Sueda, K. (末田清子) (2014).
Negotiating multiple identities: Shame and pride among Japanese returnees.
ISBN: 978-9812870070
    The purpose of this book is to explore: 1) the relationship between face and identities; and 2) the role of shame and pride in negotiating multiple identities.  In reviewing the literature on face and identity/identities, there is a scarcity of research in at least three areas:  1) Few researchers have attempted to explore a possible relationship between the two terms ‘face’ and ‘identities’; 2) The issue of the emotions behind face has not been fully addressed; and 3) Although the multiplicity of identities is suggested theoretically, the dynamics of identity negotiation has not been studied much empirically. By looking at the emotions behind face, such as shame and pride, I intend to explore a possible relationship between face and identities and the affective aspects of identity negotiation.
    Japanese returnee students (kikokushijo), who spent a considerable amount of time overseas because of their parent’s overseas assignment, were chosen as research participants for the first phase of research (from February 2000 to July 2001). Through interaction with at least 300 returnees for more than 15 years, I have found that some returnees identify strongly with the category of ‘returnees,’ and some do not.  For the second phase of research (from March 2010 to October 2011) participants, former Japanese returnees, who work in Japanese industry and commerce, were chosen. Three methods (The ‘Who am I?’ test, the PAC method, and participant observation) are used for the same participants. Methodological triangulation, utilizing multiple methods for the same research participants, is considered to lead me to the participants’ inner perception of face, their emotional state, and the dynamics of negotiating their multiple-layering of identities in the real world.
    The following conclusions are drawn: 1) Face is an indicator of one’s emotional state and the degree of how much one identifies with a particular kind of identity; 2) When one’s face is threatened or lost within a particular kind of identity, whether or not the pertinent identity can be strengthened depends on how one goes about managing shame; and 3) When one has lost one’s face within a particular kind of identity, one has to restore a sense of pride within the same kind of identity. The present study has possible educational, social and political implications, and makes a theoretical as well as methodological contribution. Particularly, by looking at how Japanese returnees and former returnees exhibit or hide their English ability at school and workplace, Japanese people’s ideas on globalisation can be explored.
 理論的枠組みのひとつは、フェイス(face)の情動的側面に着目したScheff(1997)のshame (以降シェイム)とpride[以降、プライド(自尊心)]である。ここでいうシェイムとは、自分が拒否されたり否定されたりしたときに伴う感情で、人と人あるいは人と社会の絆を脅かすものである。一方、プライドは自分の置かれた状況や自分自身を心地よく受け入れるという自尊心を指し、人と人あるいは人と社会の絆を強化するものである。
 本研究では、1)解釈主義的アプローチに基づき、調査参加者の視点から社会的現実を探索し、2)同じ調査参加者を3つの手法( The “Who am I?” test, PAC分析、参与観察)によって調査し、そのデータの共通項、矛盾点、補完部分等を総合的に解釈するトライアンギュレーションを行い、3)調査参加者すべてが、「帰国子女」というアイデンティティに思い入れをもつという前提を崩して調査を行った。