questionnaire mailed to residents aged between 20 and 69 years, residing in Musashino City and Kiyose City, in Tokyo. Rates of larceny reported by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department were used as indices of neighbourhood crime. As hypothesized, our results showed that crime is positively associated with friendship ties and is negatively related to acquaintanceship ties. Through these opposing relationships, crime showed both positive and negative associations with civic participation. Moreover, we found that generalized trust buffered the adverse relationships between crime, broader social ties and participation.