Yang, F., Sawada, N., & Oshio, A. (2023).

Yang, F.(楊帆), Sawada, N.(澤田奈々実), & Oshio, A.(小塩真司) (2023). 
Development and validation of the Japanese version of the Langer Mindfulness Scale.
The Langer Mindfulness Scale日本語版の開発
Japanese Psychological Research.

Measures for meditative mindfulness have been developed and validated. However, relatively little attention is paid to a socio-cognitive definition of mindfulness, also known as Langerian mindfulness. Socio-cognitive mindfulness is an indispensable perspective for studying mindfulness within a social context. In this paper, we online conducted one pilot and two studies, with a total of 831 Japanese participants, to develop and validate the Japanese version of the Langer Mindfulness Scale (LMS-J). In the pilot study, we confirm the dimensionality via exploratory factor analysis. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analysis and test-retest reliability based on a four-week interval were performed. In Study 2, convergent and discriminant validity was tested by examining the relationships between Langerian mindfulness and meditative mindfulness, Big Five personality traits, and life satisfaction. Overall, results suggest that the factor structure of the LMS-J is like its original version, and the LMS-J is a reliable and valid measure. Therefore, the LMS-J can be used to measure Langerian mindfulness in the Japanese population, especially for research in individual development within a social context.