Ito, T. (伊藤健彦) (2020)
The influence of networks of general trust on willingness to communicate in English for Japanese people.
一般的信頼のネットワークが日本人の英語Willingness to Communicateに与える影響 
Scientific Reports 10, 19939. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77108-9

This study investigates the effect of a network of general trust on the willingness to communicate in English among Japanese people. Previous studies have shown that general trust positively affects the willingness to communicate in English for Japanese people. However, the network structure of general trust and its effects have not yet been revealed. The present study conducted a network analysis with 761 Japanese university students and 601 Japanese social survey participants, for 1362 participants total. Four variables regarding general trust positively affected the willingness to communicate in English for all participants, whereas one variable had a negative effect if each network was estimated for only university students or social survey participants. Centrality indices, such as node strength, closeness, and expected influence, revealed the centrality of several variables in the network of all participants. Bootstrapping methods showed the trustworthiness of the estimated edges and centrality indices. Contrary to the regression analysis, the network analysis can help us understand the profound effect of general trust on the willingness to communicate in a second language, which will prove useful for intervention studies.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-77108-9