Ogawa, K (小川一美) & Hall, J. A. (2022).
Development of the Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II (TONCK-II). 
非言語的手がかりに関する知識テスト-II (Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II ; TONCK-II) の開発
Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 46(4),

The Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK; Rosip and Hall in J Nonverbal Behav 28(4): 267–286, 2004) was developed to measure explicit knowledge of nonverbal cue meanings and usages. The objective of this research was to develop the TONCK-II, which is a shortened version of the TONCK to address the weaknesses of TONCK and to facilitate use. In Study 1, we partially revised the items of the TONCK scale to increase its appropriateness and reduce the number of items based on discrimination parameters and difficulty parameters. Through Study 1, 2, and 3, the reliabilities of TONCK-II were confirmed from the ω coefficient. The correlations with participants’ motivation to accurately decode others’ nonverbal cues as well as their self-assessment of ability to accurately decode such cues were not significant or correlated only weakly. Moreover, TONCK-II showed only a weak positive correlation with cognitive intelligence in Study 3. That is, the discriminant validity of TONCK-II was supported. Convergent validity was demonstrated in Study 2 by a significant positive correlation with GEMOK-Features (Schlegel and Scherer in Cogn Emot 32(8): 1514–1530, 2018), a test that measures accurate semantic knowledge about the experience and expression of emotions, and by the relation to the original TONCK in Study 3. In relation to demographic variables, women had significantly higher TONCK-II scores than men, especially in the younger generation, but other demographic variables showed no strong correlation with TONCK-II. Finally, based on the results, the characteristics and future directions regarding TONCK-II and research issues of knowledge about nonverbal communication were discussed.

本研究では,RosipとHall (2004)が非言語的手がかりの意味や利用に関する顕在的知識を測定するために作成したTest of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK)の短所を改善し,利用可能性を高めた短縮版のテスト(Test of Nonverbal Cue Knowledge-II; TONCK-II) を開発した。3つの研究から,TONCK-IIの信頼性と妥当性を検証し,非言語的手がかりに関する知識と人口統計学的変数との関連についても検討した。