Tsukamoto, S.(塚本早織), Holland, E., Haslam, N., Karasawa, M.(唐沢穣), & Kashima, Y. (2015).
Cultural Differences in Perceived Coherence of the Self and In-group: A Japan-Australia Comparison.
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 18(1), 83–89.
doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12090

Past studies have found that East Asians ascribe less consistency to individual selves than Westerners, but ascribe more consistency to social groups than Westerners. Using the concepts of naive dialecticism (i.e. the tendency to tolerate contradiction) and psychological essentialism (i.e. the tendency to attribute a fixed essence to something) as different aspects of consistency perception, we examined patterns of perceived consistency of the self and national ingroup among Japanese and Australians. Compared to Australians, Japanese showed more naive dialecticism and less psychological essentialism for the self; however, this cultural difference was not found for their national ingroups. These findings suggest that lay theories are applied in a domain-specific manner, and the domains to which they are applied depend on culture.