Kobayashi, T.(小林哲郎), Miura, A.(三浦麻子), Madrid-Morales, D., & Shimizu, H.(清水裕士) (2021). 
Why are politically active people avoided in countries with collectivistic culture? A cross-cultural experiment. 
なぜ集団主義文化の諸国では政治参加する人々が嫌われるのか?:文化比較実験
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology ,52(4), 388-405. 
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F00220221211008653

Although most democratic theories assume that political participation other than voting constitutes an essential input to the political process, little is known about the cultural universality of this assumption. Drawing on cultural psychology findings derived from the widely shared framework of collectivism versus individualism, the present study tests the hypothesis that political demonstrators in collectivistic countries are socially avoided because they are perceived to be a threat to harmonious interpersonal relationships. A cross-national experiment in eight countries (US, UK, France, Germany, Japan, China, South Korea, and India) and one region (Hong Kong) indicated that political demonstrators are socially avoided, and this tendency was significantly stronger in collectivistic countries. Moderated-mediation analyses suggested that the social avoidance of political demonstrators in collectivistic countries is mediated by the perception that they are a threat to harmonious interpersonal relationships. The cross-cultural validity of democratic theory is discussed.

多くの民主主義理論は、政治過程への不可欠なインプットとして投票以外の政治参加を仮定しているが、この仮定が文化的に普遍的であるかどうかについてはほとんど知られていない。本研究では、文化心理学における集団主義と個人主義の枠組みを用いて、集団主義国では政治的デモ参加者は、調和的な対人関係を脅かす存在として社会的に忌避されるという仮説を検証した。8カ国(米国、英国、フランス、ドイツ、日本、中国、韓国、インド)と1地域(香港)を対象とした文化比較実験の結果、仮説を支持する結果が得られた。民主主義理論の文化を越えた有効性について考察した。