Yanagisawa, K.(柳澤邦昭), Masui, K.(増井啓太), Furutani, K.(古谷嘉一郎), Nomura, M.(野村理朗), Yoshida, H., & Ura, M.(浦光博) (2013).
Family socioeconomic status modulates the coping-related neural response of offspring. 
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 617-622.
doi: 10.1093/scan/nss039
Substantial research links economic adversity to poor coping in stressful or threatening environments. Neuroimaging studies suggest that activation of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) plays a key role in self-control, and it seems that individual differences in neurocognitive systems underlying self-control are determined in part by subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES). The present study used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate whether subjective childhood SES moderates rVLPFC activity during one form of threatening environment: social exclusion. Twenty-five undergraduates participated in a NIRS session in which they were socially included and then excluded during an online ball-tossing game. Lower subjective childhood SES was associated with higher levels of social distress and lower levels of rVLPFC activity during social exclusion. The present findings suggest that early family environments are reliably associated with deficits in offspring coping resources and processes, as well as with difficulties in regulating interpersonal circumstances.